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London : 


23, Abchurch Lane, E.C. 



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HAT the foundation of the Commerce, and consequently 
of the Greatness, of London was laid by the old Livery 
Guilds — few will question. Much is already known, 
through the Histories of such of them as have been 
written — and an apology from me is not needed for a 
further contribution to so interesting a study. But whilst I make 
no apology for the contribution, I crave the indulgence of my readers 
for any shortcomings which, from a literary point of view, may appear 
in this work ; I invite their attention to the matter, rather than to the 
style in which it is expressed. 

About eight years ago I applied to our Court for permission to 
search the Records, and my request being complied with, I devoted such 
spare time as I could secure from an engrossing occupation to the com- 
pilation of these Annals. The work has necessarily led to the burning 
of much midnight oil, because every extract and every line has been 
made by my own pen. The researches have extended to the examina- 
tion of all, and the transcript of a considerable portion of thirteen 
lengthy Charters and sets of By-laws, as also to the entire perusal of 
about a hundred books of Records. In addition to this, there has been 
much labour expended at the British Museum, the Public Record 
Office, the Guildhall, and Somerset House. 

The material thus collected became so voluminous, that I 
experienced considerable difficulty in separating it into Subject 
Chapters, and also in deciding what to retain and what to reject ; my 

iv c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

endeavour in this respect having been to preserve all that is really 
interesting and curious, discarding dry legal passages, doubtful points, 
and wearisome repetitions. 

None but those who have had experience of the crabbed 
eccentric writing and contractions of former times (see some of the 
fac-si?nilcs given) and of the abbreviated "Court hand" Latin in which 
Charters and other Records were penned, can have the least idea of 
the trouble and care required in their deciphering ; but in this respect 
I have not spared pains in giving literal and accurate transcripts. 

In no case have I modernized the old spelling, or interfered with 
the quaintness of the original expressions ; though all dates occurring 
between the ist January and 24th March prior to the year 1752 (when 
"old style" was extinguished) have been rectified, and the "historical 
year," according to our present computation, given ; thus rendering the 
chronology systematic, and avoiding confusion and inaccuracy. 

It is a matter of the greatest regret, that whilst we possess some 
earlier records, our Court Minutes previous to 1 55 1 are lost. It is con- 
jectured that they must have been at the Hall in 1793 (as a partial list 
of Masters was then compiled), but all trace of them has now disappeared. 
Again, the Minutes from 1651-1689 are now missing, although they 
were at the Hall about forty years ago. 

I may here take the opportunity to remark that the Barbers and 
Barber-Surgeons held a somewhat distinctive position apart from other 
Companies, inasmuch as they were a Professional rather than a Trade 
Guild, and their History, consequently, becomes invested with an especial 
interest. Another point to which I, as a Barber, am proud to refer is 
that our Company stood out, alone, as the pioneer of Technical 
Education, hundreds of years before it became as popular as it now is. 
From the middle of the fifteenth century the Company was careful to 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. v 

provide for Surgical Lectures, and the regular and systematic instruction 
of its members. The means originally employed may have been 
primitive, but they were dictated by high motives, and gradually 
extended and developed ; a Museum (a poor one, it is true) and a 
valuable Library were founded, an Anatomical Theatre was built, and 
every opportunity taken to encourage the Scientific study of Surgery — 
all with results fraught with the greatest benefit, not only to London, 
but to the Kingdom at large. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my thanks to those who have 
aided me in my work, and especially to my dear and valued friend, 
Past Master Charles John Shoppee, whose practical assistance, advice 
and encouragement all through, have been to me of the greatest service. 
Mr. D'Arcy Power, M.A., has laid me under much obligation, and 
particularly for revising and perfecting my translation of the Norman- 
French Ordinances, 1 2th Rich. II. My son, Austin Travers Young, 
has rendered valuable assistance in delineating the several Illustrations 
throughout the work, and lastly, I must record, with gratitude, my 
obligation to Mr. Edward Lawless for the attention and care bestowed 
upon me on the numerous occasions of my visits to the Hall. 

The preparation of this work, a somewhat arduous task for an 
Amateur, has been to me purely a labour of love, and, in laying down 
my pen I may be permitted to add, that my best wishes for the Ancient 
Mystery of Barbers are summed up in the words of our time-honoured 
toast, " The Worshipful Company of Barbers, Root and Branch, and 
may it flourish for ever." 

Alwyne Road, Canonbury. 
March, iSpo. 

1889-18 9 0. 


"§$Tctsf ev : 


"g&avbens : 




JAMES HARVEY, Esq., Deputy. 








Jlsststcmfs : 




The Court of the Company 1889 1890 

Contents ... 

List of Illustrations, etc 

Table of Leading Dates 

The Names of the Masters and Wardens from the year 1 308 
A list of such members of the Company as have served 

A list of King's Barbers . 
A list of members of the Company who have served the offices 

or Lord Mayor of the City of London 
Historical Account, The Barbers Unincorporate 
Historical Account, The Barbers Incorporate ... 
Extracts from Court Minutes, etc., more particularly relating 

of the Company 
Court of Assistants 
The Commonalty 
Freemen ... 
The Yeomanry 
The Clerk 
The Beadle 
Surgery . . . 

Surgical Lectures and Demonstrations 
Wardens' and other Accounts . . . 
Disputes ... 

the Office of Serjeant 
of Sheriff, Alderman 

to the Internal History 







5 1 






^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Heraldry ... 


The Irish Estate ... 

Charities ... 



Pictures ... 

Biographical Notices of Eminent Members 

Lord Burgavenny 


Lord Windsor 


The Duke of Monmouth 


The Earl of Leven 


Sir John Aylef 


Thomas Vicary 


Richard Ferris 


John Pen 


Nicholas Alcocke 


Robert Balthrop 


Sir Peter Proby 


William Clowes 


William Clowes, jun. ... 


Thomas Thorney 


Peter Thorney ... 


John Gerard 


Sir Thomas Bludder 


Sundry Monumental Inscriptions 


Martin Browne 
Edward Arris 
Sir John Frederick 
Sir Nathaniel Heme 
Sir John Lethieullier 
Ephraim Skinner 
Sir Humphrey Edwin 
Sir William Stewart 
Charles Bernard 
Sir John Bull 
Claudius Amyand 
Sir Thomas Challoner 
William Cheselden 
Ambrose Dickins 
Sir Cresar Hawkins, Bart 
Walter Henry Wilkin ... 






















p. 28 1. 20, for "religions" read "religious.' 

p. 126 1. 7, for " Sugeons " read "Surgeons." 

p. 135 1. 3, for " 1869" read " 1864." 

p. 144 1. 20, for " 1869" read " 1864." 

p. 169 foot note I, for " 1526" read " 1525." 

p. 258 1. 3, for "freemen" read "freeman." 

p. 473 1. 7, for " Peek " read " Peck." 


Frontispiece — Henry VIII, from a portrait by Holbein at the Hall 

Old Cabinet of Masters' Names at the Hall 

Historical Account 

Henry VIII and Edward IV... ... 

Great Seal of Edward IV 

Fac-simile, Grant to Robert Ferbras and others, of property in Walbi 

Fac-simile, Saints Cosmo and Damian, and the Surgeons' Arms 

Fac-simile of a Diploma granted to a Surgeon in 1497 ... 

Portrait of Sir Thomas More... 

Holbein's Picture at Barbers' Hall ... 

Facsimile Page of Court Minute Book 

Initial of Charter, Philip and Mary... 

Heading of By-Laws, 1606 

Interior of Court Room 

Plan of Estate 

Old Entrance to Barber-Surgeons' Hall 

The Committee Room, Barbers' Hall 

A Master and Wardens, etc. ... 

Fac-simile Title-page to Charter Book 

Fac-simile Corn Note ... 

The Compter in Wood Street 

Portion of the Master's Silver Garland 

A Grotesque, over the Court Room Door ... 

A Procession of Liverymen 

An Initial Letter from the Audit Book 




rook, 1462 

















2 39 






^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Seals of some of the Charters ... 
Autograph of Charles Bernard (Clerk 
John Paterson ... 

E. L 

One of the Beadle's Mace Heads 

Surgical Instruments, &c. 

Alderman Arris ... 

Sir Charles Scarborough and Alderman Arris at a Demonstration, on either side 

S. Cosmo and S. Damian ... 
An Initial Letter from the Audit Book 
Fac-simile Page of Court Minute Book 
Upper and Middle Wardens' Garlands 
An Initial Letter from the Audit Book 
An Initial Letter from the Audit Book 
Barber-Surgeons' Hall, 1 674-1 864 
Renter Warden's Garland 
Disputants at the Bar of the Court 
Inigo Jones 

Arms of the City of London, the Barbers, the Surgeons, and England 
The Barbers' Arms 

Engraving in Bowl of Henry VII ['s Cup 
The Barber-Surgeons' Arms, 1561 
The Barber-Surgeons' Arms, 1569 
Serving a Feast ... 

The Irish Estate 

The Old Poors' Box, and names of Benefactors 

Taking an Inventory 

Some of the Plate 

Henry VIII's Grace Cup 

King Charles' Cup, Queen Anne's Punch Bowl, and Atkinson's Punch Ladles 

Martin Browne's and Sir John Frederick's Loving Cups 

Collins' Flagon, Monforde's Hammer, and Arris' Cups 

Tea Spoons 

The North Side of the Court Room ... 

^Annate of the Barber-Surgeons. 


s. y 

Portraits of Sir John Aylef and Thomas 

Arms of Sir John Aylef... 

John Pen 

Robert Balthrop 

Sir Peter Proby 

■ William Clowes 

John Gerard ... 

Martin Browne 

Edward Arris ... 

Sir John Frederick ... 

■ Sir Nathaniel Heme ... 

Sir John Lethieullier ... 

Ephraim Skinner 

Sir Humphry Edwin . . . 

. Sir William Stewart ... 

Charles Bernard 

Sir John Bull 

Claudius Amyand 

Sir Thomas Challoner 

William Cheselden 

Ambrose Dickins 

Sir Cassar Hawkins, Bart. 

■ Walter H. Wilkin ... 

Seals of the Barber-Surgeons . . . 


, after Holbein 




5 2 5 


5 7° 



1308. Richard le Barber, the first Master of the Barbers' Company, is sworn at 

1388. The Masters of the Company make a return to the King's Writ, and set forth their 
then ancient ordinances. 

145 1. Grant of Arms to the Masters of Barbery and Surgery within the Craft of 

1462. Edward IV incorporates the Barbers by Royal Charter. 

1493. Informal alliance between the Barbers (Barber-Surgeons) and the Fellowship of 

1530. The Barbers' Ordinances are settled and allowed by Sir Thomas More. 

1540. The Fellowship of Surgeons are united (by Act of Parliament 32 H. VIII) to the 
Company of Barbers. 

1569. Grant of Arms to the Barber-Surgeons. 

1605. James I grants a new Charter. 

1629. Charles I grants a new Charter. 

1684. All of the Company's Charters are surrendered to the King. 

1685. James II grants a new Charter. 

1745. The Surgeons are separated (by Act of Parliament 18 G. II) from the 



From the Year 1308. 

K.TS. signifies King's Barber; K.S. King's Surgeon, and S.S. Serjeant-Surgeon. 

An - 

Masters of the Barbers. 

Sworn at Guildhall. 


Richard le Barber. 

December, 1308. 


John Queldrick. 


Lawrence de Weston. 

John de Grantone. 


Thomas Boyvel. 

Will'"- Osneye. 

26 August, 1377. 


John Paeon. 

Rich d - Morys. 

15 October, 1378. 


Rich d Capoll. 

John Haydon. 

19 September, 1382. 


Reginald Godard. 

Walter Giseboum. 

15 September, 1383. 


William May. 

Simon Conyngesby. 

6 October, 1384. 


John Paeon. 

John Levelyf. 

13 April, 1386. 


John Shepey. 

Rich d - Caupoll. 

16 April, 1388. 


John Haydon. 

Henry Cook. 

10 September, 1388. 


Rich 1 ' Geddyngs. 

John Cheyr. 

22 September, 1389. 


John Paeon. 

John Bestchirche. 

31 August, 1390. 

'39 1 

John Childe. 

Will" 1 - Chapman. 

27 November, 1391. 


cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 




Masters of the Barbers 

practising the art of 


Simon Rolf. 


Richard W r ellys. 


John Brampton. 

John Morysch. 

Richard Clerc. 

John Parker. 
Simon Rolf. 


Richard Wellys. 

John Queldryk. 

Will"'- Chapeley. 

John Child. 
John Parker. 


Roger Rooke. 

John Dalton. 

John Blakye. 

Rich"- Wellys. 
Simon Roolf. 


John Branton. 

Will" 1 ' Shiplake. 

Will"'- Bacon. 


Will"'- Hunnc. 

Will'"- Chapelyn. 

Will m - Ryggewyk. 

Simon Rolf. 
John Dalton. 


Rich d - Snadenham. 

John Queldryk. 

Rich' 1 ' Merlawe. 

Rich d - Welles. 
Simon Rolf. 


Simon Poule. 

John Purchas. 

Simon Rolf. 
Rich"- Welles. 


Pierce Pope. 

John Warwick. 

John Roote. 


Pierce Pope. 

John Warwick. 

John Roote. 


John Roote. 

John Urse. 

John Waystbe. 


Henry Grave. 

John Grafton. 

John Mereston. 


Henry Grave. 

John Grafton. 

John Mereston. 


John Blakey. 

Roger Scripe. 

Will" 1 - Legge. 


John Daulton. 

\Vill m ' Woodhouse. 

Tho 5 - Willot. 

An - 




John Struge. 

John Hobbis. 

John Grafton. 

John Porter. 


Tho s - Geffery. 

John Warwick. 

Will-- Hill. 

Roger Webb. 


John Grafton. 

John Wale. 

John Wakeley. 

Edmund Callowe. 

I45 1 

John Struge. 

Tho 5 - Willot. 

Tho 5 - Wallis. 

Hugh Harte. 

i45 2 

John Wakeley. 

John I'orter. 

Will m - Legge. 

Rob'- Dasons. 


John Daulton. 

Edmund Callowe. 

Roger Scripe. 

John Caster. 


John Urle. 

Will" 1 - Hill. 

Tho 5 - Wallis. 

Will 1 "- Hayles. 


John Grafton. 

John Pinchon. 

Rob'- Dasons. 

John Wilkinson. 


Roger Scripe. 

Tho 5 - Browne. 

Will'"- Whitebred. 

Henry Brooke. 


Tho 5 - Willot. 

John Pinchon. 

John Caster. 

John Lunne. 

cAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 






John Porter. 

Will'"- Hobbis. 

Will'"- Pollet. 

Reg' d - Young. 


John Caster. 

Rich d - Eastey. 

Tho'- Castard. 

John Morden. 


Will" 1 - Legge. 

Hugh Harte. 

John Saunders. 

Tho 5 Folliot. 


Roger Scripe. 

Will"' Hobbes, S.S. 

Tho 5 Goddard. 

Rich d - Kent. 


Rob' Dallahouse. 

John Pinchon. 

Rowland Frankish. 

John Springet. 


Will™- Hill. 

Rich d - Gastey. 

Rcgin ,<! - Young. 

Rich d - Cappell. 


John Grafton. 

Rich d - Eastey. 

Tho s - Goddard. 

Will" 1 - Whitebred. 


Tho 5 - Willot. 

Tho 1 - Wallis. 

Tho 5 Collard. 

John Bone. 


Regin ld - Young. 

Rowland Frankish. 

Rich 1 ' Kent. 

Rob'- Holliday. 


John Caster. 

Tho s - Goddard. 

Rich d - Brightmore. 

John Daunt. 


Rowland Frankish. 

Rob'- Holliday. 

Will"' Atwood. 

Tho s - Green. 


Roger Scripe. 

Rob'- Palmer. 

John Morden. 


Tho 5 - Goddard. 

Rich d - Brightmore. 

Will 1 "- Pallet. 

Barth"'- Crosby. 


Will" 1 ' Whitebred. 

Lawrence Austin. 

Will 1 "- Pewall. 

Rob'- Scott. 


John Pinchon. 

Rob'- Scarlett. 

Rich d - Lucas. 

Edmund Walsh. 


Will"'- Hill. 

Rob'- Palmer. 

John Drumacks. 

John Hingham. 


Rob'- Dallahouse. 

Rob'- Scott. 

John Johnson. 

William Gatard. 


Rob'- Holliday. 

Lawrence Austin. 

Will"- Horton. 

Rich d - Southnam. 


Rich d - Kent. 

BartrT- Crosby. 

Will'"- Pewall. 

John Wilson. 


Reginald Young. 

Rob'- Scarlett. 

George Robinson. 

Rich d - Chambers. 


John Morden. 

Alex'- Slight. 

Philip Potter. 

Simon Cole. 


Rob'- Studdis. 

Will'"- Horton. 

Lawrence Rogers. 

Tho 5 - Parkins. 


Will™- Pewall. 

Rob'- Palmer. 

John Johnson. 

Rich d - Moneycock. 


Tho 5, Goddard. 

Lawrence Austin. 

Rich' 1 - Lucas. 

John Denmark. 


Will" 1 - Horton. 

Rob'- Scarlett. 

Rich d - Chambers. 

Rich d - Southnam. 


Rob'- Holliday. 

James Scott. 

John Stanton. 

Rich d - Hay ward. 


John Pinchon. 

John Johnson. 

Edward Walch. 

Rob'- Lilley. 


Rob'- Holliday. 

Philip Potter. 

John Tounnyage. 

Rich d Hayward. 


Reginald Young. 

Rich 13 - Chambers. 

John Wilson. 

John Papworth. 


Rich d - Lucas. 

Simon Cole. 

John Johnson. 

Rich d - Nevell. 


Rob'- Scarlett. 

Philip Potter. 

Ralph Dowell. 

Will"'- Oakley. 


Rob'- Palmer. 

Rich d - Hammond. 

James Ingolsby. 

Owyn Mayne. 


Rob'- Holliday. 

Rich d - Suddenham. 

John Johnson. 

Tho 5 - Walton. 


John Johnson, Sen'- 

Tames Scott. 

Ralph Dowell. 

Nicholas Lyving. 

B 2 


c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 





John Johnson. 

Rich d - Haward. 

Rich' 1 - Nevell. 

Henry Tyley. 


James Scott. 

James Ingolsby. 

Tames Holland. 


Roger Sheene. 


Robert Scarlett. 

Owyn Mayne. 

Nich* 1 - Lyving. 

John Browne. 


Rich"- Nevell. 

James Ingolsby. 

James Holland. 

Will" 1 - Newton. 


Rob'- Holliday. 

Will m - Oakley. 

John Knott. 

Tho 5 - Dawes. 


John Johnson. 

Roger Sheene. 

Andrew Oliver. 

Henry Haselhurst. 


James Scott. 

James Ingolsby. 

John Sommers. 

Henry Geery. 


Rich d - Heyward. 

James Holland. 

John Robertson. 

John Botelier. 


James Scott. 

Tho 5 - Daniell. 

John Knott. 

Will" 1 Maresfield. 


James Ingolsby. 

Nich 5 - Lyving. 

Henry Geery. 

Will'"- Ashwell. 


Roger Sheene. 

John Knott. 

Tho s Atkinson. 

John Peerson. 


Nich 5 - Lyving. 

Henry Haselhurst. 

Will 1 "- Lythego. 

Tho 5 - Apleton. 


Tho 5 - Dawes. 

Tho s Atkinson. 

Will" Withers. 

John Oakley. 


Henry Haselhurst. 

John Peerson. 

Will"'- Kerkby. 

Edm d - Milliners. 


James Ingolsby. 

Henry Geery. 

John Woodward. 

Tho s - Gibson. 


John Johnson. 

John Knott. 

war Ashweii. 

John Mullyns. 


Nich 5 - Lyving. 

John Peerson. 

Will'"- Kerkby. 

John Tayler. 

J 5°9 

Henry Geery. 

Will'"- Lythego. 

John Woodward. 

Rob'- Misleden. 


John Knott. 

Tho 5 - Apleton. 

War Hopkinson. 

Edw d - Potter. 


John Peerson. 

Will" 1 - Kerkby. 

Tho 5 - Gibson. 

Tho s - Martin. 

L5 12 

John Johnson. 

Will 1 "- Lythego. 

John Oakley. 

Rob'- Maynard. 


James Holland. 

Will"' Ashwell. 

John Tayler. 

Nich 5 - Morton. 


Will'" Kerkby. 

Tho 5, Gibson. 

Walter Kellet. 

Henry Baldwin. 


Will"' Lythego. 

John Woodward. 

Edw d Potter. 

Edw d - Arundell. 


Tho 5 Apleton. 

John Tayler. 

Rob'- Handsom. 

Rich"- Went. 


John Johnson. 

John Oakley. 

Roger Foster. 

\Vill m - Morreyson. 


Tho 5, Gibson. 

Henry Baldwin. 

Rob' Myneyard. 

Tho 5 ' Twynne. 


John Peerson. 

Walter Kellet. 

Rich d - Ude. 

John Banks. 


John Peerson. 

Edw' 1 Potter. 

John Banks. 

Henry Cazor. 


Tho 5 - Gibson. 

EdW Potter. 

Edw d - Arundell. 

George Brian. 


Tho 5 - Gibson. 

Nich 5 - Morton. 

Rich"- Went. 

Rich d - Sermont. 


John Tayler. 

Nich 5 - Morton. 

Rich' 1 - Went. 

Rich d - Sermont. 

iS 2 4 

John Tayler. 

Tho 5 - Twynne. 

Rich d - Tayler. 

John Enderby. 


Will™- Kerkby. 

Henry Baldwin. 

Henry Cazor. 

Tho 5 - Viccary. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 






Edward Potter. 

John Banks. 

Rob'- Simson. 

Will'"- Kidd. 

15 2 7 

Henry Baldwin. 

Tho 5 - Twynne. 

Rich*'- Tayler. 

John Younge. 


Walter Kellet. 

Tho*- Viccary. 

John Potter. 

Tho 5 - Sutton. 

iS 2 9 

Tho 5 Gibson. 

Edward Arundell. 

John Enderby. 

Rich d - Gowcr. 


Tho 5 - Viccary, 5.5. 

Rich d - Tayler. 

Ralph Garland. 

John Ayliffe. 


Henry Baldwin. 

Henry Cazor. 

Tho 5 - Wench. 

Nich s - Simpson. 


John Banks. 

John Potter. 

John Ayliffe. 

George Holland. 


Will'"- Kerkby. 

Ralph Garland. 

Peter Daiseman. 

James Tompson. 


John Potter. 

John Goodby. 

Rob' Postle. 

John Bird. 


John Potter. 

John Ayliffe. 

John Bird. 

Charles Wyght. 


Tho 5 - Twynne. 

Ralph Garland. 

James Tompson. 

John Newman. 


Nich 5 - Simpson, K.B. 

John Johnson. 

George Holland. 

Will'" Rewe. 


Sir John Ayliffe, K.S. 

John Bird. 

Tho 5 - Surbut. 

George Geene. 


John Penn, K.B. 

K. Barber. 

John Hutton. 

Henry Pemberton. 




William Tilley. 

Rob'- Sprignall. 


Tho 5 - Viccary, S.S. 

James Tompson. 

Tho 5, Johnson. 

Rich d - Bowie. 


John Bird. 

Charles Wyght. 

Will"'- Sherborn. 

John Gyle. 


John Johnson. 
George Holland. 


James Banks. 
James Tompson. 

Robert AVaterford 
Chrisf- Salmon. 


John Younge. 

Rob'- Postle. 

Rich' 1 Bowie. 

John Atkinson. 


John Bird. 

George Geene. 

Henry Pemberton. 

Rob'- Brownhill. 


Tho 5 ' Viccary, 5.5. 

Will'"- Tilley. 

Dan'- Sambrook. 

Tho 5 - Gale. 


John Enderby. 

Peter Daiseman. 

Rob' Sprignall. 

John Smith. 


Tho 5, Viccary, S.S. 

John Skinner. 

John Newman. 

John Gyle. 
WilT- Otherborn. 


Geo e - Holland. 

Rob'- Waterford. 

Rob'- Brownhill. 

Augustine Clarke. 


Geo° Geene. 

Tho 5, Johnson. 

Rich" Bowie. 

Tho s - Stockdale. 
Matth w - Johnson. 


Rich d - Ferris. 

Rob'- Sprignell. 

John Barker. 

James Wood. 


Christ'- Salmon. 

Tho 5 Knott. 

Aug" 6 Clarke. 

Rich 1 '- Elliot. 


Rich d Bowie. 

John Atkinson. 

Tho 5 Whittingham. 

Hugh Lymcocke. 


Rob'- Sprignell. 

Aug ne - Clarke. 

Will'"- Green. 

John Bonnar. 


Tho 5 - Knott. 

Tho 5 - Gale. 

John Smythe. 

Tho 5 Fysshe. 

I5S 6 

Geo. Holland, K.S. 

Rob 1, Brown. 

Alex r - Mason. 

Rich' 1 Tholmwood. 


cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 





! Tho s - Viccary, S.S. 

Tho s - Whittingham. 

James Wood. 

John Warren. 

155S John Atkinson. 

Hugh Lymcocke. 

William Walton. 

1 Geo. Vaughan. 


George Geene. 

Will 1 "- Greene. 

Tho* Baylie. 

! John Smarthwaite. 


Tho 5 Whittingham. 

James Wood. 

John Bonnar. 

Rob'- Balthrop. 


Tho s - Gale. 

Alex'- Mason. 

John Standon. 

Rob'- Mudesly. 


Rich d - Ferris, S.S. 

Will"'- Walton. 

Rob'- Mudesly. 

Rich d - Hughes. 


Rob'- Brownhill. 

Rich 1 '- Tholmwood. 

Geo. Vaughan. 

John Weste. 


WiH m - Greene. 

Rob'- Balthrop. 

Tho 5 Robinson. 

Nich s - Archenbold. 


Rob'- Balthrop, S.S. 

Geo. Vaughan. 

Rich 4, Hughes. 

Geo. Corron. 


James Wood. 

Tho s - Barber. 

Nich s - Archenbold. 

Tho s - Burston. 


Alex'- Mason. 

Rob'- Mudesly. 

Geo. Corron. 

John Robinson. 


Rich d - Tholmwood. 

Nichs. Archenbokl. 

Tho b Burston. 

Rich"- Wisto (died.) 
[ohn Field. 


George Vaughan (died. ) 
Alex'- Mason. 

John Standon. 

John Field. 

Humphry Paris. 


Tho s - Barber. 

Rich''- Hughes. 

John Robinson. 

John Yates. 


Tho s - Barber. 

George Corron. 

Rob'- Clarke. 

Will'"- Bovey. 


Rob'- Mudesly. 

John Robinson. 

Tho s - Banks. 

Edw d - Ireland. 


Alex'- Mason (died.) 
Rob'- Balthrop, S.S. 

Tho s - Burston. 

John Hitchen. 

Will'"- Bull. 

J 574 

Rich d - Hughes. 

Tho s - Robinson. 

Will'"- Bovey. 

Rich d - Upton. 


George Corron (died.) 
Tho s Whittingham. 

John Feild. 

Will"' Swaine. 

John Mason. 


Tho s - Burston. 

Tho s - Banckes. 

John Yates. 

Will'"- Crowe. 


John Feild. 

John Hitchen. 

Christ'- Swaldell. 

Henry Rankyn. 


Tho s - Banckes. 

John Yates. 

Rich"- Wisto. 

Leonard Coxe. 


John Hitchen. 

William Bovey. 

William Crowe. 

Tho 5 Bird. 


Rob'- Mudesly. 

Christ'- Swaldell. 

Edward Ireland. 

John Haysie. 


Will"'- Bovey. 

Will" 1 - Swaine. 

Henry Rankyn. 

Edw d - Griffin. 


Tho s - Banckes. 

Will"'- Crowe. 

Leonard Coxe. 

Rich d - Wood. 


Christ'- Swaldell. 

Rich' 1 - Wisto. 

Tho 5 - Bird. 

Will'"- Gale. 


John Hitchen. 

Henry Ranken. 

John Haysie. 

Rich d - Sprignall. 


Will"- Crowe. 

Leonard Coxe. 

Rich 4 Wood. 

Henry Bradley. 


Rich d - Wisto. 

John Haysie. 

Edward Griffin. 

John Leycock. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 






Henry Rankyn. 

Tho" Bird. 

Rich' 1 Sprignall. 

John Johnson. 

1 5 88 : Leonard Coxe. 

Rich' 1 - Wood. 

Will'" Borne. 

George Denham. 

1589 John Haysie. 

Edward Griffin. 

Will"'- Gooderus. 

John Martin. 

1590 Tho s Bird. 

Will"'- Gale. 

Tho s - Wayte. 

John Izard. 

1 59 1 Rich* 1 - Wood. 

Rich' 1 - Sprignall. 

Geo. Baker, S.S. 

James Bates. 

1592 Edward Griffin. 


Geo. Denham. 

John Dards. 


Christ 7 - Swaldell. 

John Leycock. 

John Izard. 

John Burgess. 


Will'"- Gooderus, S.S. 

Will'"- Borne. 

Will" 1 Clowes. 

John Newsom. 


Will" 1 - Gale. 

John Martyn. 

James Bates. 

John Peck. 


Tho s - Banckes. 

John Izard. 

Tho 5, Warren. 

Lewis Atmer. 


George Baker, S.S. 

James Bates. 

John Dards. 

John Gerrard. 


John Leycock. 

John Burgess. 

Tho s - Thorney. 

Robert Johnson. 


Rich"- Wood. 

John Dards. 

John Newsom. 

Will" 1 - Martyn. 


Will'"- Borne (died.) 
John Leycock. 

Tho 5 - Thorney. 

Will" 1 - Martyn. 

Edw d - Rodes. 


John Martyn. 

Lewis Atmer. 

Christ'- Frederick. 

Rob'- Fuller. 


Tho 5 - Thorney. 

William Martyn. 

Edw d - Rodes. 

Tho s - Martyn. 


Will-- Gooderus, S.S. 

John Peck. 

Rob' Fuller. 

John Richmond. 


John Leycock. 

Christ'- Frederick. 

Tho s - Martyn. 

Rich 4 Mapes. 


John Peck. 

Edw d - Rodes. 

Will m - Fyninge. 

John Fenton. 


William Martyn. 
Thomas Thorney. 

Rob'- Fuller. 

Rich' 1 - Mapes. 

Randall Foster. 


John Gerrard. 

Tho s - Martyn. 

John Fenton. 

Tho 5 - Veare. 


Edward Rodes. 

Rich d - Mapes. 

Robert Johnson. 

Roger Jenkins. 


Christ'- Frederick, S.S. 

Will" 1 - Fyninge. 

Randall Foster. 

Edw d - Ingolsby. 


William Gale (died.) 
John Pecke. 

John Fenton. 

Tho 5 Veare. 

John Hassall. 


Robert Fuller. 

Rob'- Johnson. 

Roger Jenkins. 

Abraham Allen. 


Richard Mapes. 

Randall Foster. 

Abraham Allen. 

John Kerrell. 


John Fenton. 

Thomas Veare'(aW) 

Edw' 1 - Ingolsby. 

John Coghill. 


John Hassall. 

Roger Jenkins. 

John Kerrell. 

Lewis Rogers. 


Sir Peter Proby, Aid. 

Edward Ingolsby. 

John Coghill. 

Rich d - Cooper. 


Christ' Frederick, S..S. 

John Kerrell. 

Lewis Rogers. 

Jasper Arris. 


Ralph Bovey. 

LewisRogers 2 (tffo/) 

Jasper Arris. 

Peter Porter. 

1 John Hassell chosen Warden. 

'■ Rich d - Cooper chosen Warden. 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 





Edward Ingolsby. 

Henry Ofeild. 

Peter Porter. 

Tho s - Borne. 


John Coghill. 

Peter Porter. 

Tho s Borne. 

Tho s - Allen. 


Richard Cooper. 

Tho s Borne. 

Tho s Allen. 

John Newman. 


Randall Foster. 

Tho s Allen. 

Dominic Lomleine. 

John Dards. 


Alexander Baker, J.P. 

Jasper Arris ' (died.) 

John Newman. 

Rich 4 Wateson. 


John Kerrell. 

Dominic Lomleine 

Rich d - Wateson. 

Rich d - Thornebury. 


Joseph Fenton. 

Rich d - Wateson. 

Rich d - Thornebury. 

Andrew Wheatley. 


Henry Ofeild. 

Rich' 1 - Thornebury. 

James Molines. 

John W r oodall. 


William Clowes, S.S. 

James Molines. 

Andrew Wheatley 

Rich d - Morrice. 


Tho'Caldwell, Esquire, 

Thomas Borne (died.) 

Andrew Wheatley. 

John Woodall. 

Dan 1 Hinxman. 


Tho s Cald well, Esquire, 

John Borne. 

Will-- Walker. 

Arthur Dowton. 


Dominic Lomeline. 

Rich d Morrice. 

Arthur Dowton. 

George Roades. 


Richard Wateson, 

Surgeon in Ordinary to 
the King. 

John Newman. 

Dan 1 Hinxman. 

Edw d - W r aterhouse. 


Rich d ' Thornbury. 

Dan 1 Hinxman. 

Tobias Johnson. 

Henry Blackley. 


James Molines. 

Arthur Dowton. 

Rich"- Powell. 

John Ward. 


John Woodall. 

Rich"- Powell. 

Henry Blackley. 

George Predey. 


Richard Morrice. 

Henry Blackley. 

John Heydon. 

John Davyes. 


Michael Andrews, 

Surgeon in Ordinary to 
the King. 

John Warde. 

Nicholas Heath. 

Will" 1 - Huckle. 


Richard Powell. 

John Heydon. 

Will'"- Huckle. 

Lawrence Cotton. 


Henry Blackley. 

Will" 1 - Burgin. 

Lawrence Cotton. 

Tho s - Trevellion. 2 



William Clowes, -S'.-S'. 

William Lingham. 

George Dunn. 

Henry Wateson. 


Thomas Davyes, K.B. 

Nicholas Heath. 

Tho s - Collins. 

Will-- Bignell. 


John Heydon. 

Henry Wateson. 

Martin Browne. 

Tho s - Browne. 

1 64 1 

John Ward. 

Lawrence Cotton. 

Tho s Browne. 

John Pinder. 


William Burgin. 

George Dunne. 

Edward Arris. 

John Lufkin. 


Nicholas Heath. 

Will" 1 - Bignell. 

John Lufkin. 

Henry Boone. 


William Huckle. 

Tho s - Collins. 

Henry Boone. 

Robert Clarke. 


Lawrence Cotton. 

Martin Browne. 

Robert Clarke. 

Will" 1 - Gurney. 

' John Dards chosen Warden. 

: Will'"' Lingham chosen Warden. 


als of the Barber-Surgeons. 






George Dunne. 

William Kings. 

Will'" Gurney. 

Ralph Foster. 


William Bignell. 

Henry Boone. 

Ralph Foster. 

Will 1 "- Bennett. 


Thomas Collins. 

Rob L Clarke. 

Will"- Bennett. 

John Madocks. 


Robert Clarke. 

Will m -Bennett , (<fiW) 

John Madocks. 

Tho" Allen. 


William Kings. 

Will" 1 - Gurney. 

John Frederick. 

Cha s - Stamford. 


Edward Arris, Aid. 

Ralph Foster. 

Thomas Allen. 

Tho s Turner. 


William Gurney. 

Rob' Bullock. 

Cha s - Stamford. 

Rob'- Westbrooke. 


Martin Browne. 

John Madocks. 

Tho 5 - Turner. 

Lawrence Loe. 


Sirjohn Frederick, Aid. 

Tho 5 - Allen. 

Abraham Clarke. 

Tho 5 Bowden. 


Henry Boone. 

Tho 5 - Turner. 

Lawrence Loe. 

Tho s - Kingman. 


Ralph Foster. 

Cha 5 - Stamford. 

Nicholas Brothers. 

John Perkins. 


Robert Bullock. 

Robert Westbrook 

Will"'- Watson. 

Tho 5 Calveley. 


John Madocks. 
Sirjohn Frederick,.-.//^/. 

Lawrence Loe. 

Will"' Rymmer. 

Ralph Thickness. 


Thomas Allen. 
Charles Stamford. 

John Perkins. 

Ralph Thickness. 

John Sotherton. 


Thomas Turner. 

Thomas Bowden. 

John Sotherton. 

Thomas Burton. 


Humphry Painter, S.S. 

Tho 5 - Calveley. 

Tho 5 - Burton. 

Tho 5 - Canham. 


Thomas Lisle, K.B. 

Nicholas Brothers. 

James Farre. 

Joseph Bynns. 


John Knight, S.S. 

John Sotherton. 

Joseph Bynns. 

Tho 5 - Hall. 


Ralph Foliard, K.B. 

Ralph Thickness. 

Tho" Hall. 

Tho 5 - Hollier. 


Richard Wiseman, S.S. 

Tho 5 - Canham. 

Tho 5 Hollier. 

John Harvie. 



Thomas Calveley. 
Lawrence Loe. 

Tho 3 Hollier. 
James Farre. 

John Harvie. 
James Pearse. 

James Pearse, 
Duke of York's Surgeon. 

Will'"- Fryer. 


Thomas Canham. 

James Pearse. 

Will'"- Fryer. 

Will'"- Markham. 


John Knight, S.S. 

John Harvie. 

Will"'- Markham. 

Tobias Sedgwick. 


James Farre. 

Tobias Sedgwick. 

Will'"- Markham. 

Henry Barker. 


Ralph Thickness. 

Will" 1 - Fryer. 

Henry Barker. 

James Brooks. 


John Harvie. 

Henry Barker. 

James Brooks. 

Henry Johnson. 


Tho 5 - Hollier. 

James Brooks. 

Henry Johnson. 

Rich 4 Powell. 


Sir Nathaniel Heme, 


James Pearse, 
The Kings and Duke's 

Henry Johnson. 
Rich"- Powell. 

Rich* Powell. 

Will'"- Perse. 

Will" 1 - Perse. 
Will m - Bellamy. 

Martin Browne chosen Warden. 


cA minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 





Sir John Letheuillier, 

Will"' Perse. 

Will'" Bellamy. 

Tho s - Symonds. 


Henry Johnson. 
John Knight, .S.^ 1 . 

Will'"- Bellamy. 

Tho s - Symonds. 

Tho' Middleton. 


William Fryer. 

Tho s ' Symonds. 

Tho s - Middleton. 

Edmund Thorold. 


William Perse. 

Philip Foster. 

Tho s Page. 

Rich d - Cheshire. 


James Brooks. 

Edmund Thorold. 

Rich' 1 - Cheshire. 

George Horsnell. 


Edmund Thorold. 

Tho s - Middleton. 

Geo. Horsnell. 

Tho s - Baylie. 


Richard Powell. 

Tho s - Page. 

Tho s - Baylie. 

Edw d - Cockaigne. 


Thomas Page. 
Richard Cheshire. 

Rich 1 '- Cheshire. 
Geo. Horsnell. 

Edw' 1 - Cockaigne. 
Rob' Leeson. 

Rob'- Leeson. 
Rob' Sanderson. 


George Horsnell. 

Robert Eeeson. 

Rob'- Sanderson. 

John King. 



Robert Leeson. 

Thomas Hobbs, 5.^. 

Sir Humphry Edwin, 

Robert Sanderson 1 

John King. 
Will m - Layfield. 

John King. 

Will" 1 - Layfield. 
Roger Knowles. 

Will'"- Layfield. 

John Darling. 
John Stambrooke. 


John Conny, Esquire. 
William Bellamy. 
William Layfield. 
John King. 
Roger Knowles. 
Richard Hewett. 

John Stambrooke. 
Roger Knowles. 
John Jackson. 
Henry Rossington. 
Rich d Hewett. 
Tho s - Gardiner. 

Roger Knowles. 
John Jackson. 
Henry Rossington. 
Rich d - Hewett. 
John Deane. 
Will" 1 - Clarke. 

John Darling. 
Henry Rossington. 
Rich d - Hewett. 
John Deane. 
Will'"- Clarke. 
Tho s Caister. 


Henry Rossington. 
William Clarke. 

Will'" Clarke. 
Tho- Caister. 

Tho s - Caister. 
George Minikin. 

George Minikin. 
Tho s - Litchfeild. 


Thomas Gardiner, S.S. 

George Minikin. 

Tho s - Litchfeild. 

John Pinke. 


George Minikin. 

Tho 5 ' Litchfeild. 

John Pinke. 

James Wall. 


Thomas Litchfeild. 

John Pinke. 

James Wall. 

Barth w - King. 


John Pinke. 

James Wall. 

Rich d - Marks. 

Will"" Oades. 


James Wall. 
Richard Marks. 

Rich"- Marks. 
Will'" Oades. 

Will'"- Oades. 
Ralph Hatley. 

Ralph Hatley. 
Will'"- Pleahill. 



Charles Bernard, S.S. 
Ralph Hatley. 
William Oades. 

Ralph Hatley. 
William Pleahill. 
John Worts. 

Will"- pleahill. 
John Worts. 
Zach h - Gibson. 

John Worts. 
Zachariah Gibson. 
Will"'- Bond. 


John Worts. 

Zach 1 ' Gibson. 

Will'"- Bond. 

Gratian Bale. 

' John Conny chosen Warden. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 






Zachariah Gibson. 

Will'"- Bond. 

Gratian Bale. 

Will"'- Moss. 


William Bond. 

Gratian Bale. 

Will 1 "- Moss. 

Anth y - Herenden. 


Gratian Bale. 

WilliamMoss'(<//t'</. ) 

Edw d - Green. 

Simon Lynch. 


Simon Lynch. 

Ed.v' 1 ' Green. 

Will'"- Watkins. 

Rich d Harvey. 


Edward Green. 

Will" 1 - Watkins. 

Anth 1 '- Herenden. 

Joseph Cousins. 


William Watkins. 

Anth y - Herenden. 

Joseph Cousins' 

Joseph Greene. 


Anthony Herenden. 

Will'"- Smith. 

Rich 4 Harvey. 

Christopher Toms. 


William Smith. 

Richard Harvey. 

Christ'- Toms. 

Alex' Geekie. 


Richard Harvey. 

Christ'- Toms 3 (&(f). 

Joseph Greene. 

Robert Hayes. 


Robert Hayes. 

Joseph Greene. 

John Shott. 

Will'"- Loup. 


Joseph Greene. 

John Shott. 

Alex'- Geekie. 

James Northall. 


John Shott. 

Alex'- Geekie. 

James Northall. 

Will'" Cotesworth, 


Alexander Geekie. 

James Northall. 

Will'"- Loup. 

Sam 1 - Rayson. 


James Northall. 

Will"'- Loup. 

Sam'- Rayson. 

Henry Myddelton. 


William Loup. 

Sam'- Rayson. 

Will'"- Cotesworth, 

Will'"- Blanford. 


Samuel Rayson. 

Will'"- Cotesworth, 

Will 1 "- Blanford. 

Will" 1 Cole,Esquire. 


William Cotesworth, 

Will" 1 - Blanford. 

Henry Myddelton. 

John Randall. 


William Blanford (*#«<*). 
John Shott. 

Henry Myddelton. 

John Randall. 

James Feme. 


Henry Myddelton. 

John Randall. 

Will'" Cole, Esquire. 

January Farmer. 


John Shott. 

Will"'- Cole, Esquire. 

January Farmer. 

Henry Bull. 


William Cole, Esquire. 

January Farmer. 

James Feme. 

John Nicholls. 


January Farmer. 

James Feme. 

JohnNicholls 4 (^^). 

Ambrose Dickins, 
Esquire, .S..S. 


Ambrose Dickins, Esq., 

S.S. to Queen Anne, 
King Ceo. I. , 
King Geo. II. 

Will"'- Parker. 

Claudius Amyand, 
Esquire, •S'.-S. 

Luke Maurice. 


William Parker. 

Claudius Amyand, 
Esquire, S.S. 

Luke Maurice. 

Edw d - Woodward. 


Claudius Amyand, 
Esquire, £.£. 

Luke Maurice. 

Edw d - Woodward. 

John Barnwell. 

Will™- Watkins chosen Warden. 

- Will" 1 - Smith chosen Warden. 
W" j - Parker chosen Warden. 

1 John Shott chosen Warden. 

C 2 


cAnnaU of the Barber-Surgeons. 





Luke Maurice. 

Edw d - Woodward. 

John Barnwell. 

Tho s - Bridges. 


James Feme. 

John Barnwell. 

Tho s Bridges. 

John Watts. 


John Barnwell. 

Tho s - Bridges. 

John Watts. 

William Petty. 


Edward Woodward. 

John Watts. 

Will'"' Petty. 

Dan'- Fradin. 


John Watts. 

Will™- Petty. 

Dan 1 Fradin. 

John Wheeler. 


Thomas Bridges. 

Dan 1 - Fradin. 

John Wheeler. 

John Truelove. 


Daniel Fradin. 

John Wheeler. 

John Truelove. 

James Dansie. 


William Petty. 

John Truelove. 

James Dansie. 

Tho s - Essington. 


John Truelove. 

James Dansie. 

Will™- Haddon. 

Joseph Wood. 


John Wheeler {died.) 
James Dansie. 

Will™- Haddon. 

John Hayward. 

Jonathan Medley. 


William Haddon. 

John Hayward. 

Jonathan Medley. 

Joseph Sandford. 


John Hayward. 

Jonathan Medley. 

Joseph Sandford. 

Humphry Negus. 


Jonathan Medley. 

Joseph Sandford. 

Humphry Negus. 

Will" 1 - Cheselden, 

Memorandum. — That on the 24th June, 1745, The Surgeons were by Act of Parliament 

separated from The Barbers. 

An - 




Jonathan Medley. 

Humphry Negus. 

Edw d - Boxley. 

Sam'- Rutter. 


Humphry Negus. 

Edw d - Boxley. 

Sam' Rutter. 

Rob' Scrooby. 


Edward Boxley. 

Sam'- Rutter. 

Rob'- Scrooby. 

Rich d - Swithin. 


Sam'- Rutter. 

Rob' Scrooby. 

Rich d - Swithin. 

John Bearblock. 


Robert Scrooby. 

Rich d - Swithin. 

John Bearblock. 

Will" 1 - Roberts. 


Richard Swithin. 

John Bearblock. 

Will™- Roberts. 

Tho s - Cotton. 


James Theobald, Esq. 

John Bearblock. 

Will™- Roberts. 

Tho s Cotton. 

I7S 1 

John Bearblock. 

Will™- Roberts. 

Tho s Cotton. 

John Whiting. 

I7S 2 

William Roberts. 

Tho 5, Cotton. 

John Whiting. 

Rich 1 '- Lookes. 


Thomas Cotton. 

John Whiting. 

Rich d - Lookes. 



John Whiting. 


John Pepys. 

Will™- Glenister. 


John Pepys. 

Will" 1 - Glenister. 

Thomas Potter. 

Michael FAns. 

i75 6 

Michael I'Ans. 

John Blundell. 

Will'"- Tillett. 

Charles Moore. 


John Blundell. 

Will™- Tillett. 

Charles Moore. 

Thomas Griffin. 

Mr. Medley had been Master of the Barber-Surgeons from Election day, 1744, until the 24th June, 1745, 
and was Master of the Barbers from that date until Election day, 1745, when Mr. Negus was chosen. 

o/liuials of the Barber-Surgeons. 






William Tillett. 

Charles Moore. 

Thomas Griffin. 

Alexander Glen. 


Charles Moore. 

Thomas Griffin. 

Alex'- Glen. 

Achilles Preston. 


Thomas Griffin. 

Alex'- Glen. 

Achilles Preston. 

John Lowther. 


SirTho s Challenor,^i& 

Alex'- Glen. 

Achilles Preston. 

John Lowther. 


Alex'- Glen {died.) 
Achilles Preston. 

John Lowther. 

John Marshall. 

Isaac Burton (died). 1 


John Lowther. 

John Marshall(<fifttf)? 

Samuel Norton. 

Will"'- Hurford. 


Samuel Norton. 

Will'"- Hurford. 

Will"'- Evans. 

Will" 1 - Peirse. 


Will 1 " Hurford. 

Will'"- Evans. 

Will'"- Peirse. 

Edw d - Parker. 


Will'"' Evans. 

Will'"- Peirse. 

Edw d - Parker. 

Tho 5 - Holehouse. 


Will'"- Peirse. 

Edw d - Parker. 

Tho s - Holehouse. 

George Russell. 


Edward Parker. 

Tho s - Holehouse. 

George Russell. 

Sam 1 - Plackett. 


Thomas Holehouse. 

George Russell. 

Sam 1 - Plackett. 

John Wilding. 


George Russell. 

Sam 1 - Plackett. 

John Wilding. 

Tho s - Barnett. 


Sam'- Plackett. 

John Wilding. 

Tho s - Barnett. 

Joseph Hill. 


John Wilding. 

Thomas Barnett. 

Joseph Hill 3 (re- 

John Rogers. 


Thomas Barnett. 

John Rogers. 

Timothy Baylie. 

Geo. Veriar, Esq' 0, 


John Rogers (died.) 
Timothy Baylie. 

Timothy Baylie. 4 

Geo. Veriar, Esq' - 

John Paterson, Esq. 


George Veriar, Esq' - 

John Paterson, Esq. 

James Scott. 

Rich d - Wainwright. 


John Paterson, Esq' - 

James Scott. 

Rich d - Wainwright. 

Will'"- Stock. 


James Scott. 

Rich d - Wainwright. 

Will'"- Stock. 

Will" 1 - Stagg. 


Rich' 1, Wainwright. 

Will'"- Stock. 

Will ra - Stagg. 

James Potter. 


William Stock. 

Will'"- Stagg. 

James Potter. 

Will" 1 - Kippax. 


William Stagg. 

James Potter. 

Will" 1 Kippax. 

Wlir- Roberts. 


James Potter. 

Will'"- Kippax. 

Will 11 '- Roberts. 

Will" 1 - Slade. 


Will" 1 - Kippax. 

Will* Roberts. 

Will" 1 - Slade. 

Tho s - Harris. 


Will 1 "- Roberts. 

Will" 1 - Slade. 

Henry Wichells. 

John Berrow, Esq' 0, 


William Slade. 

Henry Wichells. 

John Berrow, Esq' 

Will" 1 - Dodds. 


Henry Wichells. 

John Berrow, Esq. 

Will" 1 - Dodds. 

Tho 5 - Garrood. 


John Berrow, Esq' 0, 

Will 1 "- Dodds. 

Tho 5 - Garrood. 

Tho s - Golding. 


William Dodds. 

Tho s - Garrood. 

Tho s - Golding. 

Rob' Emerton. 

1 Sam 1 - Norton chosen Warden. 2 Will" 1 - Evans chosen Warden. 3 Timothy Baylie chosen Warden. 

4 James Scott chosen Warden. 


zAtinals of the Barber-Surgeons. 





Thomas Garrood. 

Tho 5 Golding. 

Rob'- Emerton. 

John Davison. 


Thomas Golding. 

Rob'- Emerton. 

John Davison. 

Rob'- Downes. 


Robert Emerton. 

John Davison. 

Robert Downes. 

Ralph Eden ' (re- 


John Davison. 

Robert Downes. 

Daniel Adams. 

David Lamb. 


Robert Downes. 

Daniel Adams. 

David Lamb. 

John Adams. 


Daniel Adams. 

David Lamb. 

John Adams 2 {died). 

George Grange. 


David Lamb. 

George Grange. 

Thomas Thompson. 

John Slee. 


George Grange. 

Tho 5 - Thompson. 

John Slee. 

John Knox. 


Thomas Thompson. 

John Slee. 

John Knox. 

Edm d - Humphris 3 


John Slee. 

John Knox. 

Rob' Douglas. 

James Lyon. 


John Knox. 

Rob 1 - Douglas. 

James Lyon. 

Francis Pearson. 


Robert Douglas. 

James Lyon. 

Francis Pearson. 

Jeremiah James. 


James Lyon. 

Francis Pearson. 

Jeremiah James. 

Joseph Atkinson. 


Francis Pearson. 

Jeremiah James. 

Joseph Atkinson. 

James Speight. 


Jeremiah James. 

Joseph Atkinson. 

James Speight 4 

Tho s ' Herbert. 


Joseph Atkinson. 

Thomas Herbert. 

Will m - Long. 

James Clay. 


Thomas Herbert. 

Will'"' Long. 

James Clay. 

Joseph Wells. 


Will m - Long. 

James Clay. 

Joseph Wells. 

Rob'- Garwood. 


James Clay. 

Joseph Wells. 

Rob'- Garwood. 

Will'"- Baylie. 


Joseph Wells. 

Robert Garwood. 

Will" 1 - Baylie. 

Tho 5 - Hampshire. 


Robert Garwood. 

Wiir- Baylie. 

Tho s - Hampshire. 

John Wilt. 


William Baylie. 

Thomas Hampshire. 

John Wilt. 

John Hart. 


Thomas Hampshire. 

John Wilt. 

John Hart. 

John Driver. 


John Wilt. 

John Hart. 

John Driver 15 (died). 

Charles Swan. 


Charles Swan. 

Thomas Rowney. 

Thomas Law. 

Rich d - Jones. 


Thomas Rowney. 

Thomas Law. 

Rich d - Jones. 

John Benj"- Cole. 


Thomas Law. 

Rich d Jones. 

John Benj"- Cole. 

Thomas Stimson. 


Richard Jones. 

John Benj"- Cole. 

Tho 5 - Stimson. 

John Papps. 


John Benj"- Cole. 

Tho 5 - Stimson. 

Malcolm Dunnett. 

Peter Skipper. 


Malcolm Dunnett. 

Peter Skipper. 

Rich d - Morgan. 

Tho 5, Adam. 


Peter Skipper. 

Richard Morgan. 

Tho s - Adam. 

Anthony Lyon. 

Dan'- Adams chosen Warden. - Tho s - Thompson chosen Warden. 3 Tho s - Herbert chosen Warden. 
' John Field chosen Warden. s Thomas Law chosen Warden. 


its oj we barber-burgeons. 






Richard Morgan (<//<•</,). 
Thomas Adam. 

Tho s - Adam." 

Anthony Lyon. 

Will-- Vale. 


Anthony Lyon. 

Will™- Vale. 

James Clapp. 

James Carpenter. 


William Vale. 

James Clapp. 

James Carpenter. 

Daniel Stewart. 


James Clapp. 

James Carpenter. 

Daniel Stewart. 

James Hemp. 


James Carpenter. 

Daniel Stewart. 

James Hemp. 

James King. 


Daniel Stewart. 

James Hemp. 

James King. 

James Lyon. 


James Hemp. 

James King. 

James Lyon. 

Tho s - Kidder. 


James King. 

James Lyon 2 (died). 

Tho s - Kidder. 

Warman Thorn. 


Thomas Kidder. 

Warman Thorn. 

Edw d - Grose Smith. 

Geo. Whitehead. 


Warman Thorn. 

Edw d - Grose Smith. 

Geo. Whitehead. 

Tho s - Wharton. 


Edw d - Grose Smith. 

Geo. Whitehead. 

Tho s - Wharton. 

Will- Twinch. 


Thomas Wharton. 

Tho s Wharton. 3 

Will-- Twinch. 

Will 1 "- Robinson. 


William Robinson. 

Samuel Closs. 

Geo. Hadden. 

Philip Lawton. 


Samuel Closs. 

George Hadden. 

Philip Lawton. 

Henry Waite. 


George Hadden. 

Philip Lawton. 

Henry Waite. 

Joseph Carter. 


Philip Lawton. 

Henry Waite. 

Joseph Carter. 

John Benj"- Lings. 


Henry Waite. 

Joseph Carter. 

John Benj n - Lings. 

William Sallis. 


Joseph Carter. 

John Benj n - Lings. 

Will" 1 - Sallis. 

Tho s - Skegg Driver. 


John Benj n - Lings. 

Will'" Sallis. 

Tho s - Skegg Driver. 

Sam 1 - Edenborough 4 


William Sallis. 

Tho s - Skegg Driver. 

Joel Edwards. 

George Browne. 


Tho s - Skegg Driver. 

Joel Edwards. 

George Browne. 

Henry Patten. 


Joel Edwards. 

George Browne. 

Henry Patten. 

Robert Low. 


Joel Edwards. 

Henry Patten. 

Robert Low. 

John Atkinson. 


Henry Patten. 

Robert Low. 

John Atkinson. 

George Sadler. 


Robert Low. 

John Atkinson. 

George Sadler. 

Tho s Burn Hopgood. 


John Atkinson. 

George Sadler. 

Tho s Burn Hopgood. 

John Colley. 


George Sadler. 

Tho s BurnHopgood. 

John Colley. 

John Annis. 


Tho s - Burn Hopgood. 

John Colley. 

John Annis. 

Will-- Vale. 


John Colley. 

John Annis. 

Will-- Vale. 

Will'"- Hemp. 


John Annis. 

Will 1 " Vale. 

Will-- Hemp. 

Alex r - Rowland. 


William Vale. 

Will- Hemp. 

Alex'- Rowland. 

Will-- Hare. 

1 James Clapp chosen Warden. 

- Edward Grose Smith chosen Warden. 
' Joel Edwards chosen Warden. 

1 Sam 1 - Closs chosen Warden. 


c/?nnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 





William Hemp. 

Alex r - Rowland. 

Will'"- Hare. 

Rich d - Haines. 


Alexander Rowland. 

Will'"- Hare. 

Rich 4 Haines. 

Sam'- Holehouse. 


William Hare. 

Rich 4 Haines. 

Donald Gray. 

Ralph Smith Kirby. 


Richard Haines. 

Donald Gray. 

Ralph Smith Kirby 
(died). ■ 

Tho 5 - Will" 1 - Wood. 


Tho 5 - Will-- Wood. 

James Fred k - Burn. 

John Heaps. 

Tho 5 - Brock. 


John Heaps. 

Tho s - Brock. 

Robert Low. 

James Carpenter. 


Thomas Brock. 

Robert Low. 

James Carpenter. 

Tho 5 - Worton. 


Robert Low. 

James Carpenter. 

Tho 5 - Worton. 

James Reeve. 


James Carpenter. 

Tho 5 - Worton. 

James Reeve. 

Martin Love. 


Thomas Worton. 

James Reeve. 

Martin Love. 

Will" 1 Dunsf d - White. 


Martin Love. 

Will 1 "- Dunsford 

Will" 1 - Riley. 

John Swainston. 


Will" 1 - D. White. 

Will m - Riley. 

John Swainston. 

George Whiting. 


William Riley. 

John Swainston. 

George Whiting. 

Henley Smith. 


John Swainston. 

George Whiting. 

Henley Smith. 

Abraham Western. 


Henley Smith. 

Abraham Western' 

John Swainston. 

Francis Cuthbert- 
son 3 (died). 


Francis Snelling. 

John Mason. 

Thomas Carpenter. 

John Waite. 


Thomas Carpenter. 

John Waite. 

Henry Sallis. 

George Driver. 


John Waite. 

Henry Sallis. 

George Driver. 

Will-- Dunnett. 


Henry Sallis. 

George Driver. 

Will" 1 - Dunnett. 

James Cornish. 


George Driver. 

William Dunnett. 

James Cornish. 

John Carter. 


John Carter. 

James Douglas 
Bennett 4 (died). 

Henry Evans. 

Richard Atkinson 
Cordell Loader. 


Henry Evans. 

R. A. C. Loader. 

Edward Stone. 

Frederick Baker. 


R. A. C. Loader. 

Edw d - Stone. 

Fred k - Baker. 

H*- Edw d - Murrell. 


Edward Stone. 

Fred k - Baker. 

H. Edward Murrell. 

Tho s - Emberson. 


Frederick Baker. 

H. Edward Murrell. 

Tho 5 - Emberson. 

Edward Ruff. 


H. Edward Murrell. 

Tho 5 - Emberson. 

Edward Ruff. 

Fred k - Wilson. 


Thomas Emberson. 

Edward Ruff. 

Fred k - Wilson. 

Cha 5 - John Shoppee. 


Edward Ruff. 

Fred k - Wilson. 

Cha 5, John Shoppee. 

James Harvey, C.C. 


Cha 5 - John Shoppee. 

James Harvey, C.C. 

Ja s - Henry Pitcher. 

Benj"- Woolley. 


James Harvey, C.C. 

Ja s - Henry Pitcher. 

Benj"- Woolley. 

George Austin, sen'- 

' Will" 1 - Hare chosen Warden. 

: Will" 1 ' Dunsford White chosen Warden. 3 Francis Snelling chosen Warden. 
1 Edw d - Stone chosen Warden. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


An - 




Ja 5 - Henry Pitcher. 

Benj"- Woolley. 

Geo. Austin, sen'- 

Will" 1 - Ruston. 


Benj"- Woolley. 

Geo. Austin, sen r - 

Will"'- Ruston. 

Rich''- Ja s - Atkinson. 


Geo. Austin, sen'- 

Will'"- Ruston. 

Rich' 1 Ja 5 - Atkinson. 

Walter H> Wilkin, 


William Ruston. 

Rich d - Ja s Atkinson. 

Walter H>- Wilkin, 

Jonathan Denny. 


Rich d - Ja s - Atkinson. 

Walter H* Wilkin, 

Jonathan Denny. 

Cha 5 Howard Atkin- 


Walter Hy. Wilkin, Aid. 

Jonathan Denny. 

Tho 5 - George Driver. 

Nathan Salaman. 


Jonathan Denny. 

Tho s - George Driver. 

Edw d - Cha 5, Cornish . 

George Austin, jun r - 


Edward Cha s ' Cornish. 

George Austin, jun r - 

W'"- Aaron Eccle- 

Will 1 "- Lumley. 


George Austin, jun r - 

W m - Aaron Eccle- 

Will" 1 - Lumley. 

Ja s - Cope Cornish. 


W m - Aaron Ecclestone. 

Will'" Lumley. 

Ja s - Cope Cornish. 

Joseph Wilson. 


18 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 




This List, as well as the list of King's Barbers, is un- 
doubtedly incomplete, but contains the names of all those of whom 
any record exists at Barbers' Hall. A short account of the Office 
of Serjeant Surgeon etc., may be seen in The Medical Times for 
1867, vol. 2, p. 438. 

William Hobbes, W. 1461. 

Thomas Vicary, M. 1530, &c. 

Richard Ferris, M. 1562. 

Robert Balthrop, M. 1565. 

William Gooderus, M. 1594. 

George Baker, M. 1597. 

Christopher Frederick, M. 1609. 

William Clowes, M. 1626. 

Humphrey Painter, M. 1661. 

John Knight, M. 1663. 

Richard Wiseman, M. 1665. 

Thomas Hobbs, M. 1687. 

Thomas Gardiner, M. 1697. 

Charles Bernard, M. 1703. 

Ambrose Dickins, M. 1729. 

Claudius Amyand, M. 1731. 

John Ranby, S.S. to George II, sworn a foreign brother 
of the Company 5 October, 1722. 

Sir Caesar Hawkins, Bart., S.S. to George III, admit- 
ted to the Livery 1736. 

Thomas Gataker, S.S. to George III, was free of 
the Company. 

M. signifies Master. W. Warden. 

c/tnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 



Nicholas Simpson, M. 1537. 
John Penn, M. 1539. 
Edmund Harman, M. 1540. 
Thomas Caldwell, M. 1628. 
Thomas Davyes, M. 1639. 
Thomas Lisle, M. 1662. 
Ralph Foliard, M. 1664. 

M. signifies Master. 









Sir John Ayliffe (Grocer) 

Sir Peter Proby (Grocer) 
Sir John Frederick (Grocer) 
M.P. for Dartmouth, M. P. for the City. 

Edward Arris ... 

Sir Nathaniel Heme ... 

M.P. for Dartmouth. 

Sir John Lethieullier ... 
Sir Humphry Edwin (Skinner) 
Sir William Stewart (Goldsmith) 
Sir John Bull (Clothworker) ... 
Sir Thomas Challoner ... 
Walter Henry Wilkin 



'654 I 
1658 ] 










Bridge Without, 1551 


Vintry, 1653 
Coleman Street 

Bridge Without, 1663 

Billingsgate, 1676... 

Cripplegate, 1 7 1 1 

Aldgate, 1760 
Lime Street, 1888. 



D 2 



HE origin of the Barbers' Guild partook of a religious 
character ; and the meeting together of men of the 
craft for religious observances, for attending the 
funerals and obits of deceased members and their 
wives, and for feasting once a year, gradually trans- 
formed a semi-social and religious guild into what 
ultimately became a purely secular or " trade guild.'' This religious 
origin is borne out by the very important Return made by the Barbers 
of London, to the Writ of 12th Rich. II, and is strengthened by 
reference to the Returns made by the Barbers of Lincoln and of 
Norwich (both which latter are preserved at the Record Office), 
and which clearly point to those guilds being of a religious character ; 
indeed the Barbers of Norwich do not seem to have had a single 
secular or trade ordinance in their constitution. 

1388. In the Return of the Barbers of London to the Writ of 
Richard II, the Masters recite that they "have found a document 
"amongst the articles of their records made of the time to which 


c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

" memory runneth not," concerning the points upon which the fraternity 
was founded ; 

Primerement al honourance de Dieu et touz ses Seyntes et pur excitacon les 
coens des gentz a bien faire et perseverance avoir et bien faitz 

Firstly to the honour of God and all his Saints, and to stir up the commons of 
the people to do well, and to have perseverance in well doing 

Regulations were made enjoining charity, attendance at funerals 
and obits, against the enticing away of the servants of others, providing 
for the amicable settlement of disputes, and the like. 

The articles above briefly referred to, contain nothing in 
particular as to trade regulation or inspection, leaving a pretty certain 
inference that they were made for the governance of a social and 
religious guild or fraternity. We shall presently see that in 1308, the 
Company partook of the nature of a trade guild, and we may therefore 
reasonably presume that the articles made in the time to which 
memory in 1388 did not run, were drawn up previous to 1308, and 
therefore without much hesitation we may assign the origin of the 
Barbers' Company to at least the xiij th - century. 

In the early part of the reign of Edward II, and indeed for a 
long while previously, the Barbers were practitioners in the art of 
Surgery ; at all events they performed the minor operations of that 
craft, such as bleeding, tooth-drawing, cauterization, and the like. 

The Barbers having been accustomed to assist the monks in the 
surgical operations performed by them in early times, acquired a degree 
of proficiency which enabled them to practise as Surgeons themselves. 
Up till about the xij th century the practice of Surgery and Medicine 
was however almost wholly confined to the Clergy, who seem to have 
enjoyed the double privilege of curing men's bodies as well as their 
souls. In 1 1 63 the Council of Tours, under Pope Alexander III, 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 2} 

considering that a practice which involved in its operations the 
shedding of blood, was incompatible with the holy office of the clergy, 
forbad them to interfere in any matter of Surgery ; the consequence of 
this edict was that they gave over the operations of Surgery but 
continued to practise the healing art of Medicine. 

As already said, the Clergy very frequently employed the 
Barbers as their assistants, and committed to them the preparation of 
the medicated baths and the performance of sundry minor surgical 
operations. No doubt the Edict of Tours was hailed with joy by the 
Barbers, who thus found a lucrative practice thrown in their way, and 
seized the opportunity of practising as Surgeons "on their own 
account," calling themselves Barber-Surgeons, and practising both 
Barbery and Surgery. 

c. 1307. The archives preserved at the Guildhall have many 
entries concerning the Barbers' Company, and in Letter-Book D. i57 B ' 
there is an ordinance concerning the Barbers of London, which shows 
that at this time they were occupied in Surgery, and advertised their 
profession in an objectionable manner, which was very properly 
forbidden by the City authorities. 

De Barbours. Et que nul barbier ne soit se ose ne si hardy qil mette sank 
en leur fenestres en apiert ou en view des gentz, mais pryvement le facent porter a 
Thamise sur peine des doux souldz rendre al oeps des Viscountz. 

Concerning Barbers. And that no barbers shall be so bold or so hardy as 
to put blood in their windows, openly or in view of folks, but let them have it privily 
carried unto the Thames, under pain of paying two shillings to the use of the Sheriffs. 

1308. The first express entry which we have concerning our 
Company is the presentation and admission of Richard le Barber, as 
Supervisor or Master of the Barbers, before the Court of Aldermen 
in 1308 {Letter-Book C. 96). 

24 cA 'minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Ric's le Barbour ex oppoito ecclie omni scoTi parue elect' est et p'sentaf p n 
Barbitonsores Iondon die Mart p'x p't fin See Lucie virgls Anno R. E. fit R. E. scdo 
coram dnis Nicho de ffarndon tiic maiore Iondon Johiie de Wenguue cet'isq3 AldermTs 
ad custodiend officiii Barbitonsoif &c. Et admissus est et jur° q'd quolibet mense faciet 
scrutiniii p totn officii! suii et si quos inverVit lupanar 9 id alio mo inhonestos et in 
scandalii officii &c. eos distringat & distriaoem in cam'am apportari faciet &c. 

Richard le Barbour dwelling opposite to the Church of Allhallows the Less, 
was chosen and presented by the Barbers of London, on Tuesday next after the feast 
of Saint Lucy the Virgin (13th December) in the second year of the reign of King Edward, 
son of King Edward, before Sir Nicholas de Farndon, then Mayor of London, John 
de Wengrave and other Aldermen, to have supervision over the trade of the Barbers &c. 
And he was admitted and made oath that every month he would make scrutiny throughout 
the whole of his trade, and if he should find any among them keeping brothels, or acting 
unseemly in any other way, and to the scandal of the trade, he was to distrain upon 
them, and cause the distress to be taken into the Chamber (of London) &c. 

The foregoing record does not appear very creditable to the 
reputation of the Barbers of Edward the Second's time, but it should 
be remembered that in those days, and for a long period before and 
afterwards, the Barbers superintended the Baths (Bagnios) and that 
these places were not infrequently the resort of improper characters ; a 
few of our predecessors had perhaps, under the circumstances, been 
somewhat lax in their morality, and let us hope that Richard le Barber 
administered to those whom he found offending, due correction 
according to his oath and their deserts. 

It would not seem from the terms of the admission, that the 
Master was at that period elected annually, and the Office was probably 
held by one man for a considerable number of years. There is no 
entry in the City books (which have been carefully examined for the 
purpose) of another admission to the Office until the year 1376, when 
two Masters were appointed, and then for some years subsequently two 
new Masters were sworn in annually. 

o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 2 5 

1309. In this year we find the first record of an admission of 
a Barber to the freedom of the City, and several others occur about 
this period (see Freemen). 

13 10. On Wednesday next after the feast of the Nativity, 
4th Edward II, Gerard the Barber was sworn keeper of the Gate of 
Newgate (Letter-Book D. 1 13), and there are other entries of Barbers 
being appointed keepers or porters at the City gates ; from one of 
these, in 1375, it would seem that they were to keep a strict watch 
that no lepers should enter the city, and it was doubtless on account 
of their surgical knowledge enabling them to distinguish those afflicted 
with leprosy, that these offices were conferred upon them. 

1 3 10. On Monday before the feast of St. Gregory the will of 
Richard le Barber, our first Master, was proved in the Court of 
Husting. To Katherine his wife and Johanna his daughter, he left 
tenements and rents in Bread Street, Cordwainer Street, Queenhithe, 
Candlewike Street, and Whitecrouche Street. To Thomas de 
Mangrave his apprentice, a shop in Bread Street ; to the fabric of 
London Bridge 20 s -' and the residue to pious uses. 

13 1 2. The earliest admission of a Surgeon (not a Barber 
Surgeon) to the freedom is that of " Magister Johes de Suthwerk 
cirurgicus," who was sworn on Friday before the feast of St. Barnabas, 
5th Edward II, and who paid nothing for his freedom, being admitted 
at the instance of Hugh de Waltham, Town Clerk. 


Among the Archives at Guildhall are various entries relating to 
early Barbers, which, although not touching upon the history of our 
Company, may properly be preserved in these pages, and I shall 
therefore give translations of a few of them. 


26 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1315. On Monday next after the feast of the Purification of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, in the 8th Edward II, by common assent of the Mayor and Aldermen 
in the Hustings of pleas of Land, there was granted and demised to William de 
Dounesheued, Barber to Sir John de Sandale, Chancellor of our Lord the King, a certain 
house belonging to the Bridge of London, to have and to hold to the said William for 
his whole life, he paying yearly on the usual days two and a half marks to the keepers 
for the time being of the said Bridge, which said house is situate between a house 
belonging to the said Bridge in which John Mew now dwells towards the West, and 
a house belonging to Thomas le Maderman towards the East, in the Parish of Saint 
Dionis Backchurch London. And the said William, the said house and its appurtenances 
in all needful manner shall sustain, and against wind and rain cause the same to be 
defended during the whole term of his life. 

And there was a proviso that if the rent should remain unpaid 
for a whole year that the Bridge Keepers should re-enter. {Letter- 
Book E. 2 8 B ) 

13 19. On Thursday after the feast of St. Valentine, 13th 
Edward II, there was enrolled an obligation by which Roger the 
Barber (servant to John cle Dallinge, Sheriff of London) and 
Margaret his wife, were bound to pay ^100 to Sir John de Lauge- 
combe, Rector of the Church of Laumaz Heys {sic) before the 
feast of Easter. {Letter-Book E. 85.) 

1320. On Wednesday next after the feast of Saints Fabian 
and Sebastian, 13th Edward II, Lawrence the Barber, one of the 
men sworn to keep the Poultry Market on Cornhill, laid an informa- 
tion against John Bakon that he the said John was a forestaller 
of the Market. {Letter-Book E. q6 b ) 

1320. In the same year among the names of the Citizens 
assessed to contribute to a fine of ,£1,000 to the King, occurs 
that of Thomas the Barber. {Letter-Book E. io6 B ) 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 27 

1320. On Monday next before the feast of St. Margaret the 
Virgin, 14th Edward II, the Wardship of Alice, Joane and Agnes, 
children of John de Wynton, Barber, deceased, was given to Joane his 
widow ; several shops and houses in the City belonging to the 
deceased are scheduled as for the benefit of the Wards, and Robert 
de Lamyngton, John de Bristolle, Barber, and Roger de Croidon 
were bound as sureties. [Letter-Book E. 114.) 

Instances also occur of City Wards (sons of Barbers deceased) 
being apprenticed by the Chamberlain to various trades. 

1340. In 14th Edward III, Hamo the Barber was assessed 
by the City at £\o as his contribution towards a forced loan of 
.£5,000 to the King [Letter-Book F. 33) and six years later (1346) 
Hamo was again assessed at 20s. towards a "present" of 3,000 
marks to the King. 

1370. On 14th March, 44th Edward III, the wardship of 
Alice (aged 3 years), daughter of Nicholas the Barber, was given 
to Gilbert Prince, who was to use her legacy of 40 marks for her 

1374. On the 28th July, 1374, Lawrence de Weston, Barber 
(Master of the Company in 1376), and Margaret his wife, mother 
of the said Alice, came before the Mayor, &c, and proved that the 
said Alice was dead, whereupon Gilbert Prince, the Executor of 
Nicholas the Barber's will, was discharged, and the money paid 
to Lawrence and Margaret de Weston. [Letter-Book G. 244 
and 3i7 B ) 

Reverting now from individuals to the Company, we find 
that the Barbers existed as a Trade Guild, but unincorporated 
certainly from the year 1308, and that they were at first ruled by 

e 2 

28 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

one Master, and later on (in 1376) by two Masters, appointed annually. 
This Company of Barbers was composed of two classes of 
Members — viz., those who practised Barbery proper (perhaps in- 
cluding phlebotomy and tooth drawing), and those who practised 
Surgery, and who were, for distinction sake, called Barber-Surgeons 
(in the City books they are spoken of as " Barbers exercising the 
faculty of Surgery"). For aught we know to the contrary, a perfect 
harmony and good understanding existed between these two sections 
of the Company, and it is probable that the ranks of the latter 
were continually recruited from the former. 

1 38 1. The earliest evidence of the existence of our Hall is 
to be found in Harl. MS. 541, which contains a list of Companies' 
Halls in the City, temp. 5 Richard II, by which it appears that 
the Barbers' Hall was then, as now, in the Parish of Saint Olave, 
Silver Street, and doubtless on the same site ; the entry is, 
" Barbar hall y e p'yssh of Seynt Oluf in Sylverstrete." In 1490 the 
Hall is known to have been on the same site. 

1388. In this year Richard II sent his writs all over the 
Kingdom to enquire into the nature and constitution of the several 
guilds and fraternities, religions, social or craft, and the returns to 
these writs, which must have been an immense number, were formerly 
kept among the Records at the Tower of London. Herbert, in his 
History of the Livery Companies, refers to his fruitless endeavours to 
discover these returns, and I have made diligent enquiry at the Record 
Office for them also, with the undoubted result that all of those which 
relate to the London Trading Guilds are lost. There are, however, a 
great number relating to London religious guilds and to trade guilds 
all over the country. Two of these concerning the Barbers of Norwich 
and of Lincoln are so highly interesting that I have preserved them in 
Appendix A. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 29 

Among-st our Archives at Barbers' Hall, is a vellum book of 
Ordinances written out fair in 1658, and therein is to be found a copy 
of the return made by the Barbers of London to the writ of Richard 1 1, 
and which the Company caused to be extracted from the Tower Records 
in 1634. It is certified by William Colet as agreeing with the original, 
but unfortunately Mr. Colet (although he was Deputy-Keeper of the 
Records) or his copyist has made one or two mistakes, which necessitate 
a little hiatus in the translation, and he has put the year as the nth 
instead of the 12th of Richard II. That the latter year is the correct 
one is abundantly proved by the dates on the original writs and on the 
numerous returns still in existence at the Record Office, as also by the 
names of the Masters certifying, who are recorded at Guildhall as 
having been admitted 10th September, 12th Richard II. 

Richard II was more solicitous as to the funds and property of 
the Guilds, than he was about their observances, and our predecessors 
seem to have quickly acquainted him with their pecuniary position, " the 
which Company have neither tenements nor rents to their common use." 

The Masters recite an old document which they found in their 
strong box, and which will well repay perusal ; it opens with a devout 
dedication to the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and the glorious company 
of heaven, and the first Ordinance being expressly made in honour of 
God and all saints, and with the intention of stirring up the people to 
do well and to persevere therein, we must all approve of it. It provides 
firstly, that decayed brethren shall have an allowance of loy^d. per 
week, if their poverty have not come about by their own folly. The 
second and third Ordinances relate to attendance at funerals and obits 
of deceased members. Then follow certain rules, that no man shall 
entice away another's servant ; the Masters to settle disputes, payment 
of quarterage, refusal of office, absence from Mass and the yearly feast, 

)o cAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

the livery clothing, &c, &c. It is well to observe here the evidence of 
the antiquity of our livery, of the quarterage, and of the feast, all of 
which have come down to these days. 

Some later Ordinances are added, which were apparently made 
in 1387. This return is probably the only one extant of the whole of 
those made by the London trade guilds, and is therefore of the highest 
interest. A copy of the original (which is in Norman French), together 
with a translation, follows. 

Copia extracta ex Bundell' Fraternitatum et Gildar' Civitatis London remanen de 
Recordo prout patet in Rotulis dm Regis infra Turrim London. 
Anno xj° ' 
Ricardi Secundi. 

Johan Hevdon et Hen Cook Mestres* William Chapman et William Gomine 
Surveyours de la Compaignie appelle ffraternite des Barbers de la Citee de Londres 
dauncien temps ordeigne certifiant au Counsail fire S r - le Roy en sa Chancellarie la 
forme manere et condicion de touz articles obseruancez et lour circumstances contenuz 
en la paper de dite Compaignie en la forme quesuyt la quel compaignie nont nul tent ne 
rent a lour c6e oeps les queles articles la dite Compaignie nont usez en lour temps forsqz 
soulement pur auer lour vesture un foitz per an et paier lour quarterage pur sustiner 
pouerez gentz de mesme la Compaignie et un foitz per aii assembler pur manger et eslire 
neuells Mestres et Surveiours sanz ascun autre article de sontz escript mettre en use 
forsqz ceux q° tan soulement sont faitz al honour de dieu mes purtant qils ont trouez un 
paper one les articles de sontz escriptz fait del temps done memorie ne court ils les ont 
p'sentez a vre tressages discrecions. 

Ceste endenture fait en noni de Dieu omnipotent pier et fitz et seynt Esperitz 
et de nre Dame Seynt Marie et de tout la gloriouse Compaignie de Ciel de la foundacion 
et de Lordinance de la fraternite des Barbers de la Cite de Londres tesmoigfi coment et 
sur queux pointz la dite Fraternite est funduz et ordeigne. 

Primerement al honourance de Dieu et touz ses Seyntes et pur excitacon les 
coens des gefitz a bien faire et perseuerance auoir en bien faitz est ordeigne q° si ascun 

1 A mistake for Anno xij°- 
Sworn Masters of the Barbers, 10 Sept., 1388. 12th Ric. II. (Letter-Book H. 235 s -) 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 31 

frere de eel fraternite qi ad este de cell fraternite per vij anz sil cheit en mischief ou en 
pouerte \P auenture issint qil neit de quoy il purra viure de son propre et ces ne luy 
aucigne de sa propre folye qu donqz il auera chescun semaigne de lour coe boyste 
x d - o!5. pur sa sustenance. 

Item quant ascun frere du dite fraternite soit mort les freres de la dite fraternite 
serront la veyle al dirige et le jour al Messe et al dirige et al Messe del Moys obit et 
q' chescun tiel frere mort eit xxx messes de lour coe Boyste et q° chescun frier q° soit 
absent sanz reasonable eucheson a ascun des ditz iiij foitz qil mette a lour coe Boyste en 
noun de ses offrandes et dispences queux il deust auer fait sil eust este en p'sent iij '■ 

Item quant ascun Meistre de la dite Fraternite eit feme Mort q° les freres de la 
dite ffraternite soient a La Vigile et a la Messe le jour de sont enterment et a la Moys 
obit et quel frer q° soit absent a ascun de tres foitz qil paie pur chescun foitz qil soit 
absent en lieu des costages et autres dispences queux il ferreit sil feusse present a lour 
cbe boyst iij d - 

Item q° nul frere de la dite Fraternite abette autri seruant hors des seruice son 
Meistre priuement ne apertement. 

Item si ascun debate surdre p° entre ascuns des freres q° dieu defend et ces soit 

redresse per amour per la consideration des Meistres de la dite Fraternite 

faire bonement et q nul ne sue vers autre en autre manere autant qil ad assaie sil puisse 
p° leide des ditz Mestrez estre recorde. 

Item q n chescun frere de la dite ffraternite veigne chescun quarter del an et 
paie son quarterage a Collectors decell issint q° les dits Collectors ne. 

Item accorde est entre toutz les ditz freres q° quel de eux q n refuse son office 
quant ces vient a luy sil voet estre de ces allegge qil paie a lour coe boyst. 

Item si ascun frere soit absent a lour Messe et Manger quant il serra un foitz 
en Ian qil paiera a tant en offrandes et toutz autres choes come un. 

Item q° nul des ditz freres allowe autre hors de sa Meason. 

Item si ascun frere per auenture tarie ses paiements entre an et demy qil face 

gree demz les ij anz sanz rien outre le certain doii. Et sil ad luy soient 

p'donez issint qil paie ce gest aderer. Et a ceux pointz tenir solonc amendement si 
mistier soit qils soient amendez ceste Fraternite sont entre jurez et ont chescun de eux 
pleine sa foy et si fra chescun qi serra de la dite ffraternite. Et accorde est entre 

eux endenture soient enclos en lour coe boyst et lautre demurge 

vers les Mestres q° serront pur le temps de la dit fraternite. 

32 zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Item chescun frere du dit fratemite paie en arres pur son Drap auant la 
mayn xl d - ameyns. 

Item cf chescun frere garde la liuere ij anz enterrement deuant qil le donne ou 
vende ou aliene la liuere en ascun manere sur peyne de paier al compaignie un noble 
dor sur lour grace. 

Item est ordeyne le dymenge psch ensuant lassumpcon de nre Dame Ian le 
Roy Richard sede xj°- qe les Surveiours du dit Mistier soient esluy per lassent de tout la 
fTraternite et nemy per les Mestres. 

Item q° nul du dit Fraternite paie plus pur son mangre q 1 xiiij d - en apres. 

Item ordeyne est q° chescun Meistre q° eslisera ascun autre home pur estre en 
son lieu cesta sauoir pur estre Meistre celuy q° eslisera tiel home pur estre Meistre apres 
Ian serra obligee per mesme luy a la Compaignie pur la monoy en un obligacon. 

Convenit cum Recordo 

Willus Colet. 

A Copy taken from a Bundle " of the Fraternities and Guilds of the City of 
London" which remains of record, as the same is seen in the Rolls of 
the Lord the King, at the Tower of London. 

Anno 12. 

Richard II. 

John Heydon and Henry Cook, Masters, William Chapman and William 
Gomine, Surveyors of the Company called the Fraternity of Barbers of the City of 
London of ancient time established, certifying to the Council of Our Lord the King, 
in his Chancery, the form manner and condition of all the articles, customs and their 
circumstances contained in the Records of the same Company in the form following : — 
The which Company have neither tenements nor rents to their common use, And these 
articles the said Company have not used in their time excepting only for to have their 
Livery once a year, and to pay their quarterage to maintain the poor folk of the same 
Company, and once a year to assemble to feast, and to elect new Masters and Surveyors 
without any other article of their writing to put forward except those which only 
are made to the honour of God ; but, however, as they have found a document 
amongst the articles of the Records, made of the time to which memory runneth 
not, they have presented it to your most wise discretions. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 33 

This Indenture made in the name of the Omnipotent God, the Father and 
Son and the Holy Ghost, and of our Lady Saint Mary and of all the glorious Company 
of Heaven, concerning the foundation of the Government of the Fraternity of Barbers of 
the City of London Witnesseth how and upon what points the said Fraternity is 
founded and ordained. 

Firstly to the honour of God and all his Saints, and to stir up the Commons 
of the people to do well, and to have perseverance in well doing, it is ordained that if 
any brother of this Fraternity who has been of this Fraternity for seven years by chance 
fall into trouble or into poverty, and if he have nothing of his own by which he may 
be able to live, and it be not through his own folly, that then he shall have each 
week from their common box tenpence half penny for his sustenance. 

Item. That when any brother of the said Fraternity dies the brethren of the 
said Fraternity shall go on the Vigil to the dirge, and on the day 1 to the Mass, and to 
the dirge and to the mass of the month's obit, and that each such brother dead have 
thirty masses from their common box, 2 and that each brother who is absent without 
reasonable excuse at any of the said four times, shall put into their common box in place of 
his offerings and expenses, as he ought to have done if he had been present, three pence. 

Item. When any Master of the said Fraternity has a wife dead, the brethren of 
the said Fraternity shall be at the Vigil and at the Mass on the day of her burial and at 
the month's obit, and that brother who is absent at any of the three times shall pay for 
each time that he be absent, in place of the costs and other expenses which he would have 
borne if he had been present, three pence to their common box. 

Item. That no brother of the said Fraternity entice any servant from the 
service of his master, privily or openly. 

Item. If any dispute arise between any of the brethren, which God forbid, it 
is to be amicably settled by the decision of the Masters of the said Fraternity [and they 
are] to deal plainly, 3 and that no one sue another in other manner than at the assize (?) 
[and then only] if he be empowered by leave of the said Masters to be recorded. 

Item. That each brother of the said Fraternity shall come each quarter of the 
year and pay his quarterage to the collectors* 

Item. It is agreed between all the said brethren that whoever of them refuses 
his office when it comes to him, if he wishes to be relieved of it, that he pay to their 
common box. 

1 The day of the funeral. ! Thirty masses sung at the expense of the common box. 

3 i.e., honestly. ' I am unable to complete this sentence. 


34 a/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Item. If any brother be absent from their Mass and Feast when it shall be 
once a year, he shall pay so much in offerings and all other things as one present. 

Item. That none of the said brethren put [?] another out of his house. 

Item. If any brother by chance delay his payments beyond a year-and-a-half, 
that he make acquittance within two years without any \penalty\ beyond the ordinary fine. 
And if he be thus forgiven that he settle the matter at once. 

And to hold these points pursuant to amendment alone if the Mystery will that 
they be amended, this Fraternity are sworn among themselves and have each of them 
pledged his troth, and so from each who shall \_hereafter\ be of the said Fraternity. And 
it is agreed amongst them that this Indenture be enclosed in their common box, and the 
counterpart be held by the Masters for the time being of the said Fraternity. 

The document which the Masters found amongst their records 
made in "the time to which memory runneth not" probably ends here, 
and the following Items (see the third one) were doubtless additional 
Ordinances made circa 1387. 

Item. That each brother of the said Fraternity pay in pledge for his livery, 
when he has the same, forty pence at the least. 

Item. That each brother keep the livery two whole years before he may give, 
or sell, or alienate it in any manner, under pain of paying to the Company for their 
pardon, a noble of gold. 

Item. It is ordained that on the Sunday following the Assumption of our Lady 
in the nth year of King Richard the Second,' that the Surveyors of the said Mystery be 
elected by the assent of all the Fraternity, and no longer by the Masters. 

Item. That none of the said Fraternity hereafter pay more than fourteen pence 
for his feast. 

Item. It is ordained that each Master who shall choose any other man to be in 
his place, that is to say for to be Master ; he who shall choose such man to be Master 
for the year shall be bound by himself for him, in an obligation to the Company for the 

It agrees with the Record, 

William Colet. 

1 18th Aug., 1387. i.e., a guarantee for his honesty. 

z/tnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 35 

Coeval with our Company of Barbers there existed in the City 
of London, another Fraternity or Guild, that of the Surgeons, in no 
way connected with the Barbers, but, like them, existing by prescription 
only and unincorporated. It is not to be expected that these two 
Companies would, in the days of so much trade protection and 
jealousy, exhibit an over-friendly feeling towards one another, and the 
records of the period, though meagre, show that this was the case. 
The Surgeons' Guild at no time appear to have been a numerous body, 
indeed there is reason to believe that frequently their numbers were 
less than a dozen, and they possibly never exceeded twenty. 

In the researches undertaken for the purpose of this work, 
various references to the Surgeons' Guild have turned up, and although 
at this early period there was much in common between the two 
Fraternities, I have considered it quite apart from the subject in hand 
to go into any detail concerning that Guild, more especially as it has 
recently been so ably and fully dealt with by Mr. D'Arcy Power in his 
" Memorials of the Craft of Surgery." 

1376. In the 50th Edward III, the Barbers made a com- 
plaint to the Mayor and Aldermen against unskilled practitioners in 
Surgery, and prayed that two Masters should be yearly appointed to 
inspect and rule the craft, and that none should be admitted to the 
freedom of the City, but upon due examination of their skill ; and this 
was granted by the Court, entered of record and Lawrence de Weston 
and John de Grantone were chosen Masters. The following is a 
translation of the original record concerning this matter. 1 

To the honourable Lords, and wise, the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of 
London, shew the good folks, the Barbers of the same city, that whereas from one day to 

1 In this and some other cases I have adopted the able translations made by Mr. Riley in his 
" Memorials of London and London Life." 

F 2 

36 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

another there resort men, who are barbers, from uppelande' unto the said city, who are 
not instructed in their craft, and do take houses and intermeddle with barbery, surgery, 
and the cure of other maladies, while they know not how to do such things, nor ever were 
instructed in such craft ; to the great damage, and in deceit, of the people, and to the 
great scandal of all the good barbers of the said city : — therefore the said good folks do 
pray that it may please your honourable Lordships, for the love of God, and as a work of 
charity, to ordain and establish that from henceforth no such stranger, coming to the said 
City from uppelande, or from any other place, of whatsoever condition he be, shall keep 
house or shop for barbery within the same city, before that he shall be found able and 
skilled in the said art and office of barbery, and that, by assay and examination of the good 
folks, barbers of the same city, whom out of the said craft it may please you to ordain 
thereunto. And that it may please you to ordain and establish, that from henceforth 
there shall always be two good men of their said craft chosen by their common assent to 
be Wardens of the craft ; and that such two persons shall be presented unto the Mayor, 
Recorder, and Aldermen, of the said city, and sworn before them well and lawfully, to the 
best of their power and knowledge, to rule their said craft; and that the said Masters may 
inspect the instruments of the said art, to see that they are good and proper for the service 
of the people, by reason of the great peril that might ensue thereupon ; and that on the 
complaint of such two Masters, all rebellious persons in the said craft, shall be made to 
come before you, and whosoever shall be found in default against this Ordinance shall pay 
to the Chamber 40 pence. And that from henceforth no man of their craft shall be 
admitted to the franchise of the said city, if he be not attested as being good and able, 
upon good examination before you made. And that no foreigner shall keep house or 
shop in their craft within the said city, or the suburbs thereof. And that this Ordinance 
shall be enrolled in the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, for all time to last. 

And the same was granted unto them. Whereupon, Laurence de Westone and 
John de Grantone were chosen Masters of the Barbers [Letter-Book H. 28. ,] 

The foregoing ordinance must surely have given umbrage to 
the Surgeons' Guild as it placed the Barbers upon an equal 
footing with them in the examination of Surgeons, the inspection 
of their instruments, etc. ; and this more especially as seven years 
previously (in 1369) the Surgeons had obtained from the same 
Court an Ordinance investing them with the power of presenting 
the defaults of all unskilful Surgeons. 

1 The general name for country places in those days. 

o/liiiials of the Barber-Surgeons. jj 

1382. As an example of a quack Surgeon's method of practice, 
and of his rogueries and punishment, the following case of Roger 
Clerk will be found interesting: — 

Roger Clerk, of Wandelesworth,' on the 13th day of May in the 5th year 
(Richard II), was attached in the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, before the 
Mayor and Aldermen, to make answer, as well to the Mayor and Commonalty of the City 
of London, as to Roger atte Hacche, in a plea of deceit and falsehood : as to which, the 
same Roger said, that whereas no physician or surgeon should intermeddle with any 
medicines or cures within the liberty of the city aforesaid, but those who are experienced 
in the said arts, and approved therein, the said Roger Clerk, who knew nothing of either 
of the arts aforesaid, being neither experienced nor approved therein, nor understood 
anything of letters, came to the house of him, Roger atte Hacche, in the parish of St. 
Martin, in Ismongereslane, in London, on Thursday, the morrow of Ash Wednesday, in 
the 5th year, etc. ; and there saw one Johanna, the wife of the aforesaid Roger atte 
Hacche, who was then lying ill with certain bodily infirmities, and gave the said Roger, 
her husband, to understand, that he was experienced and skilled in the art of medicine, 
and could cure the same Johanna of her maladies, if her husband desired it. 

Whereupon, the said Roger atte Hacche, trusting in his words, gave him 
12 pence, in part payment of a larger sum which he was to pay him, in case the said 
Johanna should be healed. And upon this, the same Roger Clerk then and there gave 
to the said Roger atte Hacche an old parchment, cut or scratched across, being the leaf 
of a certain book, and rolled it up in a piece of cloth of gold, asserting that it would be 
very good for the fever and ailments of the said Johanna ; and this parchment, so rolled 
up, he put about her neck, but in no way did it profit her ; and so, falsely and 
maliciously, he deceived the same Roger atte Hacche. And he produced the said 
parchment here in Court, wrapped up in the same cloth, in proof of the matters aforesaid. 

And the said Roger Clerk personally appeared, and the said parchment was 
shown to him by the Court, and he was asked what the virtue of such piece of parchment 
was ; whereupon, he said that upon it was written a good charm for fevers. Upon being 
further asked by the Court what were the words of this charm of his, he said ; — " Anima 
Christi, sanctifica me; Corpus Christi, salva me; in isanguis Christi, nebria me; cum 
bonus Christus tu, lava me." 5 And the parchment being then examined, not one of 

1 Wandsworth. 

• " Soul of Christ, sanctify me ; body of Christ, save me ; blood of Christ, saturate me ; 
as Thou art good, Christ, wash me." 

j8 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

those words was found written thereon. And he was then further told by the Court, that 
a straw 1 beneath his foot would be of just as much avail for fevers, as this said charm of 
his was ; whereupon, he fully granted that it would be so. And because that the same 
Roger Clerk was in no way a literate man, and seeing that on the examination aforesaid, 
(as well as on others afterwards made,) he was found to be an infidel, and altogether 
ignorant of the art of physic or of surgery ; and to the end that the people might not be 
deceived and aggrieved by such ignorant persons, etc. ; it was adjudged that the same 
Roger Clerk should be led through the middle of the City, with trumpets and pipes, he 
riding on a horse without a saddle, the said parchment and a whetstone, for his lies, being 
hung about his neck, an urinal also being hung before him, and another urinal on his 
back. [Letter-Book H. 145.] 

1390. In connection with the Surgeons' Guild, four Master 
Surgeons of the City were sworn before the Mayor, etc., in this year, 
and they were to make scrutiny amongst persons practising the art of 
Surgery, and to present defaults. [Letter-Book H. 248.] It will be 
remembered that in 1369 a somewhat similar Ordinance was made 
for the Surgeons' Guild, and this one in 1390 was probably obtained 
as a set off to the powers vested in the Barbers by their Ordinance of 
1376, and by way of assertion of equal rights with them in matters 
surgical. Anyhow it is very clear that there were two distinct bodies 
within the City ruling the craft of Surgery at this period, each, no 
doubt, claiming jurisdiction over its own members, and both anxious 
and ready to interfere with outsiders, and probably with each other. 
It is curious to note that in the Ordinance of 1390, above referred to, 
the Masters inspecting are authorised to make scrutiny not only of 
men, but of " women undertaking cures, or practising the art of 
Surgery"; and here, in the 19th century, we find history repeating 
itself, and women again " intermeddling in matters surgical." 

As might be expected the dual scrutiny exercised over per- 
sons practising surgery, by two distinct and antagonistic Companies, 

1 In allusion, perhaps, to the custom of men who were ready to perjure themselves, as false witnesses, 
to go about with a straw sticking out from between the foot and the shoe — " men of straw." [Riley.] 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 39 

produced considerable jealousy and unpleasantness, and there are 
various records extant indicative of cases of attempted interference 
with the Barbers' privileges, one of which is distinctly stated to 
have been the work of the Surgeons and Physicians, as doubtless 
also were the others. 

1 410. By Letter-Book I. 94, it appears that the Ordinances for 
the Barbers made in 1376 were confirmed to them with the significant 
addition that they should enjoy the same, " without the scrutiny of any 
" person or persons of any other craft or trade, under any name what- 
" soever other than the craft or trade of the said Barbers, either as to 
" shaving, making incision, blood letting or any other matters pertaining 
" to the art of Barbery or of Surgery, in the craft of the said Barbers now 
" practised, or to be practised hereafter." This Ordinance is, I think, 
clearly directed against the Masters of the Surgeons' Guild, who 
had sought to exercise their authority over the Barbers using the 
faculty of Surgery. 

1415. Complaint having been made to the Mayor and 
Aldermen, concerning the unskilful and fraudulent practice of certain 
Barbers in matters of Surgery, the privileges of the Barbers were 
again recorded, though the Company who had hitherto nominated 
their own Masters, were somewhat shorn of that privilege, as the 
Mayor, etc., directed the names of all the Barber (Surgeons) to be 
brought before them, and after due enquiry, they selected two of 
them for Masters, and gave them their charge and oath. 

1416. "Certain trustworthy and discreet" Barber (Surgeons) 
complained to the Mayor, etc., that notwithstanding the last order, 
there were still unruly members in the craft, and a fresh Ordinance 
was enacted which imposed a penalty on offenders. 

40 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The Ordinances above referred to are to be found in Letter- 
Book I. 149, and are as follows : 

Be it remembered, that on the 10th day of April, in the 3rd year, etc. (141s) it 
was intimated in a relation, and not without alarm, unto Thomas Fauconer, Mayor, and 
the Aldermen, how that some barbers of the said city, who are inexperienced in the art 
of surgery, do oftentimes take under their care many sick and maimed persons, fraudulently 
obtaining possession of very many of their goods thereby ; by reason whereof, they are 
oftentimes made to be worse off at their departure than they were at their coming : and 
that, by reason of the inexperience of the same barbers, such persons are oftentimes 
maimed ; to the scandal of such skilful and discreet men as practise the art of surgery, 
and the manifest destruction of the people of Our Lord the King. 

And the said Mayor and Aldermen, wishing to obviate an evil and a scandal 
such as this, as also, to provide a fitting remedy for the same, and considering first, how 
that the said barbers by themselves, without the scrutiny of any other persons of any other 
trade or craft, 1 or under any name whatsoever, have supervision and scrutiny over all men 
following the craft of barbery, and within the liberty of the said city dwelling, as to all 
manner of cases touching the art of barbery or the practice of surgery, within the 
cognizance, or to come within the cognizance, of the craft of the said barbers ; — as by a 
certain Ordinance, made and ordained in the time of Richard Merlawe, 3 late Mayor, and 
the then Aldermen, and in the Chamber of the said City of London enrolled, of record fully 
appears ; — did determine and ordain that in future, by the more substantial part of all the 
barbers following the practice of surgery, and dwelling within the liberty of the said city, 
there should be chosen two of the most skilful, most wise, and most discreet men, of all 
the barbers following such practice of surgery, and dwelling within the liberty of the said 
city ; seeing that oftentimes under their scrutiny and correction there would be found 
cases of possible death and maiming, where, if ignorant and indiscreet men should 
undertake the management thereof— the which might God forbid — in their judgment 
grievous errors might unexpectedly ensue, by reason of such unskilfulness. And that 
the same Masters, so often as they should be thus chosen, on election should be presented 
to the Mayor and Aldermen, for the time being, there by the said Mayor and Aldermen 
to be accepted and sworn etc. 

And lest perchance a difference of opinion might in future as to such election 
arise, therefore, the said Mayor and Aldermen, after taking counsel on the matter afore- 
said, on Friday, the 3rd day of May, in the same year (741J), caused to be brought 

' See the Ordinance of 1410. - Mayor 1409-10. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 41 

before them the name of every barber who followed the practice of surgery and dwelt 
within the liberty of the said city, in order that, after enquiring into the duties and 
experiences of their practice and skill, in manner theretofore approved and customary, 
they might be the better able to accept such Masters. And hereupon, because that, 
among other names, Simon Rolf and Richard Wellys, citizens and barbers of the said 
city practising the art of surgery, as well for their knowledge and probity, as for the 
different kinds of difficult cures that had been sagaciously performed and effected 
by them, were by trustworthy testimony, upon sound and umblemished information, 
commended before any others, precept was given by the said Mayor and Aldermen to 
Baldwin Tettisbury, one of the Serjeants of the said Mayor, to summon the said Simon 
and Richard for Monday the 6th day of May then next ensuing, to appear before the 
said Mayor and Aldermen in the Chamber of the Guildhall aforesaid, there to make the 
oath to them by the said Mayor and Aldermen to be administered. 

Upon which Monday the said Simon and Richard, by virtue of such summons, 
appeared before the Mayor and Aldermen in the Chamber aforesaid. And hereupon 
the said Simon and Richard were then accepted by the said Mayor and Aldermen, and 
sworn upon the Holy Evangelists of God, well and faithfully to watch over and oversee 
all manner of barbers practising the art of surgery, and within the liberty of the said city 
dwelling ; to maintain and observe the rules and ordinances of the craft or practice 
aforesaid ; no one to spare, for love, favour, gain, or hate ; diligently without concealment 
to present unto the Chamberlain of the said City, for the time being, such defaults as 
they may find ; at all times, when duly required thereto, well and faithfully to examine 
wounds, bruises, hurts, and other infirmities, without asking anything for their trouble ; 
and what they should find, at their discretion, when duly required thereto, distinctly to 
certify unto the Mayor and Aldermen of the said City, for the time being ; as also, well 
and faithfully to conduct themselves from thenceforth in future ; and all other things to 
do and perform, which of right are befitting or requisite for the masters or overseers of 
such practice to do. 

Afterwards, on the fourth day of July, in the 4th year, etc. (1416) before 
Nicholas Wottone, Mayor, the Recorder, and the Aldermen, in full Court, upon truthful 
information of certain trustworthy and discreet men of the craft of Barbers, practising the 
art of surgery aforesaid, as of other able and substantial men of the said city, it was stated 
how that, notwithstanding the Ordinance aforesaid, very many inexperienced men of the 
said craft of Barbers, indiscreetly practising the art of surgery*, did presume, and in their 
presumption pretend, that they were wiser than the Masters inspecting, and, as to certain 
infirmities — indiscreetly excusing themselves therein, on the insufficient grounds that they 


42 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

are not liable to the peril of maiming or of death — did altogether disdain to give notice 
of the same to the said Masters inspecting, according to the Ordinance aforesaid, or to 
be discreetly examined by them as to the same, or diligently to be questioned thereon. 
Upon which pretence, they did not hesitate daily to take sick persons, in peril of death 
and of maiming, under their care, without shewing such sick persons, or such infirmities 
and perils, unto the same Masters inspecting ; by reason of which presumption or 
unskilfulness, such sick persons were exposed to the greatest peril, either of maiming or 
of death. Wherefore, the said Mayor and Aldermen were prayed that, for the common 
advantage of the whole realm, and the especial honour of the said city, they would deign 
to provide some sure remedy for the same. 

And accordingly, the Mayor and Aldermen, assenting to the said petition, as 
being just and consistent with reason, having taken diligent counsel as to the matters 
aforesaid, and considering that very many of such persons in these times are more in 
dread of loss or payment of money than amenable to the dictates of honesty or a safe 
conscience, did ordain and enact, that no barber, practising the art of surgery within the 
liberty of the said City, should presume in future to take under his care any sick person 
who is in peril of death or of maiming, unless he should show the same person, within 
three days after so taking him under his care, to the Masters inspecting, for the time 
being, by the barbers practising the art of surgery within the liberty of the said City to 
be elected, and to the Mayor and Aldermen presented, and by them specially to be 
admitted ; under a penalty of 6s. 8d. to the Chamber of London in form underwritten to 
be paid, so often as, and when, against this Ordinance they should be found to act ; 
namely, 5 shillings to the use of the Chamber of the Guildhall, and 20 pence to the use 
of the craft of the Barbers. 

1423. In this year certain Ordinances were made by the 
Mayor (Sir William Walderne) and Court of Aldermen which are 
entered in Letter-Book K. 6" This record relates to what Mr. D'Arcy 
Power, in his " Memorials of the Craft of Surgery," has termed a 
"Conjoint College" of the Physicians and Surgeons, and has little 
to do with our Company, beyond the fact that the scrutiny 
and oversight of persons practising Surgery is given to the 
Masters of the Surgeons' Guild. The subject of these Ordinances 
and many very interesting remarks thereon and on the Conjoint 
College may be seen at p. 52, &c, of Mr. D'Arcy Power's work; 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 43 

and the record itself is set forth in full at p. 299 ; furthermore, 
extracts from it, so far as the same relate to the privileges and 
practice of the Surgeons, are to be found in the beautiful old 
vellum MS. formerly belonging to that Guild, and now in the 
possession of the Barbers' Company. 

Armed with this additional authority, the Surgeons' Guild 
again sought to interfere with and scrutinize the Barber-Surgeons 
of the Barbers' Company. These latter, however, must have had 
good friends at Court, and were not slow in asserting and obtaining 
confirmation of their rights and privileges, as will be seen by 
reference to the following record in Letter-Book K. 27"-: — - 

1424. Memorandum. That on Friday the 10th day of November in the third year 
of the reign of Henry the Sixth from the Conquest before John Michell, Mayor, Thomas 
Knolles and other Aldermen, and Simon Seman and John Bithewater, Sheriffs of the 
City of London, It was granted and ordained that the Masters of the faculty of Surgery 
within the craft of Barbers of the same city, do exercise the same faculty even as fully 
and entirely as in the times of Thomas Fauconer late Mayor, and other Mayors, it was 
granted unto them, notwithstanding the false accusation [calumpnia) which the Rector 
and Supervisors of Physic and the Masters of Surgery pretend concerning a certain 
ordinance made in the time of William Walderne late Mayor {1423) and entered in the 
letter book K, folio 6, the which, they now endeavour to enjoin upon the said Barbers. 

145 1. With the exception of a few references (which are 
noticed elsewhere) the City records are silent concerning the 
Barbers' Company until this year, when the Master and Wardens, 
styled here " Gardiani," with certain honest men of the Mystery of 
Barbers, brought a Bill before the Mayor and Aldermen, praying 
them to establish certain Ordinances, and to enter them of record, 
which was granted and done. 

These Ordinances provided for the enforcement of stated 
penalties in cases of disobedience and related to attendance upon 

G 2 

44 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

summons, settlements of disputes, refusal of office, admission of 
members, evil speaking, assemblies and payments, instruction of 
"foreyns," employment of aliens. They are to be found in 
Letter-Book K. 250, and are the first written in English, all 
previous ones being either in Latin or Norman French in the 

Memorandum q H - xxv'°- die ffebruarii Anno regni Regis Henrici Sexti post 
conquest 1 vicesimo nono veniunt hie in Cur' Dili Regis in Caifta Guyhald Civitatis london 
coram Nictio Wyfold Maiore & Aldermannis ejusdem Civitatf magis't & Gardian 
necnon ceti probi homines mister barbitonsol£ Civitatf p'dce & porrexerunt doi 
Maiore & Aldermannis quandam billam sive supplicacione vboJL sequent? seviem 
continentem Unto the ryght Worshipfull and Worshipfull lord and souv'aignes Mair 
and Aldremen of the Citce of London, 

Besechen most mekely all p^sones enfunchised in the craft and mistier of 
Barbours wythin the said Citee That it please unto your lordshipf? and Right wise 
discrecions for to consider howe that for as moche as certein ordinnces been establisshed 
made and entred of Record in the chumber of the yeldhall of the said Citee all p^sonnes 
of the said Craft have fully in opinion for to obeye observe and kepe theim and noon other 
in eny Wise, So been y r - many and div°se defaultes often tymes amonges your said 
besechers not duely corrected for default of such other ordinnces to be made and 
auctorised sufficiently of record in the said chumber, like it therefore unto your said 
lordshippe and grete Wisdoms of your blessed disposicons for the p°petuell Wele and 
good Rule of the said Craft for to establissh and make these ordinaunces here folowyng 
p^petuelly to endure and for to be observed and putte in due execucion in the same craft 
And to be auctorised of record in the said chumber for ev° And your said besechers 
shall pray god for you. 

FFirst that ev'y barbour enf°Lincheised householder and other occupier of the 
same craft holdyng eny shopp of barberye wythin the Citee of london shall be redy att all 
man! soifions of the Maisters and Wardeins of the same craft for the tyme being that is 
to sey for the Kyng the Mair or for eny Worshipp of the said Citee And yef eny man 
occupying the said craft in marie and fourme aforesaid absent him from eny such soiiions 
wythoute cause reasonable and thereof duely convict than he to pay at the chumber of 
the yeldhall xiij s - iiij d - that is to say vj s - viij d - to the same chumber and other vj s viij d - to the 
almes of the said craft. Also that evy man enf°uncheised under the fourme abovesaid 

oAnihils of the Barber-Surgeons. 4^ 

that disobeyeth and kepeth not his houre of his somons at eny tyme w'oute cause 
reasonable and y\>f " duely convict shall paye to the almesse of the said craft at 
ev'y tyme y 1, he maketh such defaute ij dl And yef eny of theim what so ev° he be of the 
same craft that disobeye this ordinnce he shall paye to the chumber of the yeldhall 
iij s - iiij d - at ev'y tyme that he maketh such default. 

Also that yef eny mat°e of debate or difference be betwene eny p°soones of the 
said craft Which god defend, that none of theim shall make eny pursuyt at the coifion 
lawe unto the tyme y'- he that findeth him aggreved in that p n tie hath made his compleint 
unto the maister and Wardeins of the same craft for the tyme being and they to ffynyssh 
the mate and the cause of the said compleint Wythin vj dayes after such compleint 
made and yef they conclude not and ffynyssh the same mafe Wythin the said vj dayes 
that yanne it be lefull to either p^tie to take the benefice of the coifion lawe Wythin this 
Citee So alwayes that the p''tye ageinst whom the compleint is made be not fugityf 
And what p^sone of the said craft that doth contrarie this ordinnce shall paye at ev 9 y 
tyme at the chaumber of the yeldhall xiij s iiij' 1 that is to sey yj s viij d ' to y e said chumber 
and oy r ' yj s - viij d - to y e almesse of y e said craft. 

Also that noon able p n sone of the said craft enAuicheised shall refuse eny man 9 
office or clothing p^tinent to the said craft Whan and What tyme that he be by his 
bretheren be abled and elect y r to upon pein to paye at the chumber of the yeldhall xl s - 
that is to wete xx s to the same chumber and other xx 5 - to the said almesse Also what man 
of the said craft that absenteth him fro the said eleccion Wythoute cause reasonable or 
absent him fro the dyner to be made the same day and will not paye therto his p n t thanne 
he shall paye at the said chumber iij s - iiij d - that is to sey xx d - to the same chumber and other 
xx 1 '- to the almes of the said craft. 

Also that the maisters and Wardeins of the same craft that nowe be or in tyme 
to come shall be, shall not take admitte or resceive eny p°sone in to the bretherhede or 
clothing of the same craft Wythoute the coifion assent of the bretheren of the said craft 
or the more p n t of theim upon pein of evfch such maister or Wardein that doth contrie 
this ordinnce xx s - that is to say x s to the chumber and x s to the almesse of the said craft. 

FFurthermore it is ordeigned that from hens forward yef eny man occupying 
the said craft be imfouled and of evell Will and malice so be unavised to revile or reprof 
eny man of the same craft that is to seye for to lye him or wyth other dishonest Wordes 
misgov'ne him in presence of the said maisters and Wardeins or in eny oy r - places and 
p^of 2 by the report of the said maisters and Wardeins be duely convict what so ev° he be 

1 thereof. - Query " y of " = thereof. 

46 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of the same craft that is so misgovfted at eny tyme shall paye at the said chumber for ev°y 
such default vj s - viij '■ that is to say to the same chumber iij s - iiij* and to the Almes of the 
said craft iij s - iiij' 1 - 

Also it is ordeigned that ev'y man enfuncheised of the said craft under fourme 
aforesaid shall assemble with his ffelaship of the same craft by thassignement of the 
said maisters and Wardeins being for the yeer in a certein place limited by theim at iiij 
tymes of the yeer And at ev'y such quarter day in the yeer ev'y brother enf°uncheised 
and being of the clothing therof shall paye to the almes abovesaid iij d - And ev'y man 
that is so enf'uncheised of the same craft and is not of the clothing of the same shall paye 
to the same almes j d - Which iiij dayes be these that is to saye the tewesday next after 
all hallown day the tewesday next after candelmasday the tewesday next after Trinite sonday 
and the tewesday next after lammas day to thentent that the said maisters and Wardeins 
shall enquere amongf the said compaignye so assembled that yef eny default ranker or 
discord be hadd or moved amongf theim that thanne the said maisters and Wardeins 
shall sett theim at rest accord and in unite to that they canne or may, after the fourme and 
custume as have been before used And what parsonne of the said craft be absent eny of 
the said dayes wythoute cause reasonable he shall paye for ev'y such day iiij' 1 to the 
expenses of the said maisters. 

Also it is ordeigned and establisshed that no barbour nor other able p°sonne 
using barbourye shall enfourme eny foreyn nor him teche in no wise in eny man point 
that belongeth to the craft of barbourye or surg°ye wherby the same foreyn shall p n ceyve 
and take by his own capacite and ex n cise unto the tyme that the same foreyn be bounden 
app°ntice to a p°sone barbour or other p sonne able enfuncheised using the same craft 
Wythin the Citee of london upon peyne to paye at the chumber of the yeldhall for ev'y 
such defaute iiij marc, that is to say to the same chumber xxvj s viij d and to the Almes of 
the said craft other xxvj s - viij 4 

And also that no barbour nor other able p°soone occupying the same craft shall 
take eny Alien nor stunger in to his sVice unto the tyme that the same alien or stunger be 
examined by the maist? and Wardeins of the same craft of his abilite and Connyng And 
thereupon the maist and Wardeins With other vj or viij of the moost able and Kunnyng 
p°sonnes of the craft shuld taxe him after his abilite after that hem semeth that he be 
worthy to take yeerly for his salarie And also that no Barbour shall take eny alien 
or sfunger that hath been or w'in s°vice wyth an other barbour enfuncheised before that he 
knowe well that the same s°vnt hath complete his covenntes wyth his former maister upon 
pein to paye for ev'y such defaute at ev°y tyme that he be founde defectif ayenst eny of 
these ordinances at the said chumber xiij s - iiij' 1 - that is to wete to the same chumber vj s viij 4 

o/lnnate of the Barber-Surgeons. 47 

and to the said almesse vj s viij 1 *- and also make restitucion of the damage unto the p°tie 
that findeth him greved. 

And also that no man occupying the said craft shall p°cure eny other mannes 
s'Vnt oute of s n vise upon the peyn aforesaid and damage unto the p^tie pleintif And also 
it is ordeigned that from hensforward that no harbour enfuncheised nor eny other able 
p°soons occupying the said craft shall not take into his s°vice eny sffinger or forein for 
lasse time thanne a yeer And what p^sone enfuncheised or occupying the said craft 
disobeys this ordinnce shall renne in the pein of xiij s iiij' 1 that to be devided in man and 
fourme above said. 

And also that no p°sons of the said craft of harbours nor other able p°sone 
occupying the same craft huyre no ff °unchised man of the same craft oute of his shopp ne 
dwellyng place upon pein of xl s - that is to wete to the said chumber xx s - And to the 
Almesse of the said Craft other xx s - 

Qua quidem billa coram cfcis maiore & Aldermannis lee? & per eosdem 
plenius intellect^ Qua videtur eisdem q°d omnes articuli in d°ca billa 
contentf sunt boni & honesti ac racioni consorft, &c, &c. (The articles 
were ratified confirmed and ordered to be entered of Record in the books 
of the Chamber of London.) 

Nothing is now heard of the Surgeons' Guild for some 
years, although they were still in existence. It is quite probable, 
that finding the Barbers had invariably obtained the protection and 
countenance of the City authorities, whenever their privileges had 
been assailed or called in question, they had given over their attempts 
at interference with them as hopeless, and allowed our worthy 
predecessors to continue to "exercise the faculty of surgery," in 
peace; and being unmolested they doubtless grew in numbers, in 
importance, and in the knowledge of their art, until it was 
admitted that their position as one of the Guilds, warranted them 
in applying for a Charter of Incorporation, which was granted to 
them by Edward IV in 1462. 

141 3. Before proceeding to refer to this important epoch 
in the history of our Company, it will be well to introduce a very 

48 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

remarkable letter, which was written by Thomas Arundell, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (formerly of York), to the Mayor, etc., of 
London, in which he complained that the Barbers, being, alas ! 
"without zeal for the law of God," kept their shops open on the 
Sabbath days, and he besought the Mayor and Aldermen (his "sons 
in Christ, and dearest friends ") to put a stop to this practice. No 
trade, perhaps, has from the earliest days, down to our own times, 
owned such persistent breakers of the Fourth Commandment as 
have the Barbers. Our records abound with by-laws, enacted and 
renewed over and over again on this subject, and details of the 
delinquencies of numerous Barbers in this respect, and of their 
punishments by fine and imprisonment crop up everywhere. 

The Archbishop's letter reveals to us the fact, that nearly 
500 years ago, men were constituted much as they are now ; in 
that "that which touches the body or the purse, is held more in 
dread than that which kills the soul," and he shrewdly suggests that 
the clerical punishment of "the greater excommunication," should be 
augmented by a fine to be levied by the Civil authority. This letter 
is so deeply interesting that no apology is needed for reproducing it 
here. The original is to be found in Letter-Book I. 125. 

1413. On the 24th day of July, in the first year, etc. (Henry V) the Reverend 
Father in Christ, and Lord, Thomas, by Divine permission, Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Primate of all England, and Legate of the Apostolic See, sent here, to the 
Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, certain Letters Close of his, containing 
words as follow : — ■ 

" Sons in Christ and dearest friends. — We know that you do seek for the things 
" which are of above, and that you will the more readily incline to our desires, the more 
" surely that the things as to which we write are known to tend to the observance of the 
" Divine law, the maintenance of public propriety, and the rule of the Christian profession. 
" We do therefore write unto you on this occasion, to intimate that when we were 
" presiding of late in our Provincial Council, holden at London, with our venerable 

c/Jnnais of the Barber-Surgeons. 49 

" brethren, the Suffragan Bishops, and our clergy of the Province of Canterbury, it was 
" publicly made known unto us with universal reprobation, that the Barbers of the City 
" of London, over the governance of which city you preside, being without zeal for the 
" law of God, and not perceiving how that the Lord hath blessed the seventh day and 
" made it holy, and hath commanded that it shall be observed by no abusive pursuit of 
" any servile occupations, but rather by a disuse thereof, in their blindness do keep their 
" houses and shops patent and open on the seventh day, the Lord's Day, namely, and do 
" follow their craft on the same, just as busily, and just in the same way, as on any day in 
" the week, customary for such work. Wherefore we, with the consent and assent of our 
" said Suffragans and clergy, in restraint of such temerity as this, have determined that 
" there must be made solemn prohibition thereof in the City aforesaid, and that, of our 
" own authority, and that of our said Provincial Council ; and not there only, but also 
" throughout the Diocese of London, and each of the cities both of our own Diocese and 
" of our Province of Canterbury ; to the effect, that such barbers must not keep their 
" houses and shops patent or open, or follow their craft, on such Lord's Days for the 
" future, on pain of the greater excommunication ; in the same manner as it has been 
" enacted and observed of late in our time, as to the City and Diocese of York, as we do 
" well recollect. But, dearest children, seeing that so greatly has the malice of men 
" increased in these days, a thing to be deplored — that temporal punishment is held more 
" in dread than clerical, and that which touches the body or the purse more than that 
" which kills the soul, we do heartily intreat you, and, for the love of God and of His law, 
" do require and exhort you, that, taking counsel thereon, you will enact and ordain a 
" competent penalty in money, to be levied for the Chamber of your City, or such other 
" purpose as you shall think best, upon the Barbers within the liberty of your City 
" aforesaid, who shall be transgressors in this respect ; that so at least, those whom fear of 
" the anger of God does not avail to withold from breach of His law, may be restrained 
" by a scourge inflicted upon their purse, in the way of pecuniary loss ; knowing that we 
" in the meantime, after taking counsel hereon, will devise measures for the prevention of 
" this, and for the due publication of our Provincial enactment aforesaid. Fare you well 
" always in Christ. 

" Written at Ikham' on the 13th day of the month of July. 

" Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury." 

An Ordinance was forthwith made thereupon, to the effect, that 
no barber, his wife, son, daughter, apprentice, or servant, should work 

' Near Wingham, Kent. 



oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

at such craft on Sundays within the liberty of the city, either in hair 
cutting or shaving, on pain of paying 6-s\ 2>d. for each offence ; $s. 
thereof to go to the new work at the Guildhall, and the remainder to 
the Wardens or Masters of the Barbers within the city. 1 

1422. In August of this year Henry V died, and thirty-two of 
the City Companies assisted at his obsequies, going in procession and 
carrying torches. From an entry in Letter-Book K. i B -, it appears 
that the Barbers bore four torches on this occasion. 

1447. This year the Company seem to have contributed 40s. 
towards the cost of the Roof of the Chapel at Guildhall, as appears by 
the following entry in Journal IV, 198 (25th October, 26 Henry VI) — 

Itifl gardiani mister barbitonso^ & importaverunt in Cur xl s - sterlingoif 
p°se & mister sua ad coopturam Guyhatd Sc. Capelle. 

' Riley p. 594. 



ITHERTO we have considered two distinct and some- 
what hostile fraternities, the Surgeons on the one 
hand, and on the other the Barbers (consisting of 
Barbers and Barber-Surgeons), both of them City 
Guilds, existing by prescription, having independent 
rules and Ordinances for their government and the 
scrutiny and correction of abuses in their respective Crafts, the former 
Company few in number, the latter far more numerous and popular ; 
the Surgeons without, and the Barbers with, a Livery. 

Of these two fraternities, the Barbers by the regular and every 
day nature of their calling, as shavers and hair cutters, together with 
the practice of Surgery combined by so many of them, were the most 
likely to become the more popular Company ; their fees would surely be 
on a lower scale than those of the more aristocratic Surgeons, and their 
numbers and constant intercourse with the citizens, in their capacity as 
Barbers, enabled them easily to extend their connection as Surgeons. 

In all their contentions with the Surgeons' Guild, as far as we 
know, they held their own well, and thus it was that their place in 
the City, as a Livery Guild of at that time an ancient standing, their 

H 2 

52 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

position as the professors of useful and scientific arts, their numbers and 
presumable affluence, all rendered it desirable that they should be 
placed upon the same footing as the better class of Guilds, by their 
acquisition of a Charter of Incorporation, which they accordingly 
obtained from the young King Edward IV in the first year of his 
reign (1462). 

Thomas Knot (Master, 1555) has recorded in one of our 
books, a Translation of this Charter, which Mr. J. Flint South (who 
does not appear to have seen the original Latin one) has transcribed, 
and this has been adopted by Mr. D'Arcy Power (page 326). Thomas 
Knot wrote a good hand, and was a zealous champion of the Barber- 
Surgeons in his time, but he made egregious blunders in some of the 
writings recorded over his signature, and although there is not great 
fault to be found with him in this instance, it is suggested that the 
Translation given below, is perhaps a more literal one than that which 
Knot has handed down. 

The Charter is still preserved at our Hall, and is contained on 
a small skin of parchment ; the initial letters of the title, which were at 
the time left to be illuminated have never been filled in, and the 
document is therefore not the work of art which one is accustomed to 
see in Charters of this period ; it bears signs of having been frequently 
used, the ink in some places being worn, and the words only legible 
with the aid of a magnifying glass. The great seal pendant is not 
quite perfect, but is a beautiful specimen and highly artistic. The 
followincr is the text of the Charter : — 


(E)dwardus dei gra (R)ex (A)nglie & (F)rancie & (D)ominus (H)ibnie. 
(O)mnibus ad quos p°sentes Ire p°uenint saltffi (S)ciatis qd nos considerantes qualit? Ditci 
nob p°bi & liBi hoies mistere Barbitonso^ Ciuitatis nre london vtentes mistera siue 
facilitate Sirurgicoif. tarn circa vuliia plagas lesiones & alias infirmitates ligeo^ nro:i 
ibidem curand & Sauand q"m in extraccoe sanguinis & denciu h°m 9 ligeo^ nro^ 
g'ndes & multiplices intendencias & labores p" 5 longa tempera sustir.uerunt & supportauerunt 

cA minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 53 

indiesq3 siitinere & supportare non desistunt qualit etiam p° ignoranciam negligenciam 
& insipienciam nonnullos h°m 9 barbitonsos tam libos hoim Ciuitatis nre p°dre q a m 
alios Sirurgicos forincecos & non liBoif hoim eiusdem Ciuitatis indies ad eandem 
Ciuitatem confluenciii & in mistera Sirurgicos minus sufficient" 5 erudito:'. q a m plurima ac 
quasi infinita mala diu'sis ligeis nris in \uln1b3 plagis lesionib^ & aliis infirmitatib^ suis 
p° huius modi Barbitonsores & Sirurgicos sauandis & curandis ob eos defe'm ante hec 
tempora euenerunt quos quidem ligeos nros alii ea de causa viam vniu'se carnis sunt 
ingressi alii autem eadem causa tanq a m insanabiles & incurabiles sunt ab om!b5 derelecti 
similia q3 mala vel peiora infutur 3 in hac parte euenire formidat nisi remedin congruil 
sup hoc p nos cicius p°uidetu° Nos enim attendentes & intime adutentes q°d huiusmodi 
mala ligeis nris ob defVtu debit sup°uis scrutinii correccois & punicois huiusmodi 
barbitonsos & Sirurgicos minus sufficient in eisdem misteris siue facultatib3 vt p°dcin 
est erudit° & instruct euenire contingunt. Ad humilem supplicacoem dilcos nob 
p'Mcos p°bo:i &: libos hoim p°dce mistere Barbitonsos in Ciuitate nra p°dca 
concessim 9 eis q°d mistera ilia & omes hoies eiusdem mistere de Ciuitate p°dca sint in re 
& noie vnii corpus & vna Coitas p°petua. Et q°d duo principales eiusdem Coitatis vna 
cii assensu duodecim vel octo p°sonas ad minus Coitatis illius in mistera Sirurgie maxime 
expert singulis annis elig°e possint & fac°e de Coitate ilia duos magros siue Gubnatores in 
mistera Sirurgie maxime expt°. Ad sup°uidend° regend & gubiiand mister & Coitatem 
p°dict° & omes hoies eiusdem mistere negociti eosdem imppfn. Et q°d q°dem magri 
siue gubnatores & Coitas heant successionem p°petuam & coe sigillum negociis dee 
Coitatis imp'pin s°uitur°. Et q°d ipi & successores sui imp'pm sint p°sone habiles & capaces 
ad p°quirend° & possidend in feodo & p°petuitate tras ten redditus & alias possessiones 
quascunq3 usq3 ad valorem quinq3 marcas p° annu ult a reprisas et q°d ipi noiii 
magros siue Gubnatos & Coitatis mistere barbitonsos london p°litare & implitari 
possint coram quibuscuq3 indicib3 in Curiis & acciob3 quibuscuq3 Et o°d p°dci magri 
siue Gubnatores & Coitas & eos successores congregacoes licitas & honestas de seip°is ac 
statuta & ordinacoes p° salubri gubnacoe sup°uisu & correccoe misteria p°dict° s°cdiri 
necessitatis exigenciam quociens & quando opus fuit face valeant licite & impune siue 
occone vel impedimento nri heredimi vel successor nros Justic' Escacios Vicecomitum 
Coronatos aut alios Balliuos vel ministros nros heredemi vel successor nros 
quoscuqs dumodo statuta & ordinacoes ilia cont° leges & consuetudines regni nri 
AngP nullo modo existant. Preteria volum 9 & concedhn 9 p° nos heredb5 & successor^ 
nris quantii in nob est q°d magri siue Gubnatores p°dce Coitatis p° tempore existeiv 1 & 
eos successores imppm tieant sup°uisum scrutini'ii correcco°em & gubnaco''em oini & 
singulos libos boirri dee Ciuitatf Sirurgicos vtencm mistera Barbitonsos in eadem 
Ciuitate ac alios Sirurgicos forincecos quos CUCJ3 mistera ilia Sirurgicf aliquo modo 

5^ oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

frequentancm & vtencfn infra eandem Ciuitatem & suburbia eiusdem ac punicoem 
eoiidem tam litSon q a m forincecon p° delictis suis in non p°fecte exequend 9 faciend 9 & 
vtend 9 mistera ilia necnon sup r, uisum & scrutinm omimodou instrumenton emplaston 
& alia:i medicinal & eon receptf p°dcos Barbitonsores & Sirurgic^ huiusmodi ligeis 
nris p Q eon plagis & vulnibj lesionib5 & huiusmodi infirmitatibj curand 9 & sauand 9 
dand 9 imponend 9 & vtend 9 quociens & quando opus fuit p° comodo & vtilitate eondem 
ligeon nfoTf ita q''d punicio huiusmodi Barbitonson vtencin dca mistera Sirurgicf ac 
huiusmodi Sirurgicf forincecon sit in p r, missis delinquenciYi p'' fines amciamenta & 
imprisonamenta corpon suon & p' alias vias ronabiles & congruas exequatur 9 . Et q°d 
nullus Barbitonson vtens dca mistera Sirurgicf infra dcam Ciuitatem aut suburb eiusdem 
aut alius Sirurgicus forincecus quicuijj & exequend 9 faciend 9 & execend 9 eandem 
misteram Sirurgic 9 aliquo modo infutur 9 in eadem Ciuitate vel Suburb eiusdem admittat 3 
nisi primiciis p° dcos magros siue gubnatores vel eon successores ad hoc habiles & 
sufficientes in mistera ilia eruditus approbetf & p° plenar comprobaeone sua in hac parte 
maiori Ciuitatis p''dict 9 p' tempore existen 9 p'' eosdem magros siue Gubnatores ad hoc 
p^sentet 1 Volumus eciam & concedim 9 p' nob heredibj & successorib, nris quant'u in 
nob est q'd dci magri siue gubnatores ac Coitas pdc mistere Barbitonson nee successores 
sui nee eon aliquis quoquo modo infutur 9 infra Ciuitatem nfam p°dcan & Suburb 
eiusdem sumoniunt" aut ponant 3 neq5 eon aliquis sumoniat" aut ponat 3 in aliquib3 assisis 
iuratis enquestis inquisicoib5 attinctis aut aliis recognicoibj infra dcam Ciuitatem & 
Suburb eiusdem impostimi coram maiore aut vicecountf seu Coronatf dee Ciuitatis nre 
p'' tempore existen 9 capiend 9 aut p r ' aliquem officiariii siue ministm s'uu vel officiarios siue 
ministros suos sumoniand licet iidem Jurati inquisicoes seu recognieoes sum fuiiit sup'' 
bri vel briT35 nri vel heredimi nron de recto Sed q°d dci maiiri siue Gubnatores ac coitas 
mistere antedce & successores sui ac eon quiftt v'sus nos heredes & successores nros ac 
v'sus maiorem & vicecomites Ciuitatis nre p°dce p° tempore existen 9 & quosciiq^ Officiar 9 
& ministros suos sint hide quieti &: penitus exonati imppm p° p°sentes. Et vlterius 
nos consideraeoe p°misson de gra nra s°pati concessim 9 p° nob & successor^ nris p'Yatis 
magris siue Gubnatorib5 ac Coit'ati dee Mistera Barbitonson & successorib} suis hanc 
libtatem videlt q"'d ipi p"'petuis futuris temporibj p r 'sonas habiles & sufficient 9 eruditos & 
informatos in dct'i mistera Sirurgic 9 & p° macros siue Gubnatores mistera illius p'' tempore 
existen 9 in forma p r 'dcti approbat 1 & maiore Ciuitatis p°dee p r ' tempore existen 9 vt p 9 dcam 
est p^sentat in eandem misteram Barbitonson ad libtafes dee Ciuitatis hend 9 & gaudend 9 
scdm consuetudinem dee Ciuitatis admitte & recip r 'e valeant & non alias p°sonas quasciiq, 
neq3 alio Modo aliquo mandato aut requisiede nri heredimi seu successor nron p r; briis 
inscriptf vel alitf qualitf cumq3 incontrm factf seu faciendf non obstante Et licet iidem 
magri siue Gubnatores ac Coiatas & eon successores hac libtate continue in futurf vsi fiiint 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


cont a aliquod mandatum siue requisicoem nri heredii seu successor nroii aut aliquot 
alio 1 .; quo^cutj} in forma p°di ; a fiendf ipi tamen finem contemptu dep n ditum erga nos 
heredes seu successores nros aut dampnu vel malum aliquod in bonis seu corporib} suis 
erga quoscumq^ alios ea occone nullo modo incurrant nee eoit aliquis incurrat. Et hoc 
absq5 fine seu feodo p° p°missis seu sigillacoe p'sentum nob faciendf soluendf vel 
aliqualitf reddendf aliquo statute ordinacoe vel actu incontrm ante hec tempora editf 
factf ordinate seu p''uis non obstantf. In cuius rei testimonm has Iras nfas fieri fecim 9 
patente-. Teste me ipo apud Westm vicesimo quarto die ffebruarii Anno regni nri primo. 


p°bre de priuato sigillo & de dat( J 
p'dct auctoritate parliamenti & p'' 
decern libris soluitf in hanap n io 


Irto in Cur 9 Domini Regis in Cama 
Guihalde Ciuitatf London in libro 
signatf 3 cum litta. 1. fof tercio decimo. 
Anno regni Regis Edward) quarti 
post conquestum Tercio. 


Edward by the grace of God, King of England and France, and Lord of 
Ireland, To all to whom these present letters shall come, health. Know ye, that we 
considering how our beloved, honest, and free men of the Mystery of Barbers of our City 

-V) cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of London, exercising the Mystery or Art of Surgery, as well respecting wounds, bruises, 
hurts, and other infirmities of our liegemen, and healing and curing the same, as in 
letting blood, and drawing the teeth of our liege men, have for a long time undergone 
and supported, and daily do undergo and support, great and manifold applications and 
labours ; and also, how through the ignorance negligence and stupidity of some of the 
men of the said Barbers, as well of the freemen of our said City, as of other Surgeons 
foreigners and not freemen of the said City, and who daily resort to the said City, and in 
the mystery of Surgery are not sufficiently skilled, whereby very many and almost infinite 
evils have before this time happened to many of our liegemen, in their wounds, hurts, 
bruises, and other infirmities, by such Barbers and Surgeons, on account of their defect 
in healing and curing ; from which cause, some of our said liegemen have gone the way 
of all flesh, and others, through the same cause, have been by all given over as incurable 
and past relief, and it is to be dreaded, that similar or greater evils may in future arise on 
this head, unless proper remedy is by us, speedily provided for the same. We therefore, 
heartily weighing and considering that such evils do happen to our liegemen for want of 
the examinations, corrections, and punishments by a due supervision of such Barbers 
and Surgeons as are insufficiently skilled and instructed in the said mysteries or arts as 
aforesaid ; have at the humble request of our aforesaid beloved, honest, and freemen of 
the said Mystery of Barbers in our said city, granted to them that the said Mystery, and 
all men of the said Mystery aforesaid, may be in deed and name one body and one 
perpetual Community, and that two Principals of the said Community may, with the 
consent of twelve persons, or at least eight of the said Community who are best skilled in 
the mystery of Surgery, every year elect and make out of the Community, two Masters 
or Governors of the utmost skill, to superintend rule and govern the Mystery and 
Community aforesaid and all men of the said Mystery, and of the businesses of the 
same for ever. And that the said Masters or Governors and Community may have a 
perpetual succession and common seal to serve for the affairs of the said Community for 
ever, and that they and their successors for ever may be able and capable to acquire and 
possess in fee and perpetuity lands, tenements, rents, and other possessions whatsoever, 
to the value of five marks per annum, besides reprises. And that they, by the name of 
the Masters or Governors and Community of Barbers of London, may be able to plead 
and to be impleaded before whatsoever Justices in Courts, and actions whatsoever. And 
that the said Masters or Governors and Community, and their successors, may lawfully 
and honestly assemble themselves, and make statutes and ordinances for the wholesome 
government, superintendence, and correction of the said Mystery, according to the 
exigency of the necessity, as often and whenever it may be requisite, lawfully and 
unpunishably, without leave or hindrance of us, our heirs or successors, Justices, 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 57 

Escheators, Sheriffs, Coroners, or any other Bailiffs, or servants of us, our heirs or 
successors; provided that such statutes or ordinances are not in any ways contrary 
to the laws and customs of our Kingdom of England. We further will and grant, 
for us, our heirs and successors, as far as in us lies, that the Masters or Governors of the 
aforesaid Community for the time being, and their successors for ever, shall have the 
superintendence, scrutiny, correction, and government of all and singular the freemen of 
the said City who are Surgeons, exercising the Mystery of Barbers within the said City, 
and of all other foreign Surgeons whomsoever, in anywise practising and using the said 
Mystery of Surgeons in the said City and the suburbs thereof, and the punishment of 
them, as well freemen as foreigners, for their offences in not perfectly following, practising 
and using that mystery, and also the superintendence and scrutiny of all kinds of 
instruments, plaisters, and other medicines, and their recipes, by such Barbers and 
Surgeons given, applied, and used for our liege men, for curing and healing their wounds, 
bruises, hurts and such kind of infirmities, when and as often as shall be requisite for the 
convenience and utility of our liege men ; so that punishment of such Barbers exercising 
the said mystery of Surgeons, so offending in the premisses, be executed by fines, 
amerciaments, and imprisonments of their bodies, and by other reasonable and suitable 
means ; and that no Barber exercising the said mystery of Surgeons in the said City and 
suburbs thereof, or any other foreign Surgeon whatsoever, shall in future be admitted to 
follow, practise and exercise the said mystery of Surgeons, in anywise, within the said 
City or the suburbs thereof, unless he be first approved by the said Masters or Governors, 
or their successors, for this purpose able and sufficient as skilled in the said Mystery, 
and for his plenary approbation in this behalf, by the said Masters or Governors to 
the Mayor of the said City for the time being, presented. We also will and grant, 
for us our heirs and successors, as far as in us lies, that neither the said Masters or 
Governors and community of the said Mystery of Barbers, nor their successors, nor any 
of them shall hereafter, in anywise be summoned or appointed on any assizes, juries, 
inquests, inquisitions, attainders, or other recognizances, within the said City or suburbs 
thereof for the time to come, before the Mayor or Sheriffs or Coroners of our said 
City for the time being, by any summoning officer or his servant, or summoning officers 
or their servants, although the said juries, inquisitions, or recognizances should be 
summoned by a writ or writs of right, of us or our heirs, but that the said Masters or 
Governors and Community of the aforesaid Mystery and their successors shall, 
from henceforth for ever, be peaceably and entirely exonerated towards us, our 
heirs and successors, and towards the Mayor and Sheriffs of our said City for the 
time being, and every of their officeis and servants, by these presents. And further, 
we, in consideration of the premisses, do of our special grace, for us and our successors, 


58 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

grant to the said Masters or Governors and Community of the said Mystery of Barbers, 
and their successors, this liberty, to wit, that they in all future times may admit 
and receive persons apt and sufficiently skilled and informed in the said Mystery of 
Surgery, and by the Masters or Governors for the time being of the said Mystery, in 
manner aforesaid approved, and presented to the Mayor of the said City for the time 
being as aforesaid, into the said Mystery of Barbers to the fredom of the said City, 
to be held and enjoyed according to the custom of the said City ; and no other persons 
whomsoever, nor in any other manner, any mandate or requisition of us, our heirs 
or successors, by written letters or otherwise howsoever made or to be made to 
the contrary notwithstanding. And although the said Masters or Governors and 
Community and their successors should contumaciously use this liberty in future 
against any mandate or requisition of us, our heirs, or successors, or any others 
whomsoever to be made in form aforesaid, neither they nor any of them shall in anywise 
incur any fine, contempt, or loss towards us, our heirs or successors, or any damage or 
punishment in their goods or bodies, or towards any other persons whatsoever, on that 
account ; And this without fine or fee for the sealing of these presents, to be done 
paid or otherwise rendered unto us ; any statute, ordinance, or any act to the contrary, 
before this time published made ordained or provided notwithstanding In witness 
whereof, we have caused these our letters to be made patent. Witness myself at 
Westminster the twenty-fourth day of February in the first year of our reign. 

By writ of privy seal, and of the date aforesaid, by authority of Parliament, 
and for ten pounds paid into the hanaper. 

Inrolled in the Court of the Lord the King, in the chamber 
of the Guildhall of the City of London in the book marked 
with the letter 1. folio thirteen in the third year of the reign 
of King Edward the Fourth from the Conquest. 

The chief point which strikes us on reading the foregoing 
Charter is, that it contains a great deal relative to Surgery, and little, 
indeed nothing, concerning Barbery, and yet it is granted ostensibly 
to the Barbers ! 

Now the Surgical side being the more important one of the 
craft, and the raison d'etre of the Charter being in a great measure to 
provide for the regulation of Surgery and the correction of abuses in 

zA nn als of the Barber-Surgeons. ^cj 

that profession, this silence as to Barbery and recognition of Surgery 
would seem to be an evidence that the practice of the latter, more or 
less, was the rule rather than the exception with members of the 
Company of Barbers ; and, as the Masters or Governors were 
empowered to make "statutes and ordinances" (by-laws) for the 
governance of the mystery, it was doubtless considered unnecessary 
to descend into any details concerning shaving and the like in a 
Royal Charter. 

The preamble of this Charter is exceedingly quaint and 
interesting, reciting how through the " ignorance, negligence and 
stupidity " of various Barbers and other practitioners in Surgery, 
many of the King's lieges had "gone the way of all flesh." Then at 
the request of "our beloved, honest and free men of the said Mystery 
of Barbers," the King grants to them, to be one body perpetual, etc., 
that two of the chief men of the Company (no doubt the two then 
existing Masters "exercising the faculty of Surgery") may with twelve 
or at least eight other skilled Barber-Surgeons, elect two Masters 
annually : this provision in itself is singular, as it would seem to imply 
that the body then incorporated was to be ruled by two Masters only ; 
but a reference to our list of Masters and Wardens will shew that from 
the year 1448 the Company has been ruled by four Masters, and so on 
in unbroken succession to the present time 1 ; these other two Masters 
therefore were Masters of the Barbers proper, about whom nothing 
was said in the Charter, but who were chosen annually in accordance 
with ancient custom, the Chief or First Master being alternately a 
Barber, and a Barber-Surgeon. 

The Corporation was to have perpetual succession, and a 
Common seal, to hold lands of a certain value, to be able to plead and 

1 The term "Wardens" is a more modern designation used for convenience sake ; the Master 
and the three Wardens are, strictly speaking, the four " Masters or Governors." 

I 2 

60 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

to be impleaded, to make by-laws, to have the scrutiny and correction 
of (apparently all) Surgeons in the City and suburbs, as also the 
oversight of all their instruments and medicines, etc., and to have the 
power of inflicting punishment, by fine or imprisonment, on offenders. 
None were to practise Surgery until examined and approved by the 
Masters and presented to the Mayor, and authority was given for the 
freemen of the Company to be admitted into the freedom of the City. 

Another clause in the Charter was one which, whilst it con- 
ferred a valuable privilege upon the Company, was a source of 
continual strife and conflict with the Civic authorities, for by it all our 
freemen claimed to be exempted from serving on Juries and inqui- 
sitions, and this immunity, though constantly disputed, was as often 
asserted and maintained, with various qualifications. 

In The Times, November 26, 1839, is an account of the exemp- 
tion of certain freemen of the Company from serving on Juries at the 
Central Criminal Court. In this instance neither the claimants nor the 
Recorder knew much about the matter — for one of the applicants said, 
in reply to the Recorder, " I rest my claim on the Charter of 
Henry VIII " // And, further on in the discussion, the same bold 
Barber had the effrontery to declare that "the privilege was confirmed 
by an Act passed in the reign of George II." This was the Act 
which separated the Surgeons from the Barbers, and which did not 
confirm to the latter the exemption claimed, but our freeman gained 
his point, and the Recorder only grumbled. 

As recently as 1868, a case was submitted to Sir J. D. Coleridge 
(now Lord Chief Justice) as to the legality of the exemption, and he 
gave his opinion in favour of it. However, since then the Jury Act 
has, alas! swept away this cherished immunity, and thus let the Barbers 
down to the level of their fellow citizens. 

JSJkSa toec&czo ^vtt^c cttttimt <W<Vc/$tc»£) ^»«» 

Oak/ by Richard Thornbury, Citizen and Draper of London, to Re 
Fishmonger, Citizens of London, for ever, of all his title in two shops a 
John Blounde of Braughyng in the County of Hertford, and which had 
which shops were situate between the tenements of William Horn, Citize 
Mary without Bishopsgate towards the east, and the King's highi 


'nut* vn <#4€Qu» pwct* *\<>ffiellw 

,Hm Ai^rJtj'* fi«t»m -MS» <&>*«»»> fen *»«**^ wjnffu&eii ffy>f># am> jab* 1 fe&tfia** ^ tLej^ pL „, aftyut »*6 - 
jvtcS* SfcMtoM ^i^«« ««*m«*K. <W<V«WSm»fc apoWt"*** ^pctevtt-nfftttw? &£ agon*"* «irtcL. Zn«.*m e&Hvve***"* 6 ) 

Grant by Richard Thornburv, Citizen and Draper of London, to Robert Ferbras, Citizen and Surgeon, John Dagvile, Surgeon, William Sipnam, Grocer, and Walter Bartlot, 
Fishmonger, Citizens of London, for ever, of all his title in two shops and solars with their appurtenances, in the parish of Saint John upon W r albroke, formerly belonging to 
John Blounde of Braughyng in the County of Hertford, and which had been already conveyed to the Grantees by John Thornbury, gentleman, and Walter Thornbury, Clerk, 
which shops were situate between the tenements of William Horn, Citizen and Draper, towards the north and south, and the tenement of the Prior and Convent of the Blessed 
Mary without Bishopsgate towards the east, and the King's highway leading from Walbroke to Dowgate towards the west. Dated I Ith May, 2 Edward IV (1462)- 

cAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 61 

With the possession of their Charter the Company were now in 
an unassailable position, and we hear no more of their molestation by 
the Guild of Surgeons. 

1470. The Company about this period came into possession of 
some freehold houses in St. John the Baptist upon Walbrook, to be 
held both for trust and corporate purposes. These houses are stated 
in our books to have been devised to us by Will (dated 2nd Dec, 1470) 
of Robert Ferbras. There are three old title deeds of the period still 
at the Hall, relating to these houses, and in the Court of Husting at 
Guildhall are two Wills of Robert Ferbras, Surgeon, both proved, one 
dated 4th Nov., 1470, and the other 17th April, 1472 — but neither of 
these contain the bequest to the Barbers. It is, therefore, probable 
that Robert Ferbras conveyed the houses to the Company in his life- 
time, and this fact being overlooked in course of years, it came to be 
said that they passed by his Will. 

1482. 26th April. — The Company applied to the Court of Alder- 
men, presenting a set of ordinances for the government of the craft and for 
the regulation of apprentices, praying that the same might be allowed 
and ratified, which was done. The official entry under this date is in 
Letter-Book L. 1 74, and the following are the Ordinances : — 

Ordinacio ) Memorand q°d sexto decimo die Aprilis Anno regni Regis Edwardi 

BarbitonscY ( quarti post conqm vicesimo scdo p^foi hoies Artis sive mistere 
Barbitonsoii Civitatis london ven° hie in Cur° di'i Dm Regis in Cam's Guyhald Civitatf 
p°dci coram Willme Haryot milite ac maiore & Aldfis ejusdem Civitatis et porrexernt 
eisdem maiore & Aldris quand a m billam sive supplicacoem Cujus tenor sequitur in hec 

To the right hono'able lord the Mair And the right wirshipful Sov'aignes the 
Aldermen of the Citee of London Mekely besechen your goode lordship and maister- 
shippes all the p°sones enfraunchesed in the crafte and mistere of Barbours w'in the Citee 
of london That it wold pleas the same your lordshipp and maistershippes for the Wirship 

62 c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of the said Citee And for the goode Rule to be had w'in the saide Craft to graunte 
and establissh thise articles folowyng And theym to be entred of Recorde in the 
Chambre of the said Citee before your said lordship and maistershippes hereafter for to 
be observed and executed. 

FFirst that there shall no ffraunchesed Barbo r - w'in the said Citee take any man 
or Child to be his Apprentice before that he hath p r 'sented the same man or Child unto 
the maister and Wardeyns of the said Craft for the tyme being, to thentent that the same 
maister and Wardeyns may duely examyne ov'see serche and behold by the Colour and 
complexion of the said man or Child if he be avexed or disposed to be lepur or gowty 
maymed or disfigured in any p°ties of his body Whereby he shall fall in disdeyn or 
lothefulnesse unto the sight of the Kingf liege people And also to be examyned of his 
birth and of his kynrede or if there be on hym any bonde claymed, And if he be founde 
defectif in any of thise poyntf that than no fraunchesed Barbo'' of the saide Citee shall 
take hym to his Apprentice uppon payn to pay v"- Whereof that one half shall Remayn 
unto the Chambre of the said Citee. 

Also that ev°y enfraunchesed barbour that taketh any apprentice shall pay to the 
almes of the said Craft for the same Apprentice iij s - iiij d ' to be paied in founne folowyng that 
is to sey, at the first p°sentacion of the App°ntice xx d - and that other xx d - in the same yeere 
When he shall be enrolled And the names of the maister and app°ntice and the yeres of 
app°ntishode of the same app^ntice shalbe writen in a book by the said maisf & Wardeyns 
And he that disobeith this article or orden'nce shall pay unto ye almes of the said Craft 
of harbours xiij s iiij' 1 that one half thereof to be applied to thuse of the said Chambre and 
that other half to the almes of the said Craft. And if it so be that the said Apprentice 
Dye w'in the first yere, or voide so that the said maisf take none avauntage by the same 
App°ntice, that than the same money stonde for the next App°ntice, And if it hapne the 
said maister to take any p°fet \_profit~\ for the said App°ntice by way of Sale or s\ice and 
that so p'Ved before the said maister and Wardeyns that than the saide maister of the said 
App°ntice to be charged for the said \\f iiij 1 - 

Then follows the usual Ratification (in Latin) of the above 

1487. The next notice which we have of the Barbers in the City 
books, indicates that there had been quarrels and dissensions among 
them, and that the rules of the Craft had been set at nought by its 
members, whereupon a Book of Ordinances was presented to the Court 

cA/mals of the Barber-Surgeons. 6) 

of Aldermen for approval and ratification and the same is entered at 
this date, 20 July 2 Hen vij, in Letter-Book L. 235^ as follows : — ■ 

Memorandum q°d xx°- die Julij Anno regni Regis Henrici septum secundo, 
Gardiani & at pt>i hoies Artf sive occupacois de Barbours Civitatf london vener hie in 
Cur° dci dni Regis in Canra Guilhald ejusdem Civitatf coram Henrico Colet milite 
maiore & Aldris Civitat( J p°dci & porrex n unt eisdm maori & Aldris quanda billam sive 
supplicaoem Cujus tenor sequif' in hec verba, 

To the right honourable lord the maire and fulle discrete sov'aignes thald^men of 
the Citee of london Shewen mekely unto yo r ' good lordeship and maisfshippes the maister 
and the Wardeyns and the good ffolke of the Crafte or Science of Barbours Surgeons of the 
said Citee that Where as they of longe tyme have been in discorde and not of oon conformite, 
but ev'y man in effect of the said Crafte or Science hathe taken and folowed his own singuler 
way and apetite as menne be' under no Rule nor obedience, contrarie to all godly policie for 
lacke of good Rules and orden a ncf hadde and used within the same Crafte or Science, and 
in especiall for takyng of over many app°nticf and settyng awerk of money 2 fforeyns corny ng 
cute of Seint Martyns, Westmynster, Suthwerk and other placf nere unto this Citee to the 
distruccion of the good ffolke enfraunchised of the said Crafte or Science, but if 3 a remedie by 
yo r noble and grete wisdomes the rather be p'Vided in that behalf. That it wold pleas yo r ' 
good lordeship and maistershippes for the good Rule and sadde 4 guydyng hereafter to be hadde 
amongf the good ffolkf of the said Crafte within the same Crafte to graunt to yo r saide be- 
sechers certeyn Articles hereaft? ensuying from hensforth to be obs°ved and kept and afore 
you here in this hono'able Court to be establisshed and entred of Record for ever to endure. 

FFirst that no p°sone of the said Crafte or science ne none other enfraunchised 
within the saide Crafte and kepyng open shoppe of the same Crafte or Science within the 
same Cite from hensforth in any wyse p°sume to take uppon him to sette a werke 
within his house or Shoppe any s vaunt or s°vauntf or allowes 5 or other beyng fforeyns 
or estraungiers, but 6 ev°ry suche p^sone so enfraunchised in the saide Crafte or science 
or in any other and occupie the same Crafte or Science within the Citee aforesaid present 
any such s'Vaunt or s°vauntf allowes and other before the maistPs and Wardeyns of 
the same Crafte or Science of Barbours for the tyme beyng within iij daies next after 
his comyng to his saide maister to thentent that the saide maister and Wardeyns have 
knowledge of their habilitie and cunyng 7 before they be sette any lenger in occupation 
in the saide Crafte or Science, And what man 9 p^sone 8 aforesaid hereafter be founde 

1 Being = living. 2 Many. :l But if = unless. 'Wise. 

: ' Hired servants. 6 Unless. ' Skill. s Manner of person. 

64 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

doyng the contrarie of this orden a nce shall forfeit and pay at ev°y tyme that he is so 
founden defectif xl s ' the oon half thereof to be applied to thuse of the Chambre of this 
hono'able Citee and the other half to the Coen boxe of the said Crafte. 

Also that no mar? p°sone' enfraunchised in the saide Crafte or in any other 
kepying an open Shoppe and occupieth the same Crafte within the Citee from hensforth 
take or set a Werke within his house or shoppe or ellf where within the same Citee 
any moo- S 9 vaunts allowes at oones 3 beyng fforeyns or Straungiers but oonly ij p°sones 
and the same ij p°sones to be p°sented by their maister before the maister and Wardeyns 
of the said Crafte or Science of Barbours for the tyme beyng within iij daies next corftyng 
in to suche s°vice to their suche maist° And that the same fforeyns or straungiers shall 
take or have of their saide maister suche wages for their suche s°vice as it shalbe 
thought by the saide Maister and Wardeyns of the said Crafte of Barbours that they 
canne des'Ve and none other, And what maner of p°sone aforesaid hereafter be founde 
doyng contrarie to this orden'ncf shall forfeit at ev°ry tyme that he is founde defectif 
v' ij to be divided and applied to suche uses as be aforeherced.' 1 

Also if it fortune hereafter any p°sone enfraunchised in the saide Crafte of 
barbours or in any other occupying the same Crafte of barbours within the Citee to take 
any mo s'VauntC allowes at oones beyng fforeyns or straungiers than onely ij as is 
aforeherced 5 Wherethurgh 6 he renneth in the forfaiture of the said penaltie of v lij for the 
saide offence, and than that the maister and Wardeyns of the saide Crafte of Barbours for 
the tyme beyng havyng knowleche therof put not the said penaltie of v' 1 ' in execucion 
accordyng to the teno'- of the saide Acte thereof made, within xiiij daies after that the 
said maist and Wardeyns have knowleche thereof, that than the said maist° and Wardeyns 
for the tyme beyng so founden defectif shall forfeit and lose at ev'y tyme xiij s - iiij d - to be 
divided and applied to suche uses as be aforeherced. 

Also that no man p^sones enfraunchised in the said Crafte or in any other 
occupying the same Crafte within the said Citee from hensforth take any moo app°ntices 
at oones than iij uppon payne of forfaiture of v a at ev°y suche tyme as he is founde 
defectif doyng contrarie of this Article, to be divided and applied to suche uses as be 
afore reherced Savyng allway that it shalbe lefull to ev°y suche p^sone oon yeere before the 
t°me of app°ntishode of any his app°nticf be expired to take a nother app^ntice in the 
stede of hym that is nygh comyng oute of his t°mes of app^ntishode to thentent that the 
same newe app^ntice may have his due erudicion and lernyng in the said Crafte or 
Science of Barbours before the t 9 mes and 7 of the rather app'Vitice. 

1 Manner of person. '-' More. ' Once. ' Afore rehearsed. 

5 Afore rehearsed. 8 Wherethrough = whereby. ; A blank in the original. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 65 

Also if any p'son of the said Crafte or Science selle away his app°ntice to a 
nother manne within his t°mes of app'ntishode that than it shalnot be lefull to any suche 
p°sone so silling away his app°ntice to take any newe in his stede duryng the t 9 me to come 
of app°ntishode of that app r 'ntice so sold Nevertheles if it fortune any app°ntice to dye 
within the t°mes of his app°ntishode that than it shall be laufull to the mast of that 
app°ntice so dying to take a nother in his stede when so ev 9 it shall lyke hym. 

Provided all way that it shalbe lefull to ev°y p°sone of the said Crafte nowe 
havyng many app°nticC to reteyne and holde fulle as many app''nticf as he hathe the day 
of makyng of this Acte or orden a nce unto suche tyme as the t°me of their app^nticialite 
shalbe fully accomplisshed So all way that no suche p°sone take any mo app''ntices unto 
suche tyme as the nu'bre of the said app^nticf be reduced and brought unto the said 
nu°bre of iij app r, nticf uppon payn of forfaiture of v IL to be divided and applied to suche 
uses as been afore reherced. 

Also that no foreyn Barbour from this tyme foreward occupie the Craft or 
Science of Barbours or Surgeon Barbo r within the ffraunchise of the said Citee but if he 
be lymytted and assigned therto by the maister and Wardeyns of the same Craft for the 
tyme beyng uppon payn of forfaiture of v"- as often as any suche p°sone so be founde 
defectif, to be divided and applied to suche uses as be aforeherced. Provided allway that 
if it canne be thought for the wele of the kyngf people that if any foreyn Barbours or 
foreyn Surgeon be founden of such habilitie and connyng of Surgerie or of that Crafte that 
it were necessarie to have hym to occupie within the ffraunchise of this Citee, that than 
he be admitted therto by the Chamrjleyn of london and by the Maister and Wardeyns 
of the said Crafte of Barbours for the tyme beyng, With that the same fforeyn fynde 
suertie sufficient to be bounde to the said Chamrjleyn and Maister and Wardeyns for to 
do make him self free of the saide Crafte or Science of Surgeon Barbours and to obey 
and p°fourme the Rules and orden a ncf of the same Crafte and to be under the 
correcion of the same Crafte, provided allway that the kyngf^ people be served 
in price of their Cure and shavyng in tyme to come aswell and as safely as they 
have been in tymes passed. 

Then follows the usual Ratification (in Latin) of the above 

1490. A declaration made by one Bryan Sandford, dated 
8th March, 1490, was produced to the Committee of the House of 


66 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Commons in 1745, in which it was stated that the Company were 
at that time possessed of the freehold of their Hall in Monkwell 

1493. On the 1 2th July in this year, an agreement was 
entered into between the Barbers' Company and the Surgeons' 
Guild which would indicate that the two bodies were now on amicable 
terms, working harmoniously for the increase of the credit of the 
profession, and for the correction of inexperienced surgeons and 
empirics. This " Composition " is of so interesting a nature that 
it is here given in full, as extracted from the fine old Book 
of Ordinances at the Hall ; it did not unite the two bodies 
in any way beyond this, that they agreed to follow the same 
rules and practice with regard to the government of all 
Surgeons ; that each guild was to choose two Wardens, and 
that the four so chosen were to act in a conjoint capacity as 
rulers or masters in matters surgical, and thus comprehend all 
Surgeons, whether of the Barbers' Company, the Surgeons' 
Guild, or "foreyns." 

HIS present wrytyng endentyd of coptosicyons made the xij th day 
of July i° the zere of owyr lord God M'CCCClxxxxiij and the 
viij" 1 zere of the reyne of kyng harry the vij th William Martyn 
then beyng mayre of this cyte of london betwyxt the ffelishippis 
of surgeons enfraunches w' in the cyte of london on that on p'ty 
And the felishippis of harbours surgeons and surgeons harbours enfraunchessid 
i° the seyd cyte on the other parte witnesyth that the sayde felyshippys of ther 
comon assent and mere mocyons ben codescedyd and agreyd togethir the day 
and the zere aboue sayd, in man and fourme folowyng. That is to sey that 
eiiy p°son and p°sons of the faculte or scyens of surgeons admyttyd and 
sworne to eytti of the sayde felyshippis from hens forward shall stond and 
a byde w' ther felyshippis as they now do and dyd before thys present 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 67 

.LSO that from hens forth non of the sayde felyshippis shall admyt nor 
reseyue in to ther felishippys any alyent straung or foreyn vsyng the 
sayde faculte or scyens of surgery w'owten knowleg or ciisent of 
the wardes of bothe the seyd felishippys. All so for the welth and 
suerte of the kyngf lege people And the honour of the seyde 
felyshyppys, It is agreyd be twyxt the same two felyshippis that non alyent 
straunger nor foreyn shall use nor ocopy the seyde faculte or scyens of surtiy 
withyn this cyte or subbers of the same unto such tyme as he shewhym selfe 
to the mayer for the time beyng, and by the iiij wardeyns of bothe the saide 
felishippis, that is to sey of eytri of the sayde felishippis, tweyn, and oth° suche as 
by theyr wysdomys they will call vnto them, be dewly examyned & approuyd to be 
sufficyent of conyng and habilyte in the sayde faculte. And yf any such p°son or p^sones 
bi the sayde iiij wardens as is afore sayde be taken reputed and a lowed to be sufficient 
of konyng and habylite i° the seyd faculte or scyens of surgery that then the p°son or 
p^sonys so knowen and admyttyd shall be sworne to all the good rewlys and ordenans of 
y" seyd faculte or scyens of surgery, and to be under the coreccyon of the iiij wardens for 
the tyme beyng to the entent that at all tymes he may be under dwe coreccyon for the 
sauegard of y" kyngis lege people. And if any suche alyent straung' 1 or foreyn of 
p^sumcon refuse to be examyned of the seyde wardens in man & fourme as is a fore 
seyd, Or yf any suche straunger or foreyn so examyned be the seyde wardens be Juged 
onsufficient of conyng and neiitheles takyth upon hym to occupy or vse the seyde faculte 
of sunjy w'yn the seyde cyte or subbars of the same, Then take the name of hym or 
them so doyng and p°sent hym by the sayd iiij wardens to the mayer for the tyme beyng, 
to the entent that by his wysdom, and advice of hys honerabyll brethern may set suche 
direccyon as shall be thought resonabil formacion 1 therof, restrayne hym from the 
ocupacon of the same scyens w' in the sayde cyte. Also it is agreyd and copoundyd 
betwyxte the sayde felyshippys that from hensforth eiiy of the seyde felyshippis and 
seiially by them selfe, Chese of themselfe two discrete p^sons usyng the fete of surgery to 
be seiially wardens of the sayde seiiall felishippis, and that these iiij wardens for the tyme 
beyng when and as oftyn as nede shall requere, Shall haue the syght and good gounaunce 
of the seide faculte of surgery. And eiiy p°son or p°sonys of eiiy of the sayde felyshippis 
that happenys or shall fortune to haue any Jeop°de = or dowtefull cure, dredyng deth or 
may, 3 he or they hauing at eny tyme to come, shall shew and p°sent the cure or curys 
in as short tyme as nede shall be reqVed, And at the leste at the thyrde dressyd 4 to the 
saide iiij wardens for the tyme beyng, Or any other p°son or p°sonys that is to seye, to 

'? "For reformation." -Jeopardy. 3 Maiming. ' ? " Day " or " dressing. " 

K 2 

68 oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

one of yche of the seyde felishippis, and the same wardens and yf them seme nedefull 
shall call unto them ij or iij, or more if nede req°re, of the wysest and best exp°te me of 
the said felishippis occupyeng the saide faculte of surgery as them semeth most expedyent, 
for the cause or causis aforesayde. Also in this coposycion yt is ordeyned and agreyd, 
that none of the iiij wardens for the zere beyng neyther any other p°son of the sayde 
felishippis ocopyeng the crafte of surii'i, Put any man of thes sayde felishipis oute of ther 
cure otherwyse then the honeste of the crafte wolle, but that yche of them be redy to 
helpe eche other w' counsell or deed, y' worship profyte and the honeste of the crafte, 
and helpyng of the seke be had and done on all sydis. And if ony of thes iiij wardens 
for the tyme bey°g or any other p°son or p°sonys of the seyde felyshippis do the cotrary 
that eche suche doer content the valvyr ' of the cure, After discressyon and Jugemet of 
the same iiij wardens for the zere beyng, And also for his trespas to paye aftur discression 
and Jugemet of the iiij wardens. Also if any p°son of the sayde felishippis dislaunder or 
depute any of the saide felishippis onrightfully ownonestly and ef it so maye be prouyd 
upon hym by two or thre witnesse, that he paye for that trespas iij ,j iiij' 1 ', and ouer that 
to make amendis to y" seide p°sons the whiche he hath so disslaunderd aftur Jugement 
of onest men of the seyd felyshippis not founden in non suche defaute. 

This p°sent coposicyon was made the daye and zere a bowe wreton by Roberd 
taylour, Rob'- Halyday, Thorns Koppisley, Thorns Thornton, Ihoii Harte, John Marhifi, 
Roberd Beuerly, James Scote, James Ingoldysby, John Taylour, Richard Swedenhm, 
Nicholas Leueryng, John Wilson. In rowlid in Raffe Osterigis tyme, mayer. 

Of the persons assenting to this composition, the following were 
Barber-Surgeons, viz. : Rob'- Halyday (Master 1475, 1483, 1485, 1490, 
1496), James Scott (M. 1493, 1498, 1500), James Ingoldysby (M. 1501, 
1506), John Taylour (M. 1523, 1524), and Nicholas Leveryng (M. 1503, 
1 508), the others were most likely belonging to the Guild of Surgeons. 

An Ordinance by way of addenda to the above was made, 
imposing penalties upon any who should break any of the foregoing 
rules; the first offence to be punished by a fine of 10s., the second 20s., 
and the third offence to be remitted to the Mayor and Aldermen for 
punishment after their discretion. 

' ? " Value." 

^5he;ar of oibic *ki&. aj. care U$*mj . 
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of &u$rott$ of Kmitutt tfjr uq $ato£'(jt* < 





practise as a surgeon. (See p. 6g.) 


\ I 


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oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 69 

How long this agreement, so beneficial for the practice of 
Surgery, continued in force is unknown ; but the probabilities are that 
the old jealousies soon re-appeared and that each Guild worked on its 
own lines until 1540, as, by the uniting Act then passed, it was specially 
remarked as desirable that the two Companies should come together, 
and be incorporated in one. 

1497. We shall now present to the reader's notice a highly 
important document, being a diploma granted by the Master and 
Wardens of the Barbers' Company to one of their freemen, enabling 
him to practise as a Surgeon. This is in all probability the earliest 
English diploma of a Surgeon extant and cannot fail by the quaintness 
of its composition, and the details given, to prove of much interest. 
We notice in it, that our Company as usual, did not fail to rehearse its 
prerogatives and practice, and we also observe that thus early the 
Company provided an instructor and examiner in the science, Dr. John 
Smith, before whom came in the Common Hall, Robert Anson, and 
in the presence of a "great audience of many right well expert men 
in Surgery and others, was openly examined in divers things con- 
cerning the practice," etc. 


=5%7j)0 all trew crysten people to whom thes present lettris shall come. 
SP&C Roberd Halidai ' mastur of harbours and of surgeon harbours of 

london, and Willfn Okeley, John Knote ' and Thomas Dawes 3 
wardens of the same gretyng, knowe ye that wher as the moste 
excellent Pryns in cryst and soiieyn lord Edward by the grace of 
god kyng of ynglod and of ffraunce, lord of Ierlond, for many p'Younde cosider- 
acyons his gee movyng, hathe grauntyd the well to hym T cryst, the approuyd fremen 
the coialte of harbours and of surgeon harbours of the cyte of londo, The serche 
and oiisyght correcyon and ponyshement, examinacon & approbacion of all fremen 

1 Master 1475, 14S3, 1485, 1490, 1496. ' Master 15 10. :1 Master 1504. 

jo fi/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

usyng or hauntyng the conyng of surgery and burbory, And of all maner of men 
foreyns usyng or hauntyng any p\iculer p°te of surgery withyn the seyde cyte or subbers 
ther of, As a bowte new woundys, olde soris, and other lesyons what so eii they be, Also 
in drawyng of teeth ventosyng scarificacons and suche oth° manwall operacons, lyke as 
the lettres patentes of owre seyde lege lord the kyng ther upon made planyly may apere. 
We therfore the saide Roberde, YVilliri, John & Thorns at this tyme masturs and 
wardens of the saide felishyp, ffor the comyn p°fyte weth 1 and relefe socour of owr lordis 
the kyngC lege people, entedyng to p°uyde men of good capasite and abill I maners and 
conyng, sufficiently lerned, enfourmed, and labored by long experyens, and other in the 
seide craft of surgery, — haue prayed and requyred mastur John Smyth doctour I phesik, 
Instructour & examener of the seide feliship, and be ' the same for that intent chosen 
and elect to entur & examynacyon for the cawses a boue saide, w' divers p°sons whiche 
long tyme, w'owte auctorite, haue vsed and haunted w' experyens the conyng of surgery, 
wheruppon aftur dewe and dyuers monycions made in this be halue, Roberd Anson on 
of the seide coialte at the comyn hall of the same 1 london appered, i his p°pyr p°son, the 
first day of August last past, submyttyng hym selfe to the examynron and thaposicion, 3 
wher and when the seide Roberd by the sayde John Smyth, in a gret audiens of many 
ryght well expert men T surgery & other, was opyly examyned I dyuers thingf cocernyng 
the practise op\tife and directif in the seyde crafte of Surgery. And the r albe it he hathe 
a fore this many tymys been well approuyd, 5et now he is newly habelyd, be 4 the seyde 
doctour and felyship, and founde abyll and discrete to ocopy & vse the practise of 
surgery, as well a bowte new woundis, as cansers, fystelis, vlceracions & many other 
disessis & dyuers ; & the same Robert thus aprouyd and abelyd we haue, as an 
expert man T the seyd faculte, aprouyed and abeled to ocupy & practyse in the 
seyd faculte, i eiiy place, when and as ofte as hym best lyketh we haue lycensid 
hym and graiitid to hym by thes p°sentes. I witnes wherof we haue putte the 
comyn scale of barbours and of surgeon b'bours of london, geuen at london i 
the comyn hall of the seyd Comonalte the viij day of August the zere of oure lord 
god M'CCCClxxxxvij. 

1499. In this year the Company obtained from Henry VII a 
confirmation of their Charter, paying but 20s. for the same. This 
Inspeximus Charter recites and confirms that of Edward IV with 
the very noticeable exceptions, that four Masters or Governors are 
named instead of two, and that they are described as of " the 

1 Wealth. - By. * " The apposition " = the questioning. ' By. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. yi 

Mystery of Barbers and Surgeons," and not " Barbers " only, as 
in Edward's grant. 

The original, in excellent preservation, with the great seal of 
England pendant, is at the Hall, and the text is as follows : — 

Henricus dei gratia Rex Anglie Francie & Dominus Hibernie Omnib3 ad 
quos p^sentes littere pervenerunt, salutem. Inspeximus litteras patentes recolende 
memorie domine E. quarti nuper Regis Anglie progenitoris nostri factas in hec verba. 

Edwardus dei gracia Teste me ipso apud Westmonasteriii 

vicesimo quarto die Februarii Anno regni nostri primo. Nos autem litteras predictas 
ac omnia & singula in eis contenta rata habentes et grata ea pro nobis et heredibus 
nostris quantum in nobis est acceptamus & approbamus ac dilectis ligeis nostris Rico 
Haywarde Jacobo Holand Johanni Robertson et Johanni Boteler nunc Magistris sive 
Gubernatoribj mistere Barbitonso^ et Sirurgico^ infra Civitatem nram predcam & 
eo^ Successorib5 per p^sentes ratificamus et confirmamus sicut Ire predce ronabilis 
testant? In cujus rei testioin has Iras nras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste me i[io apud 
Westm quinto die Decembris Anno regni nostri quinto decimo. 

pro viginti solidis solutis in hanaperio. 


Intratur in libro signato cum Ira. m. tempore Nich'i Ahvyne 

maioris Civitatis londou Anno Regni Regis Henrici septum 

quinto decimo. Pakknham. 


Henry by the grace of God, King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, 
To all to whom these present letters shall come, health. We have inspected the letters 
patent of the Lord Edward the fourth, of gracious memory, late King of England, our 

progenitor, made in these words, " Edward by the grace of God 

Witness my self at Westminster the 24th day of February in the first year of our reign." 
We also, the aforesaid letters, and all and singular therein contained ratifying and 
granting, for us and our heirs, as much as in us lies do accept and approve, and to our 
beloved lieges, Richard Haywarde, James Holand, John Robertson, and John Boteler, 
now Masters or Governors of the Mystery of Barbers and Surgeons within our City 
aforesaid, and to their successors, by these presents, do ratify and confirm, as in the 

72 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

aforesaid letters is reasonably testified. In Witness whereof, we have caused these 
our letters to be made patent. Witness myself at Westminster the fifth day of December 
in the fifteenth year of our reign. 

for twenty shillings paid into the hanaper. 


Entered in the book marked with the letter m. in the time of 
Nicholas Alwyne, Mayor of the City of London, in the fifteenth 
year of the reign of King Henry the Seventh. 


151 i. In this year an Act of Parliament was passed, which 
infringed on the privileges of the Barbers' Company, inasmuch as it 
placed the approbation and licensing of Surgeons in the hands of 
certain clerical dignitaries, to wit, the Bishop of London and Dean of 
St. Paul's (while for the country the several Bishops or their Vicars 
general were nominated). This Act was possibly the outcome of some 
laxity on the part of our Company, or of an intolerable growth of 
quackery, with which it could not cope, the pretenders to surgical 
knowledge being a "great multitude" of ignorant persons, and women, 
using sorcery, witchcraft and noxious remedies. This Act of Parlia- 
ment (3 Hen. VIII, cap. XI) as given below, is from an original copy 
in the possession of Mr. Charles J. Shoppee (Master 1878). 



To the kyng our souerayne lorde, and to all the lordes spiritual and temporall, 
& comons in this present parlyament assembled. Forasmoche as the science and 
connynge of phisike & surgerie (to the perfet knowlege whereof, be requisite both great 
lernyng and rype experience) is dayly within this realme exercised by a great multitude of 
ignorant p°sons : of whome the great part haue no maner of insight in the same, nor in 
any other kynde of lernynge, some also can no letters on the boke, so farforthe that 
common artificers, as smythes, weauers, and women, boldely and customably take upon 

oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 7? 

them greate cures and thinges of greate difrlcultie : in the whiche they partly use sorcerye, 
and witchcrafte, partly apply suche medicines unto the disease, as be very noyous and 
nothyng metely therfore to the highe displeasure of god, great infamye to the facultie, and 
the greuous hurte, damage, and destruction of many of the kynges liege people : most 
specially of them that can not discerne the unconnynge from connynge. Be it therfore 
(to the suertie and comforte of all maner people) by auctoritie of this present parliament 
enacted, that no persone within the citie of London, nor within seuen myles of the same, 
take upon hym to exercise and occupie as a phisition or surgion, excepte he be fyrst 
examyned, approued, and admytted by the byshop of London, or by the deane of Paules, 
for the tyme beinge, calling to hym or them foure doctours of phisike, and for surgery, 
other experte persons in that facultie, and for the fyrste examination suche as they shall 
thynke conuenient, and afterwarde alway foure of them that haue ben so approued, upon 
the peine of forfayture, for euery moneth that they do occupie as phisitions or surgions, 
not admytted nor examyned after the tenour of this acte, of to be enployed the one 
halfe therof to thuse of our soueraine lorde the kynge, and the other halfe therof to any 
person that wyll sue for it by action of dette, in whiche no wager of lawe nor protection 
shalbe alowed. 

^1" And ouer this, that no persone out of the sayd citie and precinte of vii. myles 
of the same, except he haue ben (as is aforesayd) approued in y" same, take upon hym to 
exercise and occupie as a phisition or surgion, in any diocesse within this realme, but if he 
be fyrste examined and approued by the bysshoppe of the same dyocese, or he beynge 
out of the dioces by his vycare generall : either of them callyng to them suche experte 
persones in the sayde faculties, as their discretion shal thynke conuenient, and gyuyng 
theyr letters testimonials under theyr seale to hym that they shall so approue, upon lyke 
peyne to them that occupie contrary to this acte (as is above sayde) to be leuied 
and employed after the forme before expressed. 

5[ Prouyded alway, that this acte nor any thynge therin contayned, be 
preiudiciall to the uniuersities of Oxforde and Cambrydge or eyther of them, or to any 
priuileges graunted to them. 

This Act seems to have invested the Bishops, etc., with the 
power of licensing all Surgeons, and if so, would have taken away that 
privilege from our Company ; the point is however doubtful, and I am 
inclined to think that the Act did not operate to the prejudice of the 


j4 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Company, only in so far as it suffered from the existence of another 
licensing authority. 

Mr. D'Arcy Power has pointed out that the Act very soon 
became unpopular, and that it was almost immediately practically 
repealed by another one, which provided that it should be " lawful to 
any person being the king's subject, having knowledge or experience 
of the nature of herbs, etc., to minister in and to any outward sore 
or wound according to their cunning." (Memorials of the Craft of 
Surgery, p. 85.) 

This latter Act, which in its effect would flood the land with 
quacks, must however have remained the law until the Act of 
32 Hen. VIII, whereby the Barber- Surgeons were reinstated in their 
ancient rights; and it is the fact, that down to the 1 8th Century 
the Ecclesiastics claimed and enforced their rights (under the Act 
3 Hen. VIII) to license Surgeons, notwithstanding other Acts passed 
since then, which although not expressly extinguishing their power, 
certainly did not save it. The Barber-Surgeons' Company seem 
to have examined the Surgeons, and, if approved, to have given 
a certificate under Seal, which was presented to the Bishop who 
thereupon issued his licence. This practice was not however universal, 
and I think only applied to some Surgeons who were not free of the 
Company. In some cases the Bishop licensed Surgeons, without 
reference to the Company, and thousands have been licensed by the 
Company without regard to the Bishop. It is almost impossible to say 
now what course was followed, the practice certainly varying with the 
times (see Surgery). 

15 13. In this year an Act of Parliament was passed exempting 
Surgeons from juries, inquests, etc. This must have been passed in 

c/imials of the Barber-Surgeons. 75 

the interest of the Surgeons' Guild, as the Barber- Surgeons were surely 
exempt under their Charter from Edward IV. 

1 5 12. The Barbers' Company having applied to the King 
(Henry VIII) for a confirmation of their Charter, their request was 
acceded to. Henry is, on more than one occasion, spoken of in the 
books as "our patron," and there is no doubt but that he was very 
friendly both to our Company and to individual members of it, as 
witness his gift of the grace cup, and the legacies in his will to various 
members of the Company, with some of whom, as Pen, Harman, 
Ayliff, etc., he was on as intimate terms as a king could be with a 
subject ; there would therefore be, we may be sure, but little difficulty 
in obtaining an Inspeximus. 

In one of our Minute Books, Thomas Knot (Master 1555) has 
transcribed what purports to be a copy of Henry's Inspeximus Charter 
with the date 12 th of May "in the xviij th yere of our Reigne" (/.£'., 1526), 
and he appends a certificate that he has compared and agreed it with 
the original ! Now we possess the original at Barbers' Hall and it is 
dated 12 th March 3 rd Henry VIII (i.e., 15 12), and it would indeed 
be a strange thing for Henry VIII in 1526 to recite and confirm 
Henry VII's Charter, when he had already done so in 15 12. More- 
over I have searched the Patent Rolls and whilst there is no record 
in 1526, there is the entry of the 1512 Charter, and further to fix the 
date, both Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth in their Inspeximus 
Charters recite the 1 5 1 2 Charter. 

It has been necessary to enter into this detail, as the date of 
the Charter is important when we come to consider Holbein's picture ; 
and as my friend Mr. D'Arcy Power has (p. 338) quoted this pretended 
Charter not having seen the real one, he, very naturally trusting old 

yo oAnnaU of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Thomas Knot's statement, has fallen into the pit dug some three 
hundred years ago. 

The following is the Text of the Charter, and it will not be 
necessary to append a translation, as it follows much on the same 
lines as that of Henry VII : — 

Henricus dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et Dominus Hibernie Omnibus ad 
quos presentes Ire pVenerunt saltifi Inspeximus litteras patentes domini H. nuper 
R''gis Anglie septum patris nostri precarissimi de confirmacione factas in hec verba 

Henricus dei gracia Teste me ipo apud Westmonasterium quinto die 

Decembr Anno regni nfi quinto decimo. Nos autem litteras predictas ac omnia & 
singula in eisdem contenta rata hentes &: grata ea pro nobis & heredibus nris quantum in 
nobis est acceptamus & appro bamus ac dilectis ligeis nris Johi Peerson Witto Kyrkeby 
Thome Gybson & Thome Martyn nunc Magistris sive Gubernatoribus mistere 
Barbitonsorum et Sirurgicorum infra Civitatem nrsim predictam & eorum successoribus 
per presentes ratificamus & confirmamus sicut Ire predicte ronabiliter testantur. In 
cujus rei testimonium has Iras nriis fieri fecimus patentes. Teste me ipo apud 
Westmonasterium duodecimo die Marcii Anno regni nri tercio. 


pro viginti solidis solutis in Hanap'^io. 

The Great Seal, though still pendant, has been considerably 

1525. This year the Company received a Precept from the 
Mayor, ordering them to provide for the " Midsummer Watch." 

To the Wardens of the Barber Surgeons, 

We woll and charge you that for the hounour of this Citie ye do ordeyne 
& p'pare ageinst the watches to be kept within this Citie in the nightf^ of the vigilles of 
Sent John Baptist & Seint Peter nowe next comynge iiij honest & comely p°sones suche 
as ye will answere for, w' Bowes & arrowes clenely harneysed and arrayed yn Jakettf of 
whytte, havynge tharmes of this Citie, to waytte and attende uppon us in the said 
Watches, And to come to Blackwell Hall and there to be, for the not fayllynge hereof as 
ye tendre the honour of this Citie and also will answere at your pells. Gyven in 
the Guihall of the said Citie the xiiij day of Junij the xvij year of the Reigne of our 
Soveraigne lorde King Henry the viij"'- 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. yy 

An Acl of Parliament was passed in the 20th Henry VII, 
which provided that the governing bodies of Guilds should not make 
any by-laws or ordinances, without the same should be approved by 
the Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, and the Chief Justices of the 
King's Bench and Common Pleas, or any three of them, etc., and 
in 1530 our Company, being desirous of settling many points for 
the government of the mystery, drew up a long set of interesting 
Ordinances, which were presented to Sir Thomas More the Chancellor, 

Sir John Fitzjames and Sir Robert 
Norwiche the Chief [ustices, and were 
signed by them on the 14th May, 1530. 
The original (with More's autograph) is 
at the Hall, and after reciting: the Act 
of 20th Henry VII, ordains the following oaths and articles :— 

The oath of a freeman. 

The oath of the Masters and Governors with directions as to searches. 
Ordinance as to attending on summons. 
,, quarterage. 

presentation of apprentices. 

number of servants to be kept by freemen and liverymen. 

wages of servants. 

enticing away of servants. 

opening shop. 

teaching the mystery to any but apprentices. 

sueino- brother freemen at common law. 

" opprobrios condicions or dishonest wordes." 

refusal to come on the Livery, and admission into 
the Livery. 

Sunday trading. 

presenting patients in danger of death. 

reading Lectures concerning Surgery. 

yS eAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Ordinance as to supplanting another of his patient. 
,, ,, the Dinners. 

excess of words in debate. 
„ departing from the Common assembly, 
,, ,, Barbers setting up shop. 

Sir Thomas More's Ordinances, as above, will be found in full in 
the Appendix B, the transcript being made from the original. 1 

1540. This year is one of the most memorable in the annals of 
the Barber-Surgeons, as it witnessed the union of the unincorporated 
Guild of Surgeons, with their more accredited fellow-craftsmen, the 
incorporated Company of Barbers. It has been suggested by more 
than one writer that such an union is shrouded in mystery, difficult of 
explanation, and that in those days, with science advancing (slowly, it 
is true), it might have been expected that we should read of a divorce- 
ment, rather than a combination of two crafts, which then, as now, were 
dissimilar both in their operations, and in the training and intelligence 
necessary for their practice. 

But it is essential to bear in mind that though the Charter of 
Edward IV was ostensibly to the Barbers, it really was granted to a 
fraternity, which to a great extent practised as Barber-Surgeons, some 
of whom were Surgeons pure and simple, others combined both 
branches, while others still carried on the more humble craft of 
Shavers and Hair-Dressers ; those of the Company who practised 
Surgery did no doubt consider it a reproach to be dubbed " Barbers," 
and for distinction sake called themselves and were well known as 
" Barber-Surgeons," indeed they had so far established this title to 

1 The copy of these Ordinances given by Mr. D'Arcy Power (p. 339) is taken from one made by our old 
friend Thomas Knot, and is not literally, though it is substantially, accurate. 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 79 

themselves and to their Company, as to get it recognised and so 
named in the Inspeximus Charter of Henry VII (less than forty years 
after their original Charter as " Barbers" had been granted to them). 
This is to a great extent confirmed by the words of the Act now about 
to be referred to, which distinctly says that there was then a Company 
of " Surgeons occupy inge and exercisynge the sayde scyence and 

faculty of surgery commonly called the Barbours 

of London." 

The Union therefore was not a joining of Barbers with 
Surgeons (that had existed from the earliest times), but was the 
consolidation of the "Guild of Surgeons" with another body of 
Surgeons who were incorporated, and practised under the name of 
" Barbers " in conjunction with actual working Barbers ; and, as the 
Act provided what the Surgeons should and should not do, and the 
like as to actual Barbers, limiting their operations also, most if not all 
difficulty and apparent incongruity in the union seems to vanish. 

The Act (32 Hen. VIII, cap. 42) which will well repay perusal, 
settled the Barber-Surgeons in their corporate capacity for many a 
long year ; under it the old rival society disappeared, it being declared 
that the two Companies should be united, so that by their assembling 
together, the science of Surgery might be fostered and improved ; 
whereupon it was enacted that they should be incorporated under the 
style of " The Maisters or Governours of the Mystery and 


property of the old Company of Barbers was handed over to the 
new Corporation (the Guild of Surgeons are not said to have had any 
property to bring into the new concern). The usual grant of a common 
seal, of power to plead and to be impleaded, to hold lands, etc., will be 
seen at large in the Act. The Surgeons of the Company were to be 
exempt from bearing armour or being put into watches and inquests. 

So oAiiuals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The dead bodies of four malefactors were assigned to the Company 
yearly for dissections. And, inasmuch as various persons exercising 
the faculty of Surgery used to take into their houses for cure, people 
afflicted with the pestilence and other contagious diseases and " do use 
or exercise barbari, as washynge or shavyng and other feates there- 
unto belonging," 1 the same was declared "veraie perillous," and it was 
enacted that no one using the faculty of Surgery should practise 
Barbery, and that no Barber should practise any point in Surgery, 
the drawing of teeth only excepted. The Surgeons were to exhibit a 
sign in front of their houses, and no Barber was to exercise his calling 
unless free of the Company. Four Masters were to rule the Company, 
whereof two were to be Barbers and two Surgeons. A penalty was 
named for offenders against the articles, all were to pay scot and lot, 
and private persons might keep their own Barber or Surgeon, without 
interference by the Company. 

The Act was passed on the 24th July, 1540, and will be found 
in Appendix C. being taken from the original Black-letter copy in 
the Author's possession. 

We now refer to the Company's chief treasure, the Holbein 
picture, and are at once met with a difficulty ; does it represent the 
granting of a Charter to the Company? if so, the year was 15 12 ; 
or does it illustrate the union of the Barbers and Surgeons by Act of 
Parliament ? if so, the year was 1540. 

The picture exhibits a Charter with the Great Seal pendant, 
and has always been popularly known and described as the "granting 
of the Charter to the Barber-Surgeons." On the other hand, 
however, the King was but 21 years of age in 15 12 and 49 years 
in 1540, which latter age accords with the picture; moreover, Vicary, 

1 Here we have the common practice of the joint craftsman, the " Barber-Surgeon.'" clearly indicated. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. Si 

Ayleff, Harman, and the others represented, were members of the 
Court in the latter year, but not in 15 12. These considerations are 
sufficient to demolish the "Charter" theory, and point to the 
hypothesis that it is the Union of the Barbers' Company with the 
Guild of Surgeons, accomplished by Act of Parliament in 1540, which 
is commemorated, but then we must admit a licence on the part of 
Holbein (which deceived no one at the time), when he indulged his 
artist's fancy by putting into the King's hand a Charter with seal 
pendant, instead of an Act of Parliament, which latter would not 
indeed have been the King's function to hand to the Company, and 
would probably, if represented, have been depicted as a mere roll, 
and not therefore so artistic or effective as a Charter with a Seal 
in the King's hand. 

The Act received the Royal Assent 25th July, 1540; this 
would be towards the close of the year of John Pen's mastership. 
Vicary, who is receiving the Instrument, was Master from September, 
1 54 1, to September, 1542 ; there is every probability that the painting 
was executed during his year of office, and that is why Holbein paid 
him the compliment of putting him in the chief position in the 
painting, which after all was intended, not as a strictly historical, but 
rather as a commemorative picture. 

The picture is 10 feet 2 inches long by 5 feet 11 inches high, 
painted on oak panel and contains nineteen figures ; it represents a 
room in the palace (said to have been Bridewell), which is hung with 
beautiful tapestry and appears to have been gilded ; the King is seated 
on a throne, his age apparently about fifty, the complexion florid, the 
hair sandy, the eyes small but animated and restless ; the expression 
on the countenance is impatience, and he seems thrusting the document 
hastily into the hand of Thomas Vicary, who receives it kneeling, on 


82 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

his left ; the face altogether might be pronounced handsome, were it 
not for the low forehead and contracted eyebrows ; he has on his left 
thumb a signet ring, and other rings on the first and fourth fingers of 
his right hand with which he holds a sword of state resting on his 
knee ; on his head is a jewelled crown ; on his left leg the garter, and 
round his neck the collar of the Order ; the mantle is short and of 
crimson velvet ; all these ornaments are most beautifully executed and 
are as fine as miniature painting ; every hair of his head is distinct, and 
the texture of his robe is finely given ; his impatience seems to have 
warmed him, and the rising colour flushing over his face is most 
admirably painted. On the King's right are three grave and closely 
shaved personages on their knees. The first is Dr. John Chambre, one 
of the Royal Physicians, he is represented in a skull cap and furred 
gown, the sleeves very large and in which his hands are enwrapped ; 
from the expression of his countenance it would seem that he was 
anything but pleased with the provisions of the Act, as the face has a 
sullen and discontented look; next to him is the celebrated Dr. William 
Butts, also one of Henry's Physicians, and behind him is Thomas 
Alsop, the Royal Apothecary, his hair is long and lank, and features 
coarse and hard. 

On the King's left are fifteen members of the Court on their 
knees, and in livery gowns, evidently specially sumptuous for the 
occasion, being of brocaded or damask silk, trimmed with fur, and 
each man wears a livery hood of red and black upon his shoulder. The 
first of these is Thomas Vicary, Serjeant- Surgeon, who wears a gold 
chain ; next comes Sir John Ayleff, Surgeon to the King, also with a 
gold chain and a ring on his finger, the next is Nicholas Simpson, 
King's Barber, who, like Vicary and Ayleff, wears a skull cap, all the 
others have their heads bare. Then comes Edmund Harman, King's 
Barber, and one of the Witnesses to Henry's Will, he wears a gold 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. Sj 

chain; next him is James Monforde, King's Surgeon, then John Pen, 
the King's Barber, and Nicholas Alcocke; the expression on the 
countenances of all these men is grave and solemn ; the next, Richard 
Ferris, who has a somewhat merrier face, and was also King's Surgeon, 
completes the front row. The moustaches and beards of the whole, 
including the King, would appear as if they had had great care and 
attention bestowed upon them. Of the remaining seven figures in the 
back row, the names of but two have been preserved, viz., Christopher 
Salmond and William Tilley. 

This picture of Holbein's is not surpassed, if indeed it is 
equalled, by any other of that master, every part is most elaborately 
and delicately finished ; the position of none of the figures is 
constrained, and there is no attempt at theatrical effect, yet 
every person represented is in action, the colouring is chaste, 
and kept down, nor is there any of that hardness and stiffness 
often observed in Holbein's pictures. Its reputation has been 
truly said to be world-wide, whilst it has been eulogistically 
described by some one to be " as glowing as a Titian, and 
minutely faithful as a Gerard Dow." * 

The names of the persons represented have been somewhat 
rudely affixed to their effigies, probably a few years after the 
picture was painted, and whilst we cannot but deplore the dis- 
figurement, it is more than compensated for, as the means of 
identification of so many of our illustrious predecessors. The 
tablet, with inscription, has been said to be of later date than 
Holbein's work, and to have been painted over a window, through 
which was once seen the old church of St. Bride ; this, however, 

1 fart of the above description has been adapted from an anonymous paragraph, which I found interleaved 
in Allen's History of London, at the Guildhall Library. 

M 2 

84 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

is most improbable, as it is personally dedicatory to Henry. The 
inscription is as follows : — 










To Henry the Eighth, the best and greatest King of England, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and next to Christ, supreme head of the Church of 
England and Ireland, the Company of Surgeons dedicate these, with their united prayers. 

A grievous plague had ravaged the region of England, 

Afflicting man's spirits and penetrating his frame ; 
God, pitying from on high this remarkable scourge 

Commanded thee to perform the office of a good physician. 

The light of the gospel flies around on glowing wings, 

This will be the balm to enfeebled minds : 
Whilst the disciples of Galen meet to raise a monument to thee, 

And all disease is swiftly dispelled by thy power. 

We, therefore, a suppliant band of thy Physicians, 

Solemnly dedicate this house to thee, 
And mindful of the favour with which thou, O Henry, hast blessed us, 

Invoke the greatest blessings on thy rule. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 85 

The following fragmentary notices of the persons represented in 
the picture, will be found of some interest. 

The first figure to the left is Thomas Alsop ; he was the King's 
Apothecary, and Henry VIII, by his will, left him ioo marks. 

Next to him is Dr. William Butts, one of the King's physicians, 
ever famous for his memorable interference with the King on behalf of 
Archbishop Cranmer in 1544, when the Roman Catholic party in the 
Council endeavoured to procure Cranmer's committal to the Tower. 
A full account of this incident will be found in Strype's Memorials of 
Cranmer (Oxford Ed., 18 12, pp. 1 77-181), and Shakespeare in his play 
of Henry VIII (act v., sc. 2) has also graphically described it. 
Cranmer's Secretary, aware of Butts' great influence with the King, 
sent for the Doctor, and acquainted him with the slight which had been 
put upon the Archbishop by keeping him standing in the ante-room of 
the Council Chamber among lacqueys and servingmen, upon which 
Butts immediately repaired to the King, and said : — 

'• I'll show your Grace the strangest sight, 
" The high promotion of his Grace of Canterbury : 
" Who holds his State at door, 'mongst pursuivants, 
" Pages and foot boys." 

whereupon Henry replies, — 

" Ha ! 'tis he indeed ! 
" Is this the honour they do one another? 
" Tis well there's one above them. Yet, I had thought 
" They had parted so much honesty among 'em 
" (At least good manners) as not thus to suffer 
" A man of his place and so near our favour, 
" To dance attendance on their lordships' pleasures, 
" And at the door too, like a post with packets, 
' By Holy Mary ! Butts, there's knavery. 
" Let them alone, and drawn the curtain close : 
'• We shall hear more anon." 

86 c/Jniials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Henry spoke his mind so freely to the Council, that they one and all 
shook hands with the Archbishop, and, as Strype says, " Never more 
durst any man spurn him during King Henry's life." 

Dr. Butts must have had the best practice of any man of his 
time ; there are several references to him among the State papers at 
the Record Office, of which the following are a few examples, and 
indicate that his patients were the aristocracy of the day. 

25th May, 1524. Among the funeral expenses of Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G., 
is this item: — "To John Hewson, riding to Cambridge, to fetch Dr. Buttes when my 
master was sick, 4s. 8*/." 

2Sth April, 1525. The Duke of Norfolk, writing to Cardinal Wolsey, says that 
last night at 7 o'clock the Lord Marney was "drawyng the draghts of deth, and Mr. Butts 
determyned he shuld not lyve after 5 owrys " (hours). 

14th October, 1525. A warrant was signed by Wolsey, directed to Sir Andrew 
Windsor, for delivery to Dr. Butts, who had been appointed physician to my lady Princess, 
of a livery in blue and green, in damask for himself, and in cloth for his two servants. 

17th May, 1528. In a letter from the Duke of Norfolk to Wolsey, the Duke 
says that Mr. Butts had come to him from the King, without whose aid he thought that 
he should not have recovered from his sickness. 

23rd June, 1528. In a letter from Brian Tuke (to Cardinal Wolsey) he speaks 
of an infection which had been much about of late, and how the King told him that 
Mistress Ann Boleyn and my lord Rochford both have had it ; what jeopardy they have 
been in, by the turning in of the sweat before the time ; of the endeavour of Mr. Buttes 
who hath been with them in his return ; and finally of their perfect recovery. 

1 9th January, 1 530. A letter from De Augustinis, written from the palace at Esher, 
to Cromwell, desires that Dr. Butts or Dr. Walter Cromer may be sent to the Cardinal 
and requesting that Balthazar the physician, may be spoken to, to obtain some leeches ; 
no time was to be lost and the doctors were to bring with them some vomitive electuary. 

Dr. Butts was a personal friend of Henry's, who, in 1537, 
granted him the manor and advowson of Thornage, in Norfolk. He 

c/Innals of the Barber-Surgeons. Sy 

died 17th November, 1545, and lies buried in Fulham Church, where 
there is (or was) a monument to his memory. 

Next to Butts, and immediately to the King's right, is Dr. John 
Chambre ; he was physician to and a great favorite of Henry's, holding 
several clerical preferments as well. He was a Fellow and Warden of 
Merton College, Oxon, where he was admitted Doctor of Physic, 
29th October, 1 53 1. In the list of persons to whom Wolsey, in 1526, 
assigned lodgings at the King's house, when they should repair 
thither, occurs the name of Dr. Chambre. There is also a catalogue 
of the King's new year's gifts, in 1528, by which it appears that 
the Doctor had a piece of plate weighing 24^3 ozs., at the 
same time the Cardinal's gift was 40% ozs., and that of the 
Archbishop 31 ozs. 

In Brian Tuke's letter (23rd June, 1528), before referred to, he 
tells Wolsey that when he called on the King with his letters, he found 
him in " secret communication with his physician, Mr. Chambre, in a 
tower, where he sometimes sups apart." 

Dr. Chambre was Dean of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, 
Canon of Windsor, Archdeacon of Bedford, Prebendary of Comb and 
Harnham in Salisbury Cathedral, Treasurer of Wells Cathedral, and 
beneficed in Somersetshire and Yorkshire. Truly the lines had fallen 
unto him in pleasant places ! 

He was one of the physicians in attendance on Queen Jane, at 
the birth of Edward VI, and in a letter written by him to the Privy 
Council, concerning the Queen's critical state, he signs himself 
" priest." He was also in attendance on Anne Boleyn, in her 
confinement with Elizabeth. His name is mentioned with that 
of Linacre and three others, in the Charter to the College of 
Physicians, in 15 18. 

88 c/Jmmls of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Sir William Compton, K.G., in 1522, nominated Dr. Chambre 
one of his executors, in conjunction with the Bishop of Exeter, and 
Sir Henry Marney, Lord Privy Seal. 

Dr. Chambre built a " very curious cloyster," in St. Stephen's 
Chapel, which cost him 11,000 marks, and he gave the canons of that 
chapel some lands. He died in 1549. 

On the King's left is, first, Thomas Vicary (sometimes Vicars 
and Vyccary), Master of the Barbers in 1530, and of the Barber- 
Surgeons in 1 54 1, 1546, 1548 and 1557. He was a man of great 
eminence in his profession, having been Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, and Serjeant-Surgeon to Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary and 
Elizabeth. He was the author of "The Profitable Treatise of 
Anatomy" in "The Englishman's Treasure, with the true Anatomie 
of Man's Body." An account of Vicary will be found in D'Arcy 
Power, pp. 102, etc., and several particulars relating to his connection 
with St. Bartholomew's Hospital, are recorded in a paper by Dr. 
Norman Moore (Hospital Reports, vol. xviii, pp. 333-358) ; see also 
Dr. Furnivall's exhaustive account (Early English Text Society). 

Next comes Sir John Ayleff (Aylif, Aylyff, etc.). He was 
Master of the Barbers in 1538, and Surgeon to the King, with whom 
he was doubtless on terms of friendship, as Henry bequeathed him 
100 marks. Ayleff treated Henry for fistula and cured him, at 
Brinkworth in Wilts, for which the King bestowed upon him a great 
estate there in gratification. He subsequently became a Merchant of 
Blackwell Hall, Sheriff of London in 1548, and Alderman of Bridge 
Without in 1550. 

17th July, 1550. In the Repertories of the Court of Aldermen 
is a Record that the Court of the Barber-Surgeons gave their assent 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


to the Translation of Sir John from theirs to the Grocers' Company, 
of which Company he was crowned Upper Warden 9th June, 1556. 

Sir John Ayleff was buried 20th October, 1556, in the Church 
of St. Michael Bassishaw, where there was formerly a marble tomb 
with this inscription thereon — 

In Chirurgery brought up in youth, 

A Knight here lyeth dead ; 

A Knight and eke a Surgeon such 

As England seld hath bred. 

For which so soveraigne Gift of God 

Wherein he did excell, 

King Henry VIII call'd him to Court, 

Who lov'd him dearly well. 

God gave the Gift, the King gave Goods, 

The Gift of God t'enhance ; 

Where God and such a Prince do joyne, 

Such Man hath happy Chance. 

King Edward for his service sake, 

Bade him rise up a Knight, 

A name of Praise and ever since 

He, Sir John Ailiffe hight, 

Right Worshipful, in name and charge 

In London lived he than, 

In Blackwell Hall the merchant chiefe 

First Sheriffe, then Alderman. 

The Hospitals bewaile his death 

The Orphan children mone, 

The chiefe Erector being dead 

And Benefactor gone. 

Dame Isabel who lived with him, 

His faithful Wife and Mate, 

With him (as dearest after death) 

Doth not her Knight forsake 

The Knight the 24' of October. 

Yeelded up his breath, 

And she soon after followed 

To live with him in death. 

19 April, 1558. My lady Aylyff gave a fyne table cloth of damaske worcke 
to srve for the uppermost table in the hawle the w ch of her jentyllness she gave frely 
unto this hawle. 

John Ayleff (son of the Knight) was admitted to the freedom of 
the Barber-Surgeons, 3rd June, 1552. 

Next to Sir John Ayleff, is Nicholas Simpson, concerning 
whom nothing is known to me, but that he was " King's Barber," and 
Master of the Barbers in 1537. 

Probably a mistake for 14th. 


qo ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Edmund Harman, " King's Barber," follows next ; he was 
admitted to the freedom in 1530, and served Master in 1540. Henry 
VIII bequeathed him 200 marks, and he was one of the attesting 
witnesses to the King's will. There are several references to him 
among the State Papers and Household Ordinances. His dignified 
bearing and expression in the picture are very striking. 

James Monforde (or Mumford), " King's Surgeon," is next ; he 
was Upper Warden in 1540 and again in 1543, but never served as 
Master. He gave the Company their silver hammer, still used by the 
Masters in presiding at Courts. 

Then comes John Pen (Penn or Penne), " King's Barber," and 
Groom of the Privy Chamber ; he was admitted to the freedom in 
1527 and was Master 1539. He married Lucy, daughter and heiress 
of Edmond Chevall, of Coddicote, Herts, by whom he had a good 
estate and seven children (vide Harl. Soc. Pub. xxii., 82 & 116). 

In Liber Niger Domus Regis (Harl. MS. 642) among the 
orders made for the regulation of the Household of Henry VIII 
was one, that none but fifteen persons whose names are specified 
should be allowed to enter the Privy Chamber, and one of these 
is John Penne. 

The following quaint regulation, concerning the King's Barber, 
is to be found in the same MS. — 

Item. It is alsoe ordcyncd that the Kingf Barbor shalbe daylie by the Kingf 
upriseinge readdye and attendant in the Kingf Privye Chamber there haveinge in 
reddynesse his Water Basons Knyvesf Combes scissourf and such other stuffe as to his 
Roome doth appertaine for trymminge and dressinge of the Kingf heade and bearde. 
And that the sayd Barbour take a speciall regarde to the pure and cleane keepinge of 
his owne p'son and apparrell useinge himselfe allwayes honestlye in his conversationne 
withoute resortinge to the Companye of vile personnes or of misguided woemen in 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 9/ 

avoydeinge such daunger as by that meanes hee might doe unto the Kingf most Royall 
person not fayling thus to doe uppon payne of looseinge his Roome and farther 
punnishement at the Kingf pleasure. 

In this MS. is also to be found an earlier order, of the time 
of Edward IV touching the King's Barber, which is curious, as 
indicating that Saturday night was then (as still it is with many) 
" tub night " with the King ; and we may also infer from the 
expression " if it please the King to cleanse his head, legs or feet," 
that it was not a fixed rule for him to do so every Saturday night. 

A Barbour for the Kingis most highe and drad p'son to be taken in this Court, 
after that he standeth in degree gentleman yoman or groome. It hath bin much 
accustomed to one or two well knowne officers of the Ewrie in housold Daily of 
such as bene for the monthe Sergeant or othir. Also we finde how this hath bene used 
amonge by a weele betrusted yoman of chain bre ffor lacke of cunning of these other 
men. It is accustomed that a knight of the Chambre or elles squire of the bodie or 
both be p'sent every time when the Kinge wolle shave. This Barbour shall have 
every satterday night if it please the Kinge to cleanse his head leggf or feete and for 
his shaveing two lovis ' one pitcher wine. And the usher of chambre ought to testifie 
if this be necessary dispensed or not. 

It is said that the portrait of Pen was greatly admired by Sir 
Robert Peel, who frequently came to the Hall to look at it, and who is 
reported to have offered the Company ,£2,000 for the head, if it might 
be cut from the picture, he undertaking to make good the damage ! 
He is also alleged to have said at one of his visits, that he should like 
to sleep on the table at the Hall, so that the first thing he would see 
on waking in the morning might be Pen's head. Had Sir Robert 
known the legend 2 of the table he would perhaps have suggested a 
different bed. Henry VIII left, by his Will, 100 marks to Pen. 

Concerning the next man, Nicholas Alcocke, nothing is known 
beyond that he was Surgeon to Edward VI, and was admitted to the 

1 Loaves. - Said to have been part of the dissecting table ! 

N 2 

c)2 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

freedom in 1523. He was doubtless a member of die Court, though 
he never served as Warden. 

The last on the front row is Richard Ferris (or Ferrers), Master 
in 1563 and Serjeant-Surgeon to Elizabeth. Like others of his 
brethren, he also benefited under Henry's will, to the extent of 100 
marks, and was one of the King's Surgeons. 

In the back row are seven figures, but of these the names of 
only two survive, viz., William Tylley, Upper Warden 1546, and 
Christopher Samon (Salmon, Sammond), admitted to the freedom in 
1528, and Master in 1553. By Domestic Papers, Henry VIII, vol. 5, 
p. 690, it appears that one Christopher Samon was living in Lombard 
Street in 1532 : this might be the same man. 

29 August, 1668. Dear old Samuel Pepys visited us this day, 
and thus records his intentions and opinion concerning the picture — 

And at noon comes by appointment Harris to dine with me : and after dinner 
he and I to Chyrurgeons Hall, where they are building it new, very fine ; and 
there to see their theatre, which stood all the fire, and which was our business, 
their great picture of Holben's, thinking to have bought it by the help of Mr. 
Pierce,' for a little money : I did think to give ^200 for it, it being said to be 
worth ^1,000 ; but it is so spoiled that I have no mind to it, and is not a pleasant, 
though a good picture. 

James I seems to have entertained a high opinion of this picture, 
and borrowed it of us to be copied : his letter applying for it is preserved 
at the Hall, and is as follows. 

James R. 

Trustie and welbeloved Wee greete you well. Where we are informed of a 
Table of painting in yo r Hall wherein is the Picture of o r Predecesso' of famous memorie 
K. Henry the 8 th , together with diverse of yo r Companie, w ch being both like him, and 

1 James Pierce (or Pearse) Surgeon to Charles II and to the Duke of York. Master in 1675 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 93 

well done, Wee are desirous to have copyed. Wherfore o r pleasure is that you presently 
deliver it unto this bearer Our Welbeloved Servant S r Lionell Cranfield Knight, One of 
Our Maisters of Requests, whome Wee have commaunded to receave it of you and to see 
it w th all expedition copied and redelivered safely ; and so Wee bid you farewell. Given 
at Our Court at Newmarket the 13 th day of Januarie 1617.' 

The Court of course agreed to lend the picture, though 
doubtless with some misgivings ; contrary however to the practice 
of the time when money was "lent" to the King, it found its way 
back to the Hall. 

In 1627, Charles I, a more suspicious borrower than his 
father, had it to Whitehall, but here again we fortunately had it 

The Royal College of Surgeons possess some Cartoons, from 
which, it has been said, this picture was painted ; this is, however, very 
doubtful. Some particulars as to these Cartoons may be seen in 
Mr. D'Arcy Power's book, p. 96. 

In 1734 the Company agreed with Mr. Bernard Baron for him 
to engrave the picture for 150 guineas, and several details relating 
thereto are recorded in the Minutes. It was published in 1736, and 
is a faithful reproduction, much sought after by collectors. Baron has 
however copied the picture, exactly as he saw it on to the copper- 
plate, so that when the impressions were struck off, everything was 
reversed. His original study, a red crayon, beautifully executed, 
is preserved in the Court Room, and the copperplate is still used, 
each Assistant on his election being presented with a copy of 
the engraving. The Company also possess a rather rough proof 
before letters. 

'i.e., 161 f. 

94 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The print is dedicated to the Earl of Burlington, with a Latin 
inscription, of which the following is a translation. 

" To the Most Noble Lord Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington 
and Cork, &c, Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of the Garter. 
For the restoration, with the greatest liberality, at his own costs, of 
the Anatomical Theatre built a hundred years before, with the 
greatest skill, by the very celebrated Architect Inigo Jones, and 
decayed by lapse of time. This painting of Holbein representing 
the granting of a Charter given with his own hand by Henry VIII, 
King of England, &c, to the Society of Surgeons in London and 
preserved in their Hall, is by the Society of Surgeons of London 
humbly dedicated." 

This inscription, written at a time when the relations between 
the Barbers and the Surgeons of the Company were becoming strained, 
was evidently drawn by a Surgeon, who coolly ignored the Barbers 

A very good pen and ink drawing of the picture was made by 
Austin Travers Young (aged 16) in 1883, and presented by him to the 
Company, for which he received the thanks of the Court. 

1537. In "Chapter House Book" B. r. (at the Record Office) 
is a list of the freemen of the several Companies of London at this 
date, which gives the names of 2,468 freemen in 39 Companies (an 
average of about 63 to each). The Barbers outstripped in numbers all 
the others, having a roll of 185 members; next to them came the 
Skinners with 151, then the Haberdashers with 120, so on down 
to the Bowyers, who mustered but 19. The premier Company, 
the Mercers, numbered but 55, whilst the ancient Weavers had 
only 30 members. 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


The following 
being members of the 

Nicholas Symson. 
Willm Kyrckby. 
Thomas Vycars. 1 
John Bankf . 
John Potter. 
Thomas Twyn. 
John Johnson. 
John Holland. 
Willm Rewe. 
John Aylyff. 
Edmond Harman. 
John Pen. 
Richard Tayler. 
Harry Carrier. 2 
Rauf Garland. 
John Enderbye. 
Peter Devismand. 3 
Robert Postell. 
John Bird. 
James Tomson. 
Willm. Kydd. 
John Yong. 
Thomas Sutton. 
Charles Wyght. 
John Newman. 
Thomas Grome. 

Willm Higgf. 
John Dene. 
Thomas Surbutt. 
Willm Billing. 
Willm. Lyghthed. 

is the list of our 
Court, and Nichol 

John Raven. 
Robert Hutton. 
Henry Pemberton. 
Willm Shirborne. 
George Genne. 
Thomas Johnson. 
Robert Spegnall/ 
Richard Boll. 5 
Nacholas Alcoke. 
Willm. Tylley. 
John Northcote. 
Willm. Wetyngton. 
Henry Yong. 
Cristofer Samond. 
Robert Waterford. 
Henry Atkyn. 
Christofer Boiling. 
Robert Stocdale. 
Mathiewe Johnson. 
Davy Sambroke. 
John Atkynson. 
Thomas Waryn. 
Robert Grove. 
Robert Brownhill. 
Willm Spencer. 
Thomas Butfilane. 6 
Robert fforster. 
Edmond Tyrell. 
John Philpott. 
John Thowlmod. 7 
Edward Ingalby. 8 
Richard Elyott. 

freemen, the first twenty-six 
as Symson, Master that year. 

Thomas Wilson. 
John Smythe. 
Willm Hiller. 
Richard Tholmod. 9 
John Awcetter. 

Richard Sermond. 
Hugh Lyncocke. 
John Bordman. 
Rauf Stek. 
Henry Hogekynson. 
John Tomson. 
Hugh Dier. 
Edward fireman. 
Thomas Mone. 
Willm Yenson. 
John Banester. 
Willm Trewise. 
Christofer Hungate. 
John Hutton. 
John Browne. 
John Grene. 
John Tymber. 
John Shrene. 
Thomas Staynton. 
Thomas Pays. 
Thomas Mede. 
John Anger. 
Thomas Worseley. 
John Gilberd. 
Cristofer Haynes. 
Willm. Smythe. 

Vycary. - Cazier ? :l Daiseman. ' Sprignall. b Bowie. 

6 Butphillian. ; Tholmwood. s Ingolsby. " Tholmwood. 

9 6 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

John Mosseley. 
Willm. Hill. 
George Wenyard. 
John Barker. 
Willm. Barker. 
James Wod. 
John Stere. 
Willm Hetherley. 
Olyver Wilson. 
Willm. Grene. 
Henry Rawshold. 
Bartilmewe Dobynson. 
Henry Patterson. 
Philip Pegott. 
Robert Uownys. 
Antony Barowes. 
James Hogeson. 
Robert Wevir. 
John Surbut. 
Willm Sewell. 
John Denys. 
John Page. 
Robert Dodwell. 
John Cutberd. 
John Gray. 
Willm. Dauntese. 
Thomas Appilton. 
John Cragell. 
Thomas Arundell. 
Willm. Johnson. 
Henr'. Adam. 

Willm. Downham. 
Rogier Skynner. 

John Gerard. 
Richard Rogiers. 
Thomas Dicson. 
Thomas Gylman. 
Thomas Dester. 
Edward Hewett. 
John Dormot. 
George Batman. 
Thomas Vivian. 
George Brightwelton. 
John Waren. 
John Greenway. 
John Bell. 
Laurens Mollyners. 
John Cobbold. 
Willm. Draper. 
Richard Smythe. 
Robert Ledf . 
John Gamlyn. 
Thomas Cutbert. 
Robert Chamber. 
Lewis Bromefeld. 
Richard Worseley. 
John Oskyn. 
John Robynson. 
Richard Coley. 
John West. 
Willm. Welfed. 

John Smerthwaite. 
John Lybbe. 
George More. 
Thomas Burnett. 
John Hamlyn. 
Richard Child. 
Thomas Baily. 
George Vaughan. 
Thomas Wetyngh'm. 
John Bonair. 
Richard Cokerell. 
Willm. Walton. 
Geferey ffraunceis. 
Thomas ffayles. 
John Edlyn. 
John Samond. 
Henry Bodeley. 
Thomas Stanbrige. 
Willm. Borrell. 
Richard Nicols. 
Edward Hughbank. 
John Charterane. 
Henry Wotton. 
Robert Hastyng^. 
Alex Mason. 
Thomas Darker. 
Thomas ffyshe. 
Edward Rollesley. 
John Braswell. 
Willm. Symsyn. 

The forty-two names following the Court and ending at John 
Awcetter were Liverymen, the remaining hundred and seventeen being 

1543. A few years previously the King had set the example of 
wearing his hair and beard short, and now the City seems to have 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 97 

discountenanced long beards, as I find the following in Letter Book 
Q. 87. (10th July, 35 Henry viij.) 

An acte agavnst ( 
bearded men. ) 

Item for dyv°se & sundrye consyderacons & causes movyng this Corte it is 
this daye orderyd & decreid & establyshed by the same that from henseforward 
there shall no Cytezen or other inhitunte" of this Cytie usyng or havyng a greate 
berde of more notable p'lyxitie 2 or lenght then other the seid Cytezens of this 
Cytie do nowe use or have hertofore of late yeres usyd to were, either be iiihited 
p°mytted or suffred to Receyve or take eny orphanage into his handes and custodye 
albeit that he wolde fynde nev° soe good suertyes for the same nor yet be admytted 
from henseforward to this Co'te for eny Recognita" 5 or suertye for eny suche orphange 
And yt is also assentyd & agreid that no p^son havynge eny such berde shalbe 
admytted by redemption into the lybties & fredome of this Cytie as longe as he 
shall were eny such berde. 

1544 and 1545. In Repertory XI (at Guildhall) IT. -jf- 
176, i87 a ' 22Q B " 232 and 234 are various records relating to 
the vexed question of the Barber-Surgeons going on inquests, 
bearing armour and serving as constables, from all which 
offices they claimed exemption under their Charters and Act of 

By the earlier entry, it seems that the Wardens were warned 
to appear before the Court of Aldermen to shew cause why they 
refused to pass upon inquests, etc. ; then came a petition from the 
Company praying to be discharged of all offices save the Inquest of 
Wardmote once a year ; this does not appear to have satisfied the 
Authorities, and the Company were directed to draw up further Articles 
to be submitted to the Court of Aldermen. Great pressure was no 
doubt put upon the Barber-Surgeons, the result being that they 

1 Inhabitant. - Prolixity. 

cjS zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

abandoned most of the privileges of exemption which they had 
claimed, and submitted a Bill of Articles, which was finally approved, 
and entered of record on fo. 234. A copy of this lengthy document 
is at the Hall, and from it it appears that on the 22nd October, 
1545, the Company appeared before the Court of Aldermen as 
" humble Besechers" to be shorn of their privileges, the ground 
of their petition being "That forasmoche as some grudge and 
displeasure is lately sith the unyon and conjunction of their 
said ffelowshippes in to one entyre Company growen conteyned 
and taken against them and their said ffelowship, by dyverse 
of theire neighbours being citezeins of this citie, as they be, by 
reason that they your said suppliauntf" are discharged by their 
Charters and Act of Parliament from bearing offices, etc., "that 
other the Cittzeins of this citie are ellygible and lyable unto, 
ffor the whiche grudge and displeasure your besechers are not 
a little sorye. ffor the playne declaracSn thereof and for the 
eschewyng advoyding and utter extinguysshement of the said grudge 
and displeasure from hensforwarde," they are content that it shall 
be ordained that they shall go upon all Wardmote Inquests, but not 
upon any inquests between party and party {i.e., sit as jurymen in 
civil actions) ; that all freemen of the Company not_ practising 
Surgery shall be contributory to all assessments, serve as Constables 
and keep watches in their turn as other citizens, but that all 
Surgeons shall be free from bearing armour, etc. 

Notwithstanding this compromise, entered in the City books, 
it seems in course of time to have been overlooked, and, as has 
been previously remarked, the exemption of all freemen of the 
Company from juries, etc., has been claimed and allowed down to 
quite recent days. 




j^r. jfof/l 



<&e . 


mat, o?^ 



FAC-SIMILl r\ i ui-i MINUTI BOOK, 1557. {Set fi. pp.) 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 99 

1550. The first of our Court Minute Books which has been 
preserved, commences in the 4 th Edward VI, and bears this title, 

<Sr5ers cm5 JUwctr&es made ordered and awarded within the tyme of Maister George 
Geen Thomas Johnson Thomas Stocdall and Mathew Johnson Maister and Wardeins of 
the Company and fellowship of Harbors Surgeons of London for one hole yere begynnyng 
the xxyj"' day of Auguste in the fowerthe yere of the reigne of our Sovereigne Lorde 
Kynge Edward the Syxte with thassent and consent of the Assistaunces of the same 
Companye as hereafter ensuethe. 

From this and the succeeding Minute Books, the following 
extracts are principally taken as illustrative of the Company's History 
from this period : 

1556. At the end of the first book is a very long memorandum 
written and signed by Thomas Knot, Master, to the effect that on the 
26th March, 1556, he made humble suit to the Lord Mayor, Sir 
Will" 1 - Garrett and the Aldermen, in the name of the Company, for 
the exemption of the Company from finding or setting forth any 
soldiers or men of war at any time thereafter, when it might be that 
the Citizens of London should be required to do so, either by sea or 
land, " fforasmoche as the same Company are alwayes at every such 
tyme and tymes very sore burdened and chardged otherwise hereafter 
expressed, that is to saye, They are comaunded and bounden to 
prepare and fynde so manye Surgeons and so many other men 
attendinge upon them at every tyme and tymes that it shall fortune 
the King" to send out soldiers by sea or land, and "the same Company 
doe alwayes prepare fynde and send furthe for every one houndreth 
of suche Souldyers one Surgeon and a man attending upon him." 
Upon which representations the Lord Mayor and Aldermen were 
pleased to grant to the Company, that on future occasions when the 

o 2 

ioo aAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

like requisitions might " fortune to be layed or appointed to or 
upon theym, that then they in every suche case upon their gentle 
suyte and request made unto the Lorde Mayor and courte of 
Aldermen for the tyme beinge for and concernynge their sayd 
dischardge for and in consyderacon of the causes above remem- 
bered, shalbe as gentelye and charytably holpen eased and 
releaved in that behalf as the wayte and ymportaunce of the 
burden that the Cytie at every suche tyme shalbe chardged w th 
all will reasonablye permytt and suffer." 

The memorandum then proceeds to state that the Lord 
Mayor and Aldermen advised the Master to cause a remem- 
brance of the above (being only a promise by word of mouth) 
to be entered and recorded in the Book of Ordinances of the 
Company, which was done. 

1555. In Henry Machyn's Diary for this year, is the follow- 
ing reference to a Romish procession, winding up with a dinner 
at Barbers' Hall. 

The xxvij day of May was the Clarkes prossessyon from Yerdhall 1 college, 
and ther was a goodly masse to be hard, and evere clarke havyng a cope and 
garland, with C. = stremers borne, and the whettes 3 a playng round Chepe, and 
so to Ledynhall unto Sant Albro 4 chyrche, and ther thay putt off ther gayre, 
and ther was the blessyd sacrament borne with torche-lyght abowt, and from 
thens unto the Barbur-hall to dener. 

1558. This year (8th June) the Company procured an 
Inspeximus Charter from Philip and Mary, which is still in our 
possession, and has a most beautifully executed title, the initial 
letter representing the King and Queen seated on the throne, 

1 Guildhall. - A hundred. 3 Waits. * St. Ethelburga. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


and the border containing various heraldic badges ; the seal 
unfortunately is damaged. 

IPPUS ET MARIA, Dei gracia Rex et 
Regina Anglie hispaniarum ffrancie utriusque 
Sicilie Jerusalem & hiBine fidei defensores 
Archiduces Austrie Duces Burgundie Medio- 
lani & brabantie Countes haspurgi fflandr' 
& Tirol is. 

(Smntbua ad quos presentes Ire 
perviiint saltm. 

Inspeximus quasdam Iras patentes 
domini H. quondam Regis Anglie septum' 
fcas in hec verba, Henricus dei gra, &c. 

Teste me 

ipo apud YVestmonastiiim duodecimo die 

marcii Anno regni nri tclo. Yong. pro viginti solid solut in hanapio. Nos 

autem Iras p^dcas ac omnia & singula in eisdem contenta rata heiites & 

grata ac ea pro nob 1 heredib} & Successor^ nrm prefate Regine quantum 

in nol5 est acceptamus & approbamus ac ea dilcis norj Thome Vicary 

nunc magistro mistere barbitonsoii Thome Whytyngame Jacobo Wood & 

Johi Warren Gubernatoribus ejusdem mistere & Successorib3 suis ratifi- 

camus & confirmam p'ut Ire p'dce in se ronabiliter testantur. In cujus rei testi- 

momu has Iras nras fieri fecimus patentes. Testibus nobis ipis apud Westmonas- 

terium octavo die Junii Annis regnorum quarto & quinto. 


Taxat finis ad x' 

Nico eboii Canc.° 

It is noticeable in this Charter that the confirmation is to the 
Governors of the " Barbers," and not " Barber-Surgeons," although the 
latter was then the legal style of the Company, but probably this was 
another clerical error. 

' A clerical error, for Henry VIII. 
" Assessed at a fine of £10. Nicholas (Archbishop of) York, Chancellor. 

102 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1560. This year (6th January) the Company obtained an In- 
speximus Charter from Elizabeth, still preserved at the Hall ; it has 
a title in much the same style as the preceding charter, but the seal 
is very much damaged. 

I LIZABETH, Dei gracia Anglie FFrancie, et hibernie Regina fidei 
defensor, &c. (Smnifius ad quos presentes littere pervenerint 

Inspeximus litteras patentes Dili P. et Dne M. Sororis nre 
precharissime nuper Regis et Regine Anglie de confirmacoe factas 

in hec verba Philippus et Maria dei gracia, &c Testibus 

nobis ipis apud Westmonasteriu octavo die Junii Annis regno 1 .; nro^ quarto et quinto. 
Nos autem Iras predcas ac omia et singula in eisdem contenta rata habentes et grata 
ea pro nobis heredibus et successoribus nris quantum in nobis est acceptamus et 
approbamus ac ea Dilcis nobis Georgio Gen nunc magistro mistere Barbitonso^ Williii 
Grene Thome Bayly et Jolii Smarthawyte Gubernatoribus ejusdem mistere et Succes- 
soribus suis ratificamus et confirmamus prout Ire predce in se racionabiliter testantur. 
In cujus rei testimonium has Iras nras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste me ipa apud 

Westmonasteriu sexto die Januarii Anno regni nr secundo. 

Taxat finis ad x'' vj s ' viij d ' 

In Machyn's quaint Diary, we find the following entries : — 

1 56 1. The xxiiij day of Feybruary whent to hang xviij men and ij women, and 
serten ware browthe' to be bered in serten parryches in London ; the barbur surgens had 
on 3 of them to be a notheme 3 at ther halle. 

1562. The xx day of June was a gret shutyng 4 of the Compene of the Barbur 
Surgeantes for a gret soper at ther owne hall for a xxx mess of mett, 5 for they dyd make ij 
godley" stremars agaynst that day of their harmes, 7 the whyche they wher agmented by the 

most valeant kyng at armes master and they had vj drumes plahyng and 

a fiutt ; and ij gret ansutts, 8 and as a shot was wone, downe whent that and up the thodar, 9 
and as they whan the shut ; and master Gall™ and ys syd" wan the soper — the master of 
the Compene. 

1 Brought. - One. 3 Anatomy. ' Shooting, probably at Moorfields, with bows and arrows. 
1 Meat. ' Goodly. T Arms. a Ancients (flags). ' The other. "' Thomas Galle. " His side. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


The x day of August was Barbur surgyons fest, and they capt ther communion at 
Sant Alphes 1 at Crepull-gat, and master Recherdson dyd pryche, 2 the skott ; ther was 
good syngyng ; and after to ther halle to dener, and after dener a play. 

1567. Elizabeth inaugurated the first State Lottery in England, 
as a means of providing money, and a very peremptory mandate was 
directed by the Lord Mayor to the various City Companies, com- 
manding them to adventure therein. 

1st February, 1568. The Barber-Surgeons put in 40 s ' for the 
" use, profet and benefyt of the hall," but did not draw a prize, and 
indeed none of the Companies reaped any advantage by the speculation, 
the Lottery being simply a trap into which they were ordered to walk. 

The proposal for this Lottery was as follows : — 

A verie rich Lotterie Generall without any Blancks contayning a great No. of 
good prices, as well of redy money, as of Plate & certaine sorts of marchaundizes 
having been valued & prised by the commaundement of the Queenes most excellent 
Majestic by men expert & skilfull and the same Lotterie is erected by hir majesties order, 
to the entent that such Commoditie as may chaunce to arise thereof, after the charges 
borne, may be converted towards the reparation of the Havens and strength of the 
Realme, & towardes such other publique good workes. The No. of lots shall be foure 
hundreth thousand, and no more : and every lot shall be the summe of tenne shillings 
sterling onely, and no more. 

Stow says that this Lottery was commenced to be drawn on 
the nth January, 1569, at the West Door of St. Paul's, and continued 
drawing day and night until the 6th May following. 

It was a common practice of the Companies to put in their 
money under mottoes, and some curious ones are recorded, many 
being composed with a quaint sarcasm on the probability of prizes 
being obtained. 

1 St. Alphage. - Preach. 

104 cA finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Herbert (Hist, of the Twelve Livery Companies) gives some 
interesting particulars of the State Lotteries, and quotes a motto used 
by the Merchant Taylors which pretty clearly indicates their opinion 
of the business ; 

One byrde in the hande is worth two in the wood, 

If we get the great lot, it will do us good. 

Some of the prizes were ridiculously small, e.g., is. 2d., 2s. id., etc., 
and great dissatisfaction was expressed at the principal prizes remaining 
unpaid to the winners. 

1 573. The Company received a precept from the Lord Mayor 
for a "loan" of money to make provision of wheat for the City, 
and the same was by the Court ordered to be complied with. This 
"corn custom" is very fully treated of by Herbert, and was virtually 
a tax upon the companies, who were each rated and compelled to find 
a certain proportion of corn to be stored by the City, and sold at such 
times as when, there being a scarcity, the markets would otherwise 
rise, were it not for the immense stock kept by the City. This custom 
survived for many years under certain modifications ; as we shall see 
hereafter, our Company built a granary in 1633, and stored their 
own corn. 

The precept above referred to was as follows — 

Forasmuche as all comon polecye requyreth the prevention of extremities, and 
consideringe as you knowe the urgent and present necessitie, and the lacke of provision 
of wheate and other grayne for furniture of this so great and populous citie, of the want 
whereof the queenes ma 1 " and her most honorable consell are not ignorant ; but havinge 
special regard to the same, are not a lytic offended and displeased, with some grefe 
that there bene no better p'Vision heretofore made, and that presentlie the cittie shoulde 
be no better stored, by reson wherof the prices of come and grayne is now muche dearer 
in this cittie than in any other parte of this realme, have not only at sundrye times and 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 105 

gentle meanes, but also w"' some terror, as welle in the Starre-chamber as in other 
places afore the counsell, given us admonicion that the same her ma ties cittie and 
chamber may not be unfurnished for lacke of good pVision. And we, as our 
duties is, havinge great care and especial consideracion of the same, and p^cevynge 
by order of the harvest past, and the unkynd season of the yeare, sith that the 
prices of corne is verry likely to encrease and be advanced to a greater and higher 
price than yet is, have thought good and verrye necessarye for the avoyding of 
greater inconvenyences, to make immediate p°vision of a great masse and quantity 
of wheate and other grayne, as well w"'in the realme as beyond the seas for the 
provision aforesaid, w c " cannot be done w'"out a great some of money presentlie 
to be defrayed, w ch is not to be levyed but by the good assestens of you and 
others, good coustomers and cittezens of this cittie ; have therefore assessed your 
Company of Barber Surgeons at the some of" which is agreed upon 

by acte of co^en counsell, w ch some of we do not only require you, 

but also streaghtle charge and comande you, immediatelie upon the recept hereof, 
calling your companye together in your comon hall, you do forthw"' tax, levy, 
and gather of the welthiest and most able persones of the same the sum aforesaid, 
in such wise that you fayle not to pay the same, and evrie p°cell thereof, to the 
hands of George Helton, of the cittie of London, w"' all expedicion, and w th out 
repayment thereof to you. Fayle not hereof, as you tender the mytigacon of 
our sovereigne ladye the queens majesties displeasure already conceived, and do 
tender the comon weale of this cittie, together w th your private condytte, and as 
you will answer for the contrarye. 

The next entry would seem to indicate some contemplated 
State interference with the Company's property, and the answer 
was probably not in exact accordance with the truth, for on the 
28 May, 1576, a precept in the Queen's name, having been 
received, calling upon the Master and Wardens to return to 
the Guildhall an account of the revenue of their lands, and of 
their goods, " the answere was that the true revenewe of the 
landes was xx" markes whereof the most p te went forthe and is 
disbursed in pencons, and that we had no goods." 

1 The amount is left blank. 

io6 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1578. A precept was received as follows, 
To the Wardens ] Bv THE Maior. 

OF THE COMPANIE ( , . , . . 

OF B\rbor (Thyes shalbe to will and require yo u and in her maiesties name 
Surgins. ) streitlie to charge and comaunde yo u that w ,h all convenient spede 

yo" appointe and p'Vide the number of twelve hable and sufficient p°sons being Iournemen 
apprPtices or others wc h are fremen of this Cittie and inhabitinge w"'in the same beinge of 
agilitie and honest of behavio' betweene the age of xix yeres and xl" w cl ' are fitt to be 
trayned for harquebus shott, ev°y one of them havinge a murrion, a sworde and dagger, 
and a caliver w"' sufficient furniture for the same, and one half pounde of powder, besides 
touche powder whereof Three of the same p°sons to be house holders and free men of 
yo r saide Companie, and that yo u certyfie me the saide Maior the names and sir names of 
all yo r saide number where and w th whome they dwell, of what Companie they be free, 
and what Captaynes or other skilfull men that be of yo r saide Companie or whome yo u 
knowe inhabitinge w th in this Cittie fitt to trayne or leade the same men of there names 
and dwellinge places. And that they be all in a redines furnished as aforesaide to 
muster in there hose and dublets onlie, or dublets hose and jerkins w"'in xiiij en daies 
next ensuinge the date hereof. And for the levyenge of monie for the saide furniture 
And for the charge of powder yo" shall collect suche reasonable somes of monie as yo" 
shall finde mete for the saide p porcon, by waie of reasonable assesment of ev'y 
sev'all welthie and hable p°son of yo r Companie. Wherein we require yo" in anie wyse 
to spare the powrer sorte of ffremen although yo u somewhat more largelie burden the 
ritche. Yoven at the Guildhall of this Cittie of London the xv"' daie of Marche 1577.' 


In pursuance of this precept a levy was made upon ninety- 
freemen, who contributed £\^ lys. \id. (in sums ranging from 
i 5 to 6 s 8 d ) and upon ten " foreins " who paid in all £$. The Expenses 
of the soldiers, and their arms, powder, etc., are all set out in detail 
(see Appendix D). 

1585. It was agreed "that o r Companie by reason of the 
often and earnest preceptes from the Lorde maior to move unto some 
liberall puttinge in of monie into the Lottery for Armo r , that o r 

' i.e., 1378. 

c/i minis of the Barber-Surgeons. ioj 

Companie should put in x u yf that might satisfie for all the Companie 
viz* the Clothinge vj 1 ' xiij s iiij d and the yeomanry v m'kes." 

29th September, 1586. The Lord Mayor had issued sundry 
precepts to the Company for the " buyeinge of certein goune powder 
amountinge in waight to of one Mr. Henry Dale 

Hab'dassher at the price of x d le ti. and yt was agreed the saide 
powder should be bought and that Mr. Swaldell [Master, 1593] 
should go to chuyse it, and he to have the same powder for viij d the 

10th March, 1589. It was ordered that the gunpowder 
directed by another precept to be provided by the Company, should be 
bought and that it should be kept "in the Armorie howse in convenient 
place for feare of daunger of ffier." 

29th March, 1596. It was ordered that ,£40 "ship money" 
should be " lent " by the Company to the City, which is the earliest 
mention of this obnoxious tax in our books. 

8th August, 1596. " Yt was agreed that the some of £xxx" 
shalbe lent unto the Cytty for the payenge of Souldiers wages and 
other charges diffrayed about the Spanishe voyage." This was an 
Expedition of certain ships (furnished by the City) under the Earl 
of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh " to annoye the King of Spaine." 
The English then sacked and burned Cadiz, burnt the Spanish navy, 
and on their return home, says Stow, "great triumph was made at 
London for their good successe." 

1 8th August, 1598. At this Court came a precept from the 
Lord Mayor, commanding the Company in Her Majesty's name to 
'lend" ,£100 to the Queen for six months, for suppressing rebels in 

i' 2 

wS oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Ireland. The demand was, as usual, of a most peremptory nature, 
and the Court ordered ^ioo to be paid to the Treasurers appointed 
by the City. 

6th August, 1599. A precept came from the Lord Mayor in 
the Queen's name, commanding the Master and Wardens to deliver to 
the freemen the Company's armour in " suche order as it maye be, in 
safetye readie for her Majesties service," whereupon the Master took 
for his own use " one muskett fflaske and tuche boxe one headepeece 
and one rest." Eleven other members of the Company had armour 
delivered out to them, as " one caliver fflaske and tuche boxe, sworde 
and dager girdle and hangers and headepeece." 

1599. A precept was received on 11th November, com- 
manding the Company to be in attendance on the Queen in her 
progress from Chelsea to Westminster, which is not only curious for 
the quaintness of its description of the persons who were to be 
appointed, but affords a glimpse at the magnificence of Royal pro- 
cessions three hundred years ago. 


and Wardens of ( 

the Companye of fWHERE her Ma ,s moste gratiouse pleasure and comaundement is 

Barbor-surgeons. ) this p'sente daie signified unto me the lorde Maior from the 

right ho: the lorde Chamberline of her Ma ,les moste honorable householde that myselfe 

and my Bretheren thaldermen with a conveniente number of the beste and moste 

graveste Cittyzens of this Citye shoulde uppon Tewesdaie nexte in the Afternoune wayte 

and attende uppon her highnes royall p°son from the Towne of Chelsey unto her highnes 

princlie pallace at Westminster in as honorable and statelye sorte as conveinentlye maye 

be p n formed. In accomplishment of w ch her highnes said comaundement, These shalbe 

to chardge and comaunde you in her Ma ts name to p n pare not onlye your selves, but alsoe 

provide and have in a readines the full number of eighte p°sons of the moste graveste 

talleste and comliest peonages of your saide Companye, everye of them to be well horsed 

and appareled in velvet coates and chaynes of goulde And that not onlye your sealves 

but alsoe everye of the saide eighte p^sones maye have one footeman with twoe staffe 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. ioy 

torches to waite and attende upon him, and to be all in a readines well and substancially 

horsed appareled and appointed as aforesaide in Cheepeside by twoe of the clocke of the 

saide afternoone to attende uppon me and my bretheren thaldermen to waite upon her 

moste excellente Ma" e from Chelsey aforesaide to her highnes saide pallace of Whitehall, 

Whereof see you faile not at your p°ill and as you will answere the contrarye if throughe 

your negligence any parte of this service shall not be thoroughelye p°formed. Guihalde 

the ix of November 1599. 


In pursuance of the above precept the Master with seven other 
Members of the Court were appointed to attend, and eight freemen 
were nominated as torchbearers. 

1600. The fee simple of three houses in Monkwell Street was 
this year purchased by the Company of William Fyninge for ^112! 

1 1 th November, 1600. In obedience to a precept it was 
ordered that twelve members of the Court " well mounted on horseback 
and apparrelled in all poynts accordingely," together with twelve 
freemen " to wayte uppon them w th evy one twoe staffe torches in his 
hande," were to meet at the Hall on the following Thursday 
(13th November) and to ride with the Lord Mayor to Chelsea to 
conduct the Queen to Westminster. This procession is thus referred 
to in Stow's Annals; "On the thirteenth of November 1600, her 
Maiestie being most honourablie attended on, by the most honourable 
Prelates, and Nobles, and Judges of the Realme, was received neere 
unto Chelsey, by the Lord Maior of London, with his brethren the 
Aldermen all in Scarlet, besides to the number of five hundred 
citizens, in coates of velvet, and chaines of gold, on horesbacke, 
every of them having two staffe torches to attende on them : And 
they all waited on her, to her royall Pallace at Westminster." 

9th November, 1602. Various members of the Company 
"were appoynted to ryde w' h the M r to meete her Ma tie on Saterdaie 
next " at Chelsea. 

no cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

9th April, 1603. A precept was received commanding the 
Company to contribute £12 10s. od. towards the cost of the reception 
of James I by the City, whereupon an assessment was made upon 
the freemen for the same, and the Masters made " choyce of sixe 
fisonable menn for Wiflers to attend the Livye of this Companye 
when his Ma" e goeth to be crowned." 

20th April, 1603. The following precept requiring the Com- 
pany to assist in the reception of the King " in greater number 
and more statelie and sumtiows shewe then hath bene at any time 
heretofore within the memory of man in the like case piformed," 
will be read with interest ; 

To the M KS and Wardens j By the Maior 

of the Company of J. W here the most high and mightie Prince James o r most 
Barbor Surgeons ) , . , , , , 

dread & soveraygne Lord is by the grace of god shorthe 

to make his repaire from his Kingedom of Scotland into this his Realme of England and 

so consequentlye to this his honor ble Cittie and chaymber of this his imperyall Crowne. 

And for that it is agreed by mee and my Breethr" the Aldren of the same Cittie that not 

onelie o r selves but the full number of five hundred of the best and gravest Cittizens 

should accordinge to o r dueties wayte and attend uppon his royall p°son at his approch 

nere to this Cittie in greater number and more statelie and sumtiows shewe then 

hath bene at any time heretofore within the memory of man in the like case piformed, 

Towards the accomplishm' of w ch number your company is appoynted to p'Vid the 

full number of Twelve p°sonns, These therefore shalbe to chardge and commaund you in 

his Ma" es name to prepare not onely yourselves but also to p^vid the full number of 

Twelve persons of the most grave and Comlyest peonages of youre said Companye, 

everie one of them to be well horsed and apparrelled w"' velvet Coates and w" 1 sleaves of 

the same and chaynes of golde, and not onely yourselves but every of the saide p°sons to 

have one comely p^son well apparrelled in his dublet and hose to attend uppon him 

one' foote. All which p r 'sons to be in redines well and substonciallie horsed apparrelled 

and appoynted as aforesaid w"'in one daies warneing to be signified unto you to attend on 

mee and my Bretheren the Aldren of the same Cittie, to attend and wayte uppon 

his most exelent Ma t,e as aforesaid. And that uppon Saturdaie morneinge next you 

1 On. 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 1 1 

doe certifye to mee in wrytinge the names and S'names as well of youre selves as of 
all other p°sons free of youre company that you shall appointe for this service. Of all 
w 1 ' 1 p°sons you are to have a regard that noe man for insufficiency in any respect be 
turned back to the disgrace and discredit of youre company, nor a mann unfitt furnished 
and appointed for so honorable a service. And hereof fayle you not, as you will answer 
the contrary if through youre defalt any parte of this service shal not be fullie p'Yormed. 

Guyldhull this Twenteth of Aprill 1603 


9th August, 1603. James soon attempted to borrow (as he 
termed it) of the Companies. "Where a pcept was directed to or 
M rs - for the lone of money to the Kinge, wee are to answer that wee 
have none." 

Perhaps this reply sufficed on this occasion. 

22nd October, 1603. London was this year visited with a great 
Plague, and in consequence there was no Lord Mayor's Show. 


the Compaie OF \ Theise are to will and require you that you take speciall 

Barbor Surgeons ) knowledge herby that for avoydinge of infeccon by assemblie 

of people this tyme of gods vizitacon It is thought meate therbe noe shewe made the 

morrowe after Simond and Judes daie next, it is intended that youre Companie be 

dischardged thereof for their Attendare for that tyme. 

This xxij"' of October 1603. 

7th February, 1604. The Court having considered the many 
abuses " comited against the weale of this Company" decided to 
apply for an Act of Parliament which should confer upon them 
extended powers, and appointed a Committee for the purpose, with 
the Recorder and Mr. Wilbraham as counsel. 

20th October, 1604. From an entry of this date, it seems that 
it had been decided to apply for a fresh Charter, instead of an 

112 c/tnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Act of Parliament, and a summary of the clauses (twenty-seven in 
number) which it was desired to have embodied therein is set out 
in full. As the Charter was obtained, it is unnecessary to give 
these suggested clauses here (they may be seen in Mr. DArcy Power's 
book, p. 361). The 16th one is, however, curious enough, declaring 
the " openinge searinge and imbalmeinge of the dead corpes to be 
pply belongeinge to the science of Barbery and Surgery, And the 
same intruded into by Butchers Taylors Smythes Chaundlors and 
others of macanicall trades unskillfull in Barbery or Surgery, And 
unseemely and unchristian lyke defaceinge disfiguringe and dis- 
membringe the dead Corpes, And so that by theire unskillfull searinge 
and imbalmeinge, the corpes corrupteth and groweth pntlie contagious 
and ofensive to the place and psons approachinge." 

30th January, 1605. The Charter of James I is of this date, 
but not now in our possession ; there are, however, two copies of it at 
the Hall, one of which was made in a vellum book in 1658. It was 
in Latin of prodigious length ; but the following are the clauses as 
I make them out, and will suffice for this work. 

1. It grants to the Company of Barber-Surgeons that it shall 
be ruled by four Masters or Governors and twenty-six Assistants. 

2. Power given to the Masters to make lawful assemblies, 
to keep Courts in their Common Hall, and therein to consult, counsel 
and decree touching their Statutes, Laws and Ordinances, for the 
good rule, state and government of the Company. 

3. Power to make laws, etc., for the government of the 
Masters or Governors, and of all and singular persons using the 
mysteries of Barbery or Surgery within the City of London, the 
liberties and suburbs thereof. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


4. Power to punish offenders by penalties, fines, and im- 

5. Fines to be levied by distress by the officers of the 

6. Nomination of John Laycock as Master, and of the 
three Wardens. 

7. The present Masters to continue in office until the Monday 
next before the feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, and until 
the election of new Masters. 

8. The present Masters and Assistants to continue on the 
Court for life, unless removed for misbehaviour or other good cause. 

9. Upon the death or dismissal of an Assistant, the vacancy 
to be filled up by the Court. 

10. Assistants to be sworn on admission. 

11. The Masters, or the more part of them, to choose twelve 
persons of the mystery (six whereof to be expert Surgeons), which 
twelve were to be the Electors to choose the new Masters or 
Governors on the Monday next before the feast of St. Bartholomew. 

12. Of the four Masters, two to be Surgeons. 

13. The Masters elected to be sworn to the due execution 
of their offices. 

14. Any member elected a Governor, to be ever after an 

15. If a Governor be dismissed for misconduct, another to be 
chosen in his place in the form provided. 

16. The twelve Electors to be sworn. 

17. Power of search, oversight, reformation, government, and 
correction, as well of free as of foreign professors of Barbery and 
Surgery in London and its suburbs. 

18. Power of entry into Shops of Barbers and Surgeons 


ii4 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

19. Power to oversee, and approve or condemn plasters, 
ointments, instruments, etc. 

20. Power to examine Barbers and Surgeons. 

21. Power to prohibit ignorant persons, or such as shall 
wilfully refuse to be examined, from practising. 

22. Power to admit skilful persons to practise Surgery. 

23. Power to reject and destroy all noxious or improper 
medicines, ointments, instruments, etc. 

24. The Masters finding on their search any impostors, 
ignorant persons, or refusers to be examined, the same to be bound to 
their good behaviour. 

25. No butcher, tailor, waxchandler or other persons, to cut, 
dissect or embalm any dead body, but the same to be done by 
members of the Company approved and appointed by the Masters or 
Governors of the Barber-Surgeons. 

26. The Masters or Governors and admitted Surgeons, to be 
discharged from Watch, Ward, Inquests or Juries, and the office 
of Constable, and from assessments for the same. 

27. Power to purchase lands, etc. 

28. Ratification of the old liberties and franchises of the 
Barber-Surgeons, and of their lands. 

29. All Mayors, Bailiffs, etc., to be aiding and assisting the 
Masters or Governors in the execution of their offices. 

Teste meipo apud Westm Tricesimo die Januarij Anno Regno nri Anglie 

ffrancie et Hibernie scdo et Scotie Tricesimo octavo. 

\P Bre de privato Sigillo. 

Christian IV, King of Denmark, brother-in-law of James, paid 
a visit to England in 1606, and was sumptuously entertained. In 
accordance with the custom of the time, there was a grand pageant and 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 115 

procession in the City, in which all the Companies took part, and 
the following precept for the same was received by us : — 

By the Maior. 

To the M K & Wardens of the | 
Company of Barbor Surgeons j 

Ffor the bewtefieinge of the street^ and lanes \v"'in this Cittie against the 
passage of the Kingf most excellent mat ic and the Kinge of Denmarke their nobilitie 
and trayne from the Tower through this Cittie. Theis are in his Ma'f name straightlie 
to charge and command you that all delayes & excuses sett aparte you have and provide 
yo r rayles in a readines for the livery of yo r company to stand in and to be sett up in 
the streetf against Wednesday the xxx ,h day of July at the furthest. And likewise that 
yo r railes against that tyme be hanged with blew azure cloth & garnished w ,h Banners & 
streamers in the most bewtifull manner that may be, as formerlie in like solempnities 
hath bin accustomed. And that you likewise have and provide sixe whifflers at the 
least to ev'y score of yo r livery well apparrelled w"' white staves in their handes to 
stand with their backf to the Common railes over against your yo r Companies railes for 
the better and quieter ordering of the street^ through which his ma"' shall passe. And 
hereof faile you not at yo r p n ill. This xxj" 1 of July 1606. 


Three days after the receipt of the above, came another 
precept demanding ^"5 from the Barber-Surgeons towards the City's 
expenses to be incurred about the Pageant. 

The two Kings landed at the Tower, from Greenwich, on 
the 31st July, on which day the City gave itself up to the gayest 
doings and rej'oicings. A curious and interesting description of the 
pageant is to be found in a rare tract by H. R., 1606, preserved 
at Guildhall Library. Howes also gives an entertaining account of 
the proceedings, and relates how the King of Denmark "seriously 
observed the unimaginable number of gallant Ladies, beauteous 
virgins, and other delicate Dames filling the Windowes of every 
houss with kinde aspect saluting " him as he passed by. He also 
tells us of the melodious harmony, the Latin speech, the pastoral 
device, and the fountains which ran with wine, etc. 

Q 2 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

It seems that on this great occasion one of the Marshalls had 
endeavoured to take our Company "down a peg" in order of 
precedence. This was, however, successfully resisted, and the Clerk 
proudly records the following in the Minutes on the same day : 

Memorand : that the Kingf ma He w lh the Kinge of Denmarke & the Prince 
of Wales came through this Cittie from wardes the Tower of London attended uppon 
with the Lordes and gentry of this Land on the last day of this instant moneth of July 
Att which tyme M r - ffoxe beinge one of the Comittees for placeinge of the Companies 
standing^ would have displaced us But by the Lord maiors order wee were placed in the 
seaventeenth place accordinge as wee ought to be placed. 

1606. Notwithstanding the new charter granted in the 
previous year, the Court found itself unable to regulate the practice 
of Barbery and Surgery without an extended set of By-Laws, which 
were now obtained and are still preserved at the Hall. They are 
in English, on eight large skins of parchment, beautifully engrossed 
with a handsomely illuminated title, the initial % containing the 
Barber-Surgeons' arms, and distributed over the heading are the 
arms of the Master and Wardens in 1606, viz. : John Peck, Edward 
Rodes, William Fynynge and John Fenton. 


The By-Laws are allowed by Thomas Lord Ellesmere, 
Lord Chancellor ; Thomas Earl of Dorset, Lord Treasurer ; and 
Sir John Popham, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas ; who 
send "greeting in our Lord God Everlasting," and enact Ordinances of 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


such fearful length, that to a layman it passes comprehension how the 
draughtsman could have kept his head clear whilst he travelled through 
such a sea of prolixity, and, to a great extent useless, repetition. If 
the Chancellor and his colleagues troubled themselves to read through 
and understand the document to which they have appended their 
seals, they must have uttered very sensible sounds of relief when 
they came to the sealing ; the recapitulation of the mere heads of 
this extraordinary production, will probably be found wearisome to 
the reader, viz' : 

Recital of an Act of Parliament, 24th Feby., 19 Henry VII. 
Oath of a freeman. 
Oath of the Masters or Governors. 
Oath of an Assistant of the Livery. 
Oath of the Electors. 
Oath of the Clerk. 
Oath of a "foreign" Surgeon. 
Oath of the Wardens of the Yeomanry. 
Oath of an Assistant of the Yeomanry. 
Oath of the Beadle. 
Oath of the Porter. 
Note. — Some of the foregoing oaths contain over 500 words in each ! 



1 1 

1 2. Every person shall appear upon summons under a penalty 
of 3 & 4 d -, and for not keeping the hour, a fine of 2 d - to be imposed. 

13. Masters neglecting the day of Election, the distribution of 
Ferbras' alms, or the payment of rents, to forfeit ,£5. 

14. No great Election dinner to be kept without the consent 
of a Court of Assistants, under a penalty of £5. 

15. The allowance for a great dinner to be 20 marks, and for 
a small one ^"4. 

16. Manner of Election of Masters or Governors. 

i/8 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

17. Time of Election. 

1 8. Twelve Electors to be chosen. 

19. Electors to be sworn. 

20. The Masters omitting any next in Election out of their 
Bills, the Electors to choose others. 

21. The order after Election. 

22. A refuser of the office of Master or Governor to be fined 
40 s ' and to be eligible to be chosen again. 

23. Or may be absolutely discharged of such office on payment 
of ,£10. 

24. And on refusal to pay such fines, to be dismissed out of 
the Court of Assistants and out of the Livery. 

25. If the Electors choose such refuser to further place, 
before he have paid his fine, each Elector to forfeit 40 s ' 

26. Every person chosen into the Livery to pay £5 if he have 
not served as Warden of the Yeomanry, and if otherwise then 40 s ' 

27. Election of two Stewards of the Mayor's feast, and two 
Stewards of the Anatomy ; £8 to be allowed to the former and 
£6 to the latter. 

28. Refusers of the Office of Steward to forfeit £13 6s. 8d. each. 

29. The Common Seal to be kept under lock and key. 

30. Time of the audit and appointment of eight auditors. 

31. Day for reading "General Rules." 

32. View of the Company's lands to be made yearly in October. 
t,2,. Allowance for the view dinner. 

34. " Search " to be made twice in the year. 

35. Apprentices to be presented within one month after they 
are retained in service, under a penalty of 40s. 

36. Indentures to be prepared by the Clerk before presentation. 
2,7- The Clerk to make all indentures. 

38. Every liveryman may keep three apprentices. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 119 

39. No decrepit, diseased or deformed apprentice to be 
retained by any Barber or Surgeon. 

40. No person to teach any but his apprentice. 

41. No person to put away his apprentice, without an order 
of Court. 

42. No person to entice away another's apprentice or servant. 

43. Every person to enroll his apprentice. 

44. The Court to punish disobedient apprentices after its 

45. No freeman to " open shop " before he hath served one 
year as journeyman. 

46. No Barber to use more than one shop. 

47. No Surgeon to serve by sea or land before he and "his 
furniture" be examined and viewed. 

48. Reformation of abuses in disobedient masters and servants. 

49. No person to serve as a journeyman unless free of the 

50. No person to use surgery before he be examined and 

51. No person to examine but the Examiners. 

52. No Examiner to be chosen but by the Court. 

53. Every Surgeon to be at every lecture on Surgery. 

54. No Surgeon to defraud another of his patient. 

55. No Person to shew his porringers, saucers or basons with 
blood therein. 

56. Every patient in danger of death or maim to be presented 
to the Masters. 

57. No person to take such presentation but a Master or 

58. Ordinance against unskilful practice in Surgery. 

59. No Anatomy to be dissected out of the Common Hall. 

120 oAiuials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

60. Anatomies to be decently buried. 

61. Warrant to create a Yeomanry. 

62. No " Courts of Assistants " to be held on Tuesdays. 

63. No Court of Assistants to be under the number of 
sixteen persons. 

64. Order of precedence in speaking. 

65. Every Member to go and sit in his due place. 

66. Ordinance against contentious and troublesome persons. 

67. Ordinance against revealers of Court secrets. 

68. No alien or stranger to bear the office of Master or 

69. Ordinance against unseemly behaviour towards the 
Masters or Governors. 

70. Ordinance against blotting or defaceing of books, pictures 
or monuments. 

71. Ordinance against any of the Livery refusing to attend in 
his Livery gown. 

72. Pensions for decayed members. 

jt,. Warrant to search for hurt persons and malefactors. 

74. As to quarterage. 

75. Third Warden's duties as to receipts. 

76. And as to payments. 

■/■/. Duties of Fourth or Renter Warden. 

78. Renter Warden to furnish accounts. 

79. As to the Audit. 

80. Ordinance against Sunday trading by Barbers. 

81. As to fines and penalties. 

82. Power to the Beadle to distrain (under a Warrant signed by 
the Masters) for all fines ; also power to dismiss disobedient persons, 
and to inflict corporal punishment. 

a/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. / 2 1 

Penalties of varying amounts are specified for breaches of any 
of the foregoing Ordinances. 

The By-Laws are signed " Ellesmere, Cane," "T. Dorset" 
and "Jo: Popham," and the three seals of their arms are pendant. 

8th September, 1606. This daie it is ordered that the M rs shall pay v 1 ' to 
M r - Michaell the Lord Cheif Justices man for his paynes in penninge of o r ordynaunces. 

5th February, 1607. This day it is ordered that a Court howse be errected 
upon the Bulwarke behind the Hall of this Company for the M rs or Governors to 
kepe their Courtf at the charge of this Company And M r - ffenton and M r - Jenkins 
are to joyne with the M' s of this Company in the same buildinge. 

This Court Room was built within the circular Bulwark at 
the west end of the old Livery Hall, from which it was shut off 
by a screen wall or partition ; many years later this screen was 
removed, and the whole thrown into one large apartment, and 
used as the Livery Hall. 

21st January, 1608. The p nt M r " are this daye authorized to furnishe the 
newe Roome in the Bulwark w"' cloth of Arras or tapestry or w"' waynscot as they 
shall think fittest at the chardge of this howse, and the Chimney peece & wyndowes 
to be waynscotted. 

1608. The Colony of Virginia (so named from the Virgin 
Queen Elizabeth, in whose reign it was discovered) was in an 
unsatisfactory condition by reason of its scanty population, want of 
enterprise and other causes ; whereupon the Council of Virginia 
endeavouring the prosperity of the Colony, sent a letter to the 
Lord Mayor propounding a scheme of emigration and colonisation 
to be undertaken by the City, which should ease the Metropolis "of a 
swarme of unnecessarie inmates," make the fortunes of the emigrants 


1 22 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

(and of the "undertakers") and benefit the Colony. This letter 
is so interesting that no apology is necessary for reproducing it here. 

Whereas the lords of his Ma lcs councill, commissioners for the Subsedie, 
desirous to ease the cittie and suburbs of a swarme of unnecessarie inmates as a 
continuall cause of dearth and famine, and the verie origenall of all plagues almost 
that happen in this kingdome, have advised yo r lordshippe and yo r brethren, in an 
ease of state, to make some voluntarie contribucon for their remove into the plantation of 
Virginia, w ch we understand you all seemed to like as an action pleasing to God and 
happie for this cofiionwealth ; We the councell and companie of this ho Llc plantation, 
willing to yelde unto your lopp and them all good satisfacon, have entered into 
consultacon w th o'selves, what may be everie mans chges, and what of everie private 
familie, w ch we send herew"' at large, not as a thing w dl we would exact from you, 
but that you may see, as in a true glasse, the true chge, w ch we wholly commend 
unto yo r grave wisdoms, both for the somme and man' of leavie ; onlie give us leave thus 
farre to enforme you that we give no bills of adventure for a lesse some than 12" 10 s 
psuminge it wont be an infinite trouble now, and confusion in the retribucon, but 
if your lop make any seasment, or raise any voluntarie contribucon out of the best 
disposed and most able of the companies, we are willing to give o r bills of adventure to 
the m r and w-ardens, to the general use and behoof of that companie, yf by wards, 
to the good of that ward, or otherwise as it shall please you and your brethren out 
of y r better experience to direct. And if the inmate called before you and enjoyned 
to remove shall alledge that he hath no place to remove unto, but must lie in the 
streats, and being offerd this journey shall demand what shalbe their psent maintenance, 
what their future hopes, yt may please you to lett them know that for the psent they 
shall have meat, drink, and clothing, w Ih an house, orchard, and garden for the 
meanest familie, and a possession of lands to them and their posteritie, one hundreth 
acres for everie man's {Json that hath a head or a body able to endure labour, as 
much for his wife, and as much for his child that is of yeres to do Svice to the 
colonie, w lh further p>ricular reward according to theire pticuler meritt and desert ; 
and yf yo r lordshipp and yo r brethren shalbe pleased to put in any private adventure 
for yo r selves in pticuler, you shalbe sure to receive according to your pporcon 
of the adventure, equall p>ts w lh us adventurers from the beginning, both of the 
comodities returned or land to be divided ; and because you shall see (being aldermen of 
so famous a cittie) we beare you due respect, we are contented, having but one 
badge of grace and favor from his Ma"°, to participate w" 1 you therein, and to make 

aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 2} 

as many of you as will adventure 50''- or more, fellow councellors from the first day 
w ,h us who have spent double and treble as much as is required, abidden the hazard 
of three sevall discoveries, w ,h much care and diligence, and many days adventure, 
and as yo r deputies, and yo r assistants, in yo r private wards, so shall as many of them as 
will adventure but 25 k present money, be made [?ties of this companie and assistants 
of this councell; and thus as an action concerning God and the advancement of 
religion, the present ease, future hon r and safety of this kingdome, the strength of 
o r navie, the visible hope of a great and rich trade, w* many secrete blessings not 
yet discovered, we commend the cause to the wisdome and zeale of yo r selfe and 
yo r brethren and you, and it, and us, to the holie ptection of the Almightie. 

The City took up the scheme heartily, a large sum was 
subscribed and a great number of emigrants crossed the water. The 
Barber-Surgeons invested ^25, but never received anything for 
it again. 

23rd March, 1609. This daye it is ordered that the p'nt M rs shall advent' 
xxv 1! - uppon a Bill of Exchange for the plantacon of Virginia, of the stock of this howse. 

6th January, 1609. In obedience to a precept from the Lord 
Mayor, ,£10 was paid to the Chamberlain, towards the construction 
of a Garner for the use of the City. 

25th May, 1 6 10. A precept came from the Lord Mayor 
calling upon the Company "to be readie in yo r bardge well and 
richlie sett forthe before vii of the clocke in the mornino- " on 
the 31st January, to go to Chelsea to meet the eldest son of James I, 
on which occasion he was to go from Richmond to Whitehall to 
be created Prince of Wales ; whereupon the following minute is 
recorded : — 

At this Court a precept beinge sent from my lord Maior unto this Company 
w ch beinge at this Court read, the effect whereof was that our Company on Thursdaie 
next shalbe reddie to attend my Lord Maior in their barge for the honor of this 
Citie in the enterteynement of the high & mightie prince at Chelsey. It was 

R 2 

124 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ordered that none of the Company shold be warned for this service but onely those w ch 
ware of the Assistaunce of the Clotheinge to goe in the Barge, the reason thereof 
is that a barge cold not be gotten large enough to carry the whole lyvery. 

1 6 1 i . In this year came a precept from the Lord Mayor, 
by authority of the King, complaining of " the abuse growing by 
excesse and straunge fashions of apparell, used by manye apprentises, 
and by the inordynate pryde of mayde servaunts and women servaunts 
in their excesse of apparell and follye in varietie of newe fashions, 
and to admonish them to have a due and speciall care to see a 
spedye reformacon had in everye one of their servaunts." What 
effect this had upon the apprentices and servants of the Barber- 
Surgeons we are not told, but doubtless they were properly 

i st July, 1614. A precept was received to the effect that 
the King had determined to borrow .£100,000 of the City, and 
that the Barber-Surgeons were assessed at ^600 towards this loan, 
which they were to lend, or which they were coolly informed they 
could compound for, by an absolute fine of ^30 ! As the Court 
well knew that they would never again see a halfpenny of the ^600 
if lent, they quickly and wisely determined to pay the ^30. 

Profiting by past experience, the next extracts show that the 
Court proceeded warily in the matter of "adventuring" in the State 

29th April, 1614. Att this Court the M r propounding how they had receaved 
Letters from the LordC of the privy Councell and from the lord Maior thereby exhorting 
& intreating them to call their assistauntes together and to admonishe the geflall 
body to be adventurers in the great lottery w cl ' is comyng forth, Whereupon the same 
Ires being considered on at this Court, it is thought fitt and ordered that the M rs 
shall att their pleasures call together the body of the Company, and they being gathered 
together, to admonish & j9swade them to be adventerers in the same Lottery. 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 25 

17th October, 1614. The Court having collected a sum of 
money for the Lottery, it was ordered that it should not be paid to 
the Treasurer, Sir Thos. Smith, until the Company shall be "assured" 
by a Bill of Adventure under seal " for their adventure unto virgynia, 
as also that it shalbe published in print certeynelie when the lotterey 
shalbe drawen." 

The College of Physicians had been for many years very 
jealous as to the Barber-Surgeons trespassing on their preserves, 
and as far back as 12th November, 1595, wrote a long letter to 
their " verie loving freends " the Master and Wardens, cautioning 
the members of the Company against practising physic, and stating 
that no few of them were culpable in the matter, but that the 
College had hitherto forborne to molest or punish them ; the letter 
continues, " but for that we now see by daily experience that upon 
our lenetie and sufferance this inconvenience more and more 
increaseth, insomuch that both in credit and otherwise, it seemeth 
to touch us more neere than well can be indured ; We have therefore 
thought it good to put you in mynd thereof, and therewithal earnestly 
and freendlie to request you, that among yourselves some such 
discreet order may be taken heerin, that the like offence hereafter 
maie not be committed by them or any of theirs. Wherein if we 
shall perceave you as ready to fulfil our honest request, as we are 
willing to maintain good amytie and concord with you and your 
Companie, we wilbe very glad thereof and geve you thanks therefore. 
If not, then as we are fully minded to defend our privileges and to deal 
with the particular offendors therein, as order of law and our ordinances 
in that behalf requireth ; so we trust the body of your Societie will not 
be offended therewith. And so we bid you most hartelie farewell." 

The above letter is taken from Dr. Goodall's History of the 
College of Physicians. Dr. Goodall gives several instances of Barber- 

126 c/J finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Surgeons and Apothecaries being fined or imprisoned for practising 
physic ; and, indeed, there seems to have been a strife waging between 
the College and the Company for a long period. 

1617. The Physicians in 15 James I obtained a Charter 
confirming their Charter of 10 Henry viij, with several additional 
privileges and clauses in restraint of the privileges of the Barber- 
Sugeons, who thereupon petitioned the King that that Charter might 
not be confirmed by Act of Parliament, as the Physicians were 
desirous that it should be. The King on 4th February, 1620, ordered 
that the petitioners should be left to seek any lawful remedy either 
in Parliament or otherwise, as they might be advised, and accordingly 
on 23rd April, 1624, they presented a petition to the House of 
Commons, who ordered that the Physicians' Patent should be brought 
into the Committee of Grievances, and both parties heard by Counsel, 
the consequence of which was that the Physicians proceeded no 
further with their Bill. 

1632. Later on the Physicians endeavoured again to obtain 
a supremacy over the Barber-Surgeons, and on 13th June, 1632, 
procured an Order in Council which made it incumbent upon Surgeons 
in certain serious and specified cases of Surgery, to call in a 
" learned Physitian," and to enforce this order they procured the 
Attorney General to exhibit a Bill in the Star Chamber in which 
the obnoxious clause was inserted, but on a Petition of the Barber- 
Surgeons complaining of the injury that would thereby accrue not only 
to themselves, but to the public, the King, by an Order of Court 
dated 22nd July, 1635, directed the clause to be struck out. 

After the Restoration, the Physicians again endeavoured to 
procure an Act of Parliament confirming their Charter, whereupon the 
Barber-Surgeons claimed to have a clause inserted in the Act in the 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 12J 

nature of a proviso that nothing therein contained should be construed 
to the prejudice of their privileges, and again the Physicians seem 
to have been checkmated, for they allowed their proposed Act to 
fall through. 

Kings' Barbers and Kings' Surgeons seem to have secured 
substantial benefits from their official positions, as the following notices 
(from Domestic State Papers at the Record Office) testify. 

25th August, 1625. There is a letter of this date from Sir 
James Fullerton to Secretary Conway, intimating that it is His 
Majesty's pleasure to grant to Michael Andrews (Master 1635 and 
King's Surgeon) a pension of ^"150 per annum for life. 

17th December, 1625. And at this date is a grant to Thomas 
Caldwell (Master 1627 and King's Barber). 

A graunt to Thomas Caldwell esq' his Mat 5 servant of ye some of one thousand 
poundes To be received as well out of the remainder of three hundred pounds due 
to his Ma ti0 by Richard Harbin sometime Collecto' of his Ma'f greenwax before his 
accesse to the Crowne and out of the arrerages of grenewax money then due unto his 
Ma ,y - As also out of the other grenewax moneys now accrewing to his Ma' 10 not being 
in farme. And is granted to him as of his Ma ts bounty in lieu of 800 1 ' formerly graunted 
unto him by his Ma ,y of w ch he received no benefitt. Subscr by Mr. Attorney Gen'all 
upon signification of his Ma'f pleasuere by the Lord Trer. 

In addition to stray grants like the above, the perquisites and 
fees attaching to the Office of King's Barber were very lucrative, and 
Mr. Caldwell must have done exceedingly well out of the following 
stroke of business. 

January, 1626. Whereas his Ma tie hath bene pleased to appoint Mr. Thomas 
Caldwell his Ma' 5 servant and Barber to make provisions of all such necessaries as are 
to be used at the Ceremony of Bathing the Kn ts of the Bath at this his Ma t,es Coronacon 
to be holden on the 2 d day of February next at Westm' as to his place by auntient 
custome belongeth I do therefore will and require all such whome it may concearne 

128 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

to take notice thereof hereby for permitting him to doe and performe all such services 
as hath bene accustomed in that behalfe & for delivering such necessaries in kynd or 
allowance of money to the valeu thereof as shalbe by him required for the same 
according to the auntient custome heretofore used therein. The number of the said 
Kn' s for whome such provisions are to be made being 80, by his Ma 1,c appointed to receave 

that degree. 

Arundell & Surrey. 
Examined by W'" Ryley | 
Lancaster Herald j 

Mr. Caldwell does not appear to have left his widow well 
provided for, as we read under date 10th July, 1643 : 

Upon the distressed Petieon of Widdow Thamar Caldwall late Wife of 
M' Thomas Caldwall deceased there is given to her of the gift of this House v iu 

1624 and 1625. In the minutes of this period are constant 
notices of the "visitation," and of "the contagious tyme." The Plague 
raged with great severity in London in 1625, and it is said that over 
40,000 died of it in the year. The Company appear to have been 
very liberal in their gifts of money to any who had the least claim 
upon them, the relief being frequently stated to have been given by 
" reason of the hardnes of the tymes." 


nth April, 1625. This daye the p n cept for provision of corne sent unto o r 
Companie by the lord Maio r of london was here read in Courte, And this Courte is 
fullie resolved that the present M rs doe give unto the Lord Maio r and returne him this 
answeare that the Companie is provided of their proportion of corne and more they 
are not able to provide or receive into their charge. 

1628. This year the Company were compelled to "lend" 
the King £360, which they with great difficulty raised, the greater 
part being borrowed at interest to enable them to do so. They 
also paid £30 towards a "present" (?) of ,£5,000 given by the 
City to the Palsgrave (Frederick, Prince Elector Palatine, son-in- 
law of James I). 

o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 129 

15th August, 1629. On this day was sealed the Company's 
new Charter from Charles I. It is in Latin on five large skins 
of parchment with the Great Seal of England pendant. There 
is a portrait of the King with a stiletto beard in the initial 
letter, and an ornamental heading along the top of the first 
skin. This Charter ratifies that of James I, directs that public 
lectures on Surgery shall be given, and confirms and somewhat 
varies the old regulations for the governance of the practitioners of 
that science. 

22nd October, 1629. The Company evidently began now 
to kick at the numerous demands made upon its purse by the 
authorities, for a precept coming from the Lord Mayor demanding 
,£12 10s. contribution towards a pageant, it was ordered that it 
be not paid until the Court was satisfied that it could be legally 
demanded, and enquiry made as to whether or no other Companies 
had paid similar contributions. 

1632. The fabric of old St. Paul's being in a lamentable 
state of decay, the celebrated Archbishop Laud wrote a letter 
to the Barber-Surgeons asking a contribution towards its 
repair. Ever ready to assist in good works, the Company 
cheerfully devoted a very considerable sum towards that object, 
notwithstanding the comparative poverty to which they had been 
reduced (in consequence of the grievous impositions made upon them 
by the authorities in the shape of forced loans and other unconstitu- 
tional demands). Moreover, they recorded their benefaction, in a 
delightfully expressed minute, which will be found at the end of 
the following letter. 

9th April, 1632. The letter written by William Lord Bishopp of London and 
directed to this Court concerneing our contribucon towardf the repaire of St Paulls 


/ ? o cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Church in London being now much ruined was here in Court reade, the teno r whereof 
is as followeth, vidz' 

To the right worp" my very worthy ffreindf the Maister Wardeins and 
Assistant^ of the Companie of Barbar surgions London, theis 

S. in xpo.' After my verie hartie comendacons, you cannot but take notice 
of his Ma'f most hon ble and pious intention for the Repaire of the decayes of S' Tawles 
Church here in London, being the Mother Church of this Citty and Diocess, and the 
greate Cathedrall of this Kingdome. A greate dishono' it is not onely to this Citty but 
to the whole State to see that Auncient and goodly Pyle of building soe decayed as 
it is, but it will be a farr greater if care should not be taken to prevent the fall of 
it into ruin, And it would be noe lesse disgrace to Religion happily established in 
this Kingdome, if it should have soe litle power over the mindes of men as not to 
prevaile with them to keepe those eminent places of Gods service in due and decent 
repaire which their fforefathers buylt in tymes by their owne confession not soe full 
of the knowledge of gods truth as this present age is. I am not ignorant how many 
worthy workes have bene done of late in and about this Citty towardf the building 
and repayring of Churches which makes me hope that every mans purse will open 
to this greate and necessary worke (according to Gods blessinge upon him) soe much 
tending to the service of God and the hono r of this nation. The generall body of 
the Cittye have done verie worthily in their bounty allready as alsoe the lord Maio r 
Aldermen and Sheriffes severally for their owne j?sons. Theis are therefore accordinge 
to their examples hartily to pray and desire you the Maister Wardeins and other 
Assistants of the worthy Company of Barbar Surgions to contribute out of y e publicke 
Stock, to the worke aforesaid what you out of y r Charitye and devotion shall thinke 
fitt, and to pay the Summe resolved on by you into the Chamber of London at or 
before our Lady Day next, praying you that I may receave by any servant of yo r 
Companye a note what the Summe is which you resolve to give. And for this 
Charity of yo rs whatsoever it shall prove to be, I shall not onely give you harty thankes, 
but be as ready to serve you and every of you, as you are to serve God and his 
Church. Soe not doubting of yo r love and forwardnes to this greate worke, I leave 
you to the grace of God, and shall soe rest 

Yo r very loving ffreind 

Guil : London : 
London house, January 30. 1632. 

1 Health in Christ. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. i)i 

And thereupon this Court deepely considering the contentf of that letter 
together with the j?nte mines and dilapidacons of the said Church, and as faithfull 
and charitable members obliged largely to contribute to soe pious and religious 
a worke Doe nowe order that out of the stock and revenew of this house there 
shalbe paid into the Chamber of london towardf the said repaire x" jJntely and 
x h yearely for nine yeares followeing to make it upp compleate a C" as of the free 
guift of this house. And if att any tyme hereafter the worke doe cease that then 
our payementC to cease likewise. 

1633. This year the Company built a granary at the Hall, 
for the store of Corn. 

1 2th July, 1633. A new set of By-Laws was framed and 
allowed by the proper authorities. These are extant on twelve 
great skins of parchment, more wordy and of greater length than 
those of 4th James I ! They are, however, very similar to those, 
with technical alterations and amendments here and there, and 
provision is made for Lectures on Surgery, demonstrations of anatomy, 
and for the better Examination of Surgeons. Clause 19 provides 
that any freemen of the mystery who shall use any arts, trades or 
sciences other than Surgery " shall be accepted, reputed, adjudged 
and taken for Barbars." Empirics and impostors were to be rigorously 
dealt with, and the Court was to have supervision over all Navy 
Surgeons, their chests, medicines and instruments. No Barbers or 
Surgeons were to be impressed for the Navy without license of the 
Court, and numerous regulations were made for the government of 
the Company. 

The document is signed by Richard Earl of Portland, Lord 
Treasurer ; Sir Thomas Richardson and Sir Robert Heath, the Lords 
Chief Justices ; the seals of the first two are still pendant, but that of 
Sir Robert Heath is missing. 

s 2 

1 32 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1636. Spurred into further action for the advancement of the 
science of Surgery, which their extended powers under the new 
By-Laws had conferred upon them, the Company determined upon 
building a Theatre for the delivery of Lectures, and for anatomical 
purposes, etc. This they set about in 1636, employing the great 
Inigo Jones as their Architect, who about this period also designed and 
carried out the present beautiful Court Room or Parlour, one of the 
best proportioned and prettiest rooms in London. 

nth February, 1636. Upon the mown of o r M r to this Court concerneing the 
want of a publique Theater for Anatomycall exercises and Sceletons and a lesser roome 
for private discections, This Court doth order that if the M rs or Governo rs upon their 
peticon to the Lord Maio' and Aldren they have the bullwarke & long stripp of ground 
lieing betwixt the gould smiths tenement & clothw : tenemtf & london wall at the 
one end & the Companies hall & p^lor & london wall at the other end, by purchase 
in fee farme or a long lease from the Cittie, that then a Theater to the largenes of 
the upper ground betwixt the goldsmithes tenemt & the clothworkers tenem' on the one 
side & london wall on the other side shalbe be ovally built for the Worp' and 
comiditie of this Companie at the Charge of this house. 

The piece of ground on which it was proposed to erect the 
Theatre was then on lease to the Company from the City. The 
Lease was dated 29th March, 7 Charles I (1631), and made between 
the Mayor, &c, of London, of the one part and the Masters, &c, 
of the Barber-Surgeons, of the other part. In consideration of 
,£20 paid by the Company the City leased to them "All that Tower 
or Bulwark and the houses Roomes and buildings therein or there- 
upon made or erected, And all that ground or garden plott with 
thappurtennces scituat lyinge and beinge in the parish of St Olave 
in Silver Street in the Citie of London next unto the Wall of the 
same Citie there of the one side, and the landes of the saide Maisters 
or Governors and others on the other side late in the tenure or 

' Worship. 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

J 3 

occupacon of the right honoro lj,e Henry late Lord Wyndsor deceased 
or of his assignes and now in the tenure or occupacon of the said 
Maisters," etc., from the feast of the Annunciation, 163 1, for forty-one 
years at a rent of £3. The lease contained the usual covenants of a 
repairing lease, as also one " that neither they the saide Masters 
or Governors their successors nor assigns shall or will att any time 
or times during the said Terme suffer any Inmate or Inmates 
to dwell in any part of the premises afore demised." 

5th May, 1636. There is an Indenture of Lease of this date 
made between the Mayor, &c, of London, and the Masters, &c, 
of the Barber-Surgeons, which after reciting the last mentioned 
lease proceeds: "And whereas the said Maisters or Governors of 
the Misterie and Comonaltie of Barbars and Surgians of London 
for the better enhableing of them in the Arte of Surgerie Doe intend 
to erect and build a decent Roome or Theatre on part of the premisses 
for the keeping therein A learned and constant Lecture in the 
Theorie and practiq5 partf of Surgerie As also to pforme their 
publique operacons of Anatomies and other exercises thereunto 
belonging, Which will be verie chargeable to them Wherein the 
said Maior and Cominaltie and Citizens are desirous and willinge to 
aide and further the saide Maisters or Governors in the setting forward 
of soe necessarie and comendable a worke tendinge to the generall 
good of the whole kingdome," wherefore the Mayor, &c, leased the 
said premises to the Company for a further term of 200 years upon the 
expiry of the lease then running, at the same rent of £3 per annum, the 
Lessees covenanting to build the Theatre within seven years. 

1 6th May, 1636. Upon o r M rs report to this Court that the Lord Maio r & 
Aldren have freely graunted to this house a new lease of CC yeares comenceing 
from the expiraeon of o r lease now in being It is ordered with the generall consent 
of the whole Court here present that the Theater shalbe proceeded in and built 
according to the plotts drawne by his Ma'f Surveigher. 

i 34 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

3rd August, 1636. It is ordered by this Court that the Companies Armes with 
Helmett Crest supporters and mantlings shalbe sett up in Portland Stone under the 
Cantilaver does of the Theater being over the Windowe next the Granarye. 

Alsoe the mottoe viz'- Speciosum hoc Theatrum Anatomicum erectn fuit 
Michaei.e Andrews Chirurgo Regio ac comunioni Barbitonso^ et Chirurgo^ p° 
tempore pr/efecto, guardianis vero joanne warue nlcolas heath et wllhelmo 
huckle anno ab exhibito in carne messi^e supra millesimum sexcentesimum 
trigesimo sexto shalbe engraven in the voyde stone worke over the greate doore into 
the Theater. 

A plan of the Theatre is preserved in a collection of the 
works of Inigo Jones, at Worcester College, Oxford, and a short 
description of it is found in Hatton's New View of London, 1708. 
The curiosities in the Barber-Surgeons' museum of those days will 
excite a smile when compared with the collection now at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. Hatton says that the Theatre was built in " an elliptical 
form, and commodiously fitted up with four degrees of seats of cedar 
wood, and adorned with the figures of the seven liberal sciences, and 
the twelve signs of the zodiac. Also containing the skeleton of an 
ostrich, put up by Dr. Hobbs, 1682, with a busto of King Charles I. 
Two humane skins on the wood frames, of a man and a woman, 
in imitation of Adam and Eve, put up in 1645 ! a mummy skull, 
given by Mr. Loveday, 1655. The sceleton of Atherton with copper 
joints (he was executed) given by Mr. Knowles in 1693. The figure 
of a man flead, where all the muscles appear in due place and 
proportion, done after the life. The sceletons of Cambery Bess 
and Country Tom (as they then call them), 1638 ; and three other 
sceletons of humane bodies." 

Hogarth has, in ghastly style depicted the dissection of a 
criminal in this Theatre, in which the skeletons above referred to 
are seen in niches in the wall. 



30 40 

a • • eo 100 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 135 

The plan of the Company's Estate, has been kindly supplied 
for this work by Mr. Charles John Shoppee, as surveyed by him 
in 1869, previous to the demolition of the old Livery Hall, Kitchen, 
etc. The Theatre had been pulled down in 1784, and houses erected 
on its site ; the Theatre is, however, shewn upon this plan, as being 
more interesting than the houses which supplanted it. In 1636 the 
Company commenced the erection of the Livery Hall and present 
Court Room, the work being carried out from the designs and under 
the superintendence of the celebrated Inigo Jones, the Livery Hall 
was, however, burnt in 1666, and that shown upon the plan is the 
one which was erected after the Great Fire. 

5th September, 1636. The Plague was again abroad in 
London, and the Court, for fear of infection by meeting together, 
resolved as follows : 

In regard of the now greate visitacon of the plague This Court doth 
deferre the Courts for the daye of Rules the Vew daye i\i other publique Courts 
till it shall please God to cease the Sicknes. 

23rd September, 1636. The Lord Mayor having requested 
the Company to nominate " twoe Surgians to take care of those 
that were infected with the plague in this Cittie & liberties," the 
Court thought that two was a wholly insufficient number and 
nominated six Surgeons to be presented to the Court of Aldermen. 

2nd October, 1636. £5 was ordered to be paid in to the 
Chamber of London towards the relief of the poor, stricken with 
the Plague. 

30th March, 1637. The Company were assessed to pay .£10 
" ship money," whereupon an order was made that they should 
forbear to pay it, and a Committee appointed to wait on the Court 

/ 3 6 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of Aldermen to petition against the assessment. The application 
was, however, unsuccessful, as by an Order of Court, 29th March, 
1638, the money was directed to be paid. 

8th November, 1638. The Court of Aldermen having assessed 
the Company to furnish 80 quarters of corn in lieu of 60 as hereto- 
fore provided, it was resolved to petition against it. This would 
be a very important matter to the Company as the assessments 
for all public purposes were made upon the City Companies pro 
rata with their corn quarterages, and if the 80 quarters were allowed 
to stand, it would raise all the future assessments ^ P er cent. The 
result however, of the protest does not appear in the minutes. 

28th October, 1640. On receipt of a precept from the Lord 
Mayor, it was ordered that three barrels of Gunpowder should be 
bought and stored. 

1640. The Company unwillingly agreed to lend the King 
^400, and were put to great inconvenience in raising the money, which 
was required by Charles for his campaign in Scotland. 

After several skirmishes with the Scots, the English Army 
was at length disbanded, and the King went himself to Scotland 
to negotiate the difference which had arisen by his attempted inter- 
ference in Church matters in that Kingdom ; he returned to London in 
November, 1641, and the following minute refers to the preparations 
made by our Company to meet him. 

22nd November, 1641. Upon reading the Lord Maiors precepts for the 
Companyes enterteyning the King upon his returne from Scotland It is ordered 
that the Ma r and Wardens, Mr. Serjeant Clowes, Mr. Richard Wateson, Mr. Woodall, 
Mr. Powell, Mr. Burgin, Mr. Heath, Mr. Henry Wateson, Mr. Bignall, Mr. Dye, 
Mr. Arris, Henry Boone, and Thomas Turner, shalbe attendant on Twesday next well 
mounted on Horseback in plush or Velvett with Chaines of Cold, and that John Perkins 

oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 37 

shall beare the Pendon with our Coate of Amies on Horseback and that these 18 ffree 
men shalbe Decently cladd in the Companyes Colours of White and Greene, each of 
them with a greene flatt Cap with a white Ribbon about it, a greene Cassock and 
Drawers of the same Stuffe Whiffler like laced with a white Lace a white ribaning and 
a greene Ribbin athwart theire Brests, and each of them a Truncheon in theire hands 
in the forenoone, and in the af'tnoone each of them 2 Torches, and these 18 to attend 
perticulerly one of them to each of the Horsemen, viz'- 

(Then follows a list of the freemen chosen.) 

The " Riding out " on this occasion must have been a 

magnificent sight, if all of the Companies spent proportionately to 

the outlay of ours, which was no less than ^39 ijs. icy/, upon 

decorations, etc., for those taking part in the procession. Strype 
informs us that — 

The Lord Mayor on horesback wearing a gown of crimson velvet & a collar of 
SS, and attended by his suite, rode in the front of the procession to meet the King. 
Then followed the Aldermen in scarlet gowns and the City council and chief officers 
in black gowns. Upon reaching Moorfields, there waited in a readiness to attend his 
Lordship and the service, about five hundred horsemen selected out of the Liveries 
of the several Companies, being Masters, Wardens, and prime men of each Company 
in velvet or plush coats and suits, with chains of gold, being well horsed and gallantly 
furnished, every Company having a horseman in the front carrying a pendant with that 
Company's arms to which he did belong (for distinction sake), and a footman to attend 
each horseman of the Livery with truncheons and torches as before, both horsemen with 
the pendants and footmen being suited cap-a-pee with the Company's colours on 
which they waited. There were also fourteen Trumpeters, with trumpets, banners and 
scarfs, who were placed two between every hundred of the horse, and four at the 
head of the troop. The procession moved on to Kingsland, where the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen and the Companies awaited the Kings approach, while the Sheriffs 
attended by seventy-two men in Scarlet Cloaks trimmed with silver lace (the colours 
of the City) with javelins and feathers and four trumpeters, rode as far as Stamford Hill, 
and there met their Majesties and escorted them to Kingsland. 

His Majesty was accompanied by the Queen, the Prince, the Duke of York, 
the Princess Mary and the Prince Elector Palatine, and after receiving an address, 


ijS cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

the Royal party joined the civic procession to London, entering it at Moorgate, 
and proceeded through London Wall, Bishopsgate Street, Cornhill and Cheapside, 
to the banquet at Guildhall, amidst the City Companies in their formalities and stands 
on each side of the streets, the City conduits running with a diversity of wines. 

1643. The relations between the King and the City having 
become estranged in the fearful distractions of these times, Charles 
endeavoured to conciliate the citizens with a message, which was 
publicly read at Guildhall on the 13th January, and later on he 
sent a circular letter to the Masters of the several Companies requiring 
them to call their freemen and apprentices together, to read to them 
a copy of a letter which he had sent to the City on the 17th January. 
The Court of the Barber-Surgeons met on Tuesday, 24th inst., 
and cautiously record that they would have summoned their freemen 
for the next day, but that it was a fast day and that in the interim 
an order had come from the Committee of Safety that the letter, etc., 
should not be read. 

24th January, 1643. The Kings Letter sent to the M rs & Wardens of this 
Company was read in Court and the printed Letter in it and the Cittyes Peticon and 
his Ma 1 '" gracious answer unto it. And but that the morrow was fast day being the 
last Wednesday in this Moneth the ffreemen and apprentices of this Company could not 
be summoned to appeare then, it should have bin read. Soe that in the Interim an 
Order of Comand from the Lords and Comons was directed to this Company to 
countermaund the said Letters in these words, 

Die Martis 24' Januarii, 164J. At the Comittee of Lords and Comons for 
the safety of the Kingdome. 

Whereas there are divers Letters pretended to be sent by his Ma lie to the 
M rs and Wardens of the severall Halls in the city of London with Two litle Bookes 
therein closed the one intituled The humble Petieon of the Maior, Aldermen and 
Comons of the City of London to his Ma'* - And the other intituled his Ma ,ies Letter 
and declaracon to the Sheriffes and City of London Dated the 17" 1 of January, which 
evidently tendeth to sedition and setting of the whole State in a Combustion. These 
are therefore strictly to charge & comand the M rs and Wardens of every Hall in 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 39 

the City to whome the said Letters and Bookes inclosed shalbe directed to forbeare 
to publish or open any of them till both the Houses of Parliament shall give further 
order therein. And the M' s and Wardens of every Hall are required to bring the 
said Letters with the Messengers thereof to this Comittee which they will take to be 
an Argument of theire good Affection to the Parliament 

Pembroke Montgomery Bolingbroke Ed : Manchester 

W. Say & Seale Ed : Howard Jo : Evelin Jo : Pym 

Antho : Nicoll. 

17th January, 1644. It is ordered that in respect of the greate troubles and 
distractions of these times there shalbe noe publique Anatomy this yeare dissected. 

1644. The Company seem to have become greatly im- 
poverished by the venture in Ireland, the rebuilding of their premises, 
and the forced loans to the King and the Parliament. In a 
certificate given by the Master and Wardens (5th September, 1644) 
to be produced in a suit in which they were defendants, they state 
that their debts are ,£3,000, and that they can get no return of 
any of the money lent for public purposes, or even the interest of it. 

If the Stuarts acted in an unconstitutional manner in their 
oppressive demands upon the Companies, the Roundheads were as 
bad, with just this difference, that, with all their pretensions to 
purity, piety and high-mindedness, they did not hesitate to practise 
actual dishonesty in their modus operandi of squeezing the Companies, 
as the following painful incident from our books testifies : — The 
Company had borrowed from Mr. Richard Wateson, one of the 
Assistants, £"1,200 upon sealed bonds, for the express purpose of 
meeting the demands which had been made upon them by the King 
and Parliament from time to time. Mr. Wateson having been 
declared a " Papist and Delinquent," his property was seized, and 
the Bonds of the Barber-Surgeons, found in his strong chest, were 
taken to the Committee for Gloucester and Hereford, sitting at 

T 2 

140 o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Grocers' Hall. These worthies, in conjunction with the Committee 
for Sequestrations, came clown upon the Company and demanded 
payment of the ,£1,200 for which they had given their bonds to 
their brother, Mr. Wateson. The Court deeming this a monstrous 
piece of injustice, hesitated to comply, whereupon the Committees 
threatened to seize the Company's entire estate ; and then the Court 
resolved to petition Parliament, but the House not sitting for some 
time the petition could not be prosecuted, and the Committee being 
urgent, the Company most reluctantly agreed to pay down ^400 
and to have the bonds cancelled. Although these shameful terms 
were definitely agreed upon, the Committees a few days later broke 
faith, demanding .£400 cash and the Company's bond for another 
^"ioo, to which the Company, like the lamb with the wolf at its 
throat, nolens volens, consented. The iniquity of this business was 
made apparent to the Committees, who were well aware that the 
Company had incurred the debt to Mr. Wateson in order to meet 
the previous rapacity of themselves, and yet they hesitated not 
to compel the Company to submit to a further fine of ^500 for 
having complied with their demands in the past, besides manifesting 
the dishonesty proposed by them in offering to cancel the debt due by 
the Company to Mr. Wateson. 

29th April, 1645. By the power and authority to this Court given by severall 
Orders of a late Court of Assistants, this Court for and towards the raiseing of the 
400" agreed to be paid in part of the composicon for Mr. Watson's debt unto the 
the Comittee for the releife of Gloucester, &c, did pawne all the Companyes plate 
both guilt and white, weighing 1,120 oz. \ or thereabouts, unto Mary Crosse of London 
Widdow for the Sum of 280'' by a Writeing of Bargaine and Sale this day sealed 
with this Companyes Coirion Seale bearing date the 16"' day of this Instant Aprill with 
a provisoe of Redemption. And borrowed of Mr. George Dunn ioo" more at Interest 
at vj" 1 o' p° annum p centum for w ch he tooke the secureity of our Coinon Seale. 

A few years later on (14th September, 1648), Mr. Edward 
Arris presented to the Court a letter from Mr. Wateson, wherein was 

^Annuls of the Barber-Surgeons. 14 1 

intimated that he expected the Company to repay him the money 
borrowed, the bonds for which had been seized by Cromwell's party, 
and for which the Company had already compounded, whereupon we 
read " This Court doth declare theire acknowledgement of a great 
respect and esteeme they have and beare towards him and shalbe 
ready to doe him all the right they can without prejudicing the 
Company"; and again on 30th April, 1650, "Mr. Richard Wateson 
an ancient M r of this Company Doth this day desire to know the 
mind of this Court concerning the 1,200'' by him lent to this 
Company and sequestred in this Company's hands and compounded 
ffor 500'' in full of principall and Interest, The matter being of great 
Consequence, this Court doth take time to consider of it and to give 
him an answer therein." 

What answer Mr. Wateson got, I do not know ; he was held 
in great esteem by the Company, and doubtless some honourable 
compromise was arranged. 

In their negotiations with the Committees, the Company 
seem to have been able to impress the Chairman favourably on 
certain occasions, though there is grave reason to apprehend that 
this official of the party of purity was open to a bribe, as the following 
minutes would seem to indicate. 

27th October, 1645. The Company having been threatened 
with sequestration of their entire estate unless an assessment made 
upon them was paid on Friday following, a Committee of the Court 
was ordered to wait on Mr. Scawin, the Chairman of the Committee 
for the Army, to beg his favourable consideration of the Company's 
poor estate ; the result is seen in the next entry. 

14th September, 1648. This Court takeing notice of the greate Love and flavour 
of Mr. Scawin Chaireman to the Comittee ffor the Army expressed oftentimes upon 

142 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

severall occasions towards our Company Doth thinke fitt in gratitude and accordingly 
doth order That the present Governours doe present to him a guift of the value of 
vj" 13 s 4 d The quality and price of the guift is left to theire discretions. 

1646. To relieve them of their great debts, the Company 
about this period raised considerable sums by granting annuities ; 
the following are examples in point : — 

24th March, 1646. This day M r Nicholas Heath payd the sum of 200'' to the 
use of this Company and is the purchase money for an Annuity of 26" p^ aiin. for 
10 yeares to himselfe and Grace his Wife Whereupon the Deed of Grant of the said 
Annuity was sealed with the Cofnon Seale and delivered to theire use. 

Alsoe this day M rU Elizabeth ffreeman payd the sum of 200" the Purchase 
money for the like Annuity of 26" p° aiin. for 10 yeares and the Deed for that purpose 
was sealed and delivered to her. 

On the 30th January, 1649, the King's troubles were ended by 
his murder, and very shortly afterwards we find this significant minute. 

19th March, 1649. This Court doth order That the Oath conteyned in the 
Rules and Ordinances of this Company be administred unto every ffreeman upon his 
admission as before, The ffirst Words which doe concerne allegiance to the King 
and his Successors only to be left out. 

The banners of the Company bearing the late King's arms 
were destroyed, and any heraldic insignia at the Hall which contained 
the Royal Arms were ordered to be defaced. We may readily believe 
that this was most ' unwillingly done by the Court, who however, 
had no option in the matter. 

1648-9. Fairfax had filled the City with troops, " billetting 
orders" being made upon the several Companies for the reception 
of the soldiers at their Halls. Herbert (Vol. I, p. 181) states that 
the Merchant Taylors were fortunate enough to procure an order 
of exemption which cost them .£20 10s., and further that he believed 
their case to be unique, but it seems that the Carpenters by means 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 143 

of "Gratuities 'to sevall men of qualitie,' " amounting to ,£13 2s. 6d., 
managed to get free of this imposition, whilst the Barber-Surgeons 
procured their immunity at a much cheaper rate, for we read in 
the Wardens' accounts of the period, 

Paid fforr the charges expended in procureing a Proteccbn from the Lord 
General from quartering Souldiers in the hall 13 s 3 d - 

These notices are clear indications that Cromwell and the 
"men of qualitie" about him, were accustomed to take bribes. 

3rd February, 1654. The City entertained Cromwell at 
Grocers' Hall, and our Company had to go out in procession to 
receive him, our "standing" being in St. Paul's Churchyard. 

1660. The Barber-Surgeons contributed £96 towards a 
present of .£10,000 given by the City to Charles II • at the 
Restoration. No money exacted under precept was more willingly 
paid than this, and indeed the Companies generally seemed to have 
cheerfully contributed, delighted to have escaped the gloom of the 
Commonwealth, and with a prospect of brighter times in store. On 
the 5th July, the King was nobly entertained at Guildhall, our 
Company taking part in the rejoicings (see Wardens' Accounts of 
this date). 

1666. Our Minute Books for this period having been lost 
or stolen, we unfortunately have no records of the Great Fire beyond 
those preserved in the "Wardens' Accounts" (which see), and 
although these are somewhat meagre, they are highly interesting, 
especially those which relate to the fortunate preservation of the 
great Holbein picture. It has been stated (but without any other 
authority than that of gossiping Samuel Pepys, who had a special 
interest in disparaging the picture) that it was damaged in the fire, 
though no notice of such a mishap is known to me, and the Accounts 


cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

(which are complete) are significantly silent as to anything having 
been spent on its restoration or cleansing, which, had it been injured, 
would have been necessary ; it seems to have been taken away 
from the Hall by Major Brookes to a place of safety, and subsequently 
brought home again by six porters. 

The Theatre, which was a detached building, as also the 
present Court Room, both the works of Inigo Jones, were saved, 

though the Hall was burned, 
entailing a great expense upon 
the Company in rebuilding (see 
Wardens' Accounts). 

The houses n, 34 and 35, 
Monkwell Street (see plan, p. 135) 
were rebuilt 1671, when the gate- 
way to the Hall Court Yard was 
formed and the grotesque coat- 
of-arms put up over the Lintol. 

When the alterations were 
made under the superintendence 
of Charles J. Shoppee in 1869, 
the old lintol, corbels, tympanum, 
and door-head were very carefully 
taken down and refixed over the 
present entrance to the Hall in the Court Yard. This door-head 
is always an object of interest to visitors to Barbers' Hall ; long may it 
continue to be so ! 

25th August, 1 68 1. A short set of By-Laws was this day 
enacted. It is on a single skin of parchment, and imposes penalties 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 145 

upon such persons, as, being elected, should refuse to serve as 
Masters or Stewards of Anatomy. It is signed by Heneage, Earl of 
Nottingham, Lord Chancellor, and Sir Francis Pemberton and 
Sir Francis North, the two Lords Chief Justices, all of whose seals 
are pendant to the document. 

1684. This was indeed a troublous year for the Corporation 
and for the guilds of London. Charles having interfered with the 
privileges of the City by thrusting in his nominees for Sheriffs, had 
met with considerable opposition from the citizens, and being assured 
that this resistance would be continued and maintained by the City, 
he determined to strike a blow at the root of its franchise, by getting 
into his hands the Charter of the City, as also the Charters of the 
several Companies. It was not difficult to procure a venal tribunal 
which would be prepared to pronounce an iniquitous judgment upon 
any fictitious statement submitted to it by the King. Sir Rob 1 ' 
Sawyer, the Attorney-General, thereupon undertook, on behalf of 
the Crown, to prove that the City Charters were forfeited, and 
contrived the celebrated quo warranto, upon which judgment was (as a 
matter of course) obtained against the City, on the 12th June, 1684. 

The Companies seem to have unanimously anticipated this 
decision, and by so doing and by " surrendering " their Charters 
and liberties before the delivery of the judgment, hoped to ensure 
the favour of the King. 

The original of the " surrender " of the Barber-Surgeons is 
very neatly engrossed on extra thick parchment, but the seal was 
of course removed when it was returned to the Company. The 
text is as follows : — 

To all to whom these p'sents shall come. The Masters or Governo rs of 
y e Mystery and CoTaltie of Barb ks & Surgeons of London send Greeting. 
Know yee y' wee considering how much it imports the Governm' of our company 


146 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

to have men of known Loyalty & approved integrity to bear offices of Magistracy 
& places of Trust. The s*' Ma rs or Govern 1 ' 5 have granted surrendred and yielded 
up, and by these p'sents do grant surrend r and yield up unto his most gracious Majesty 
Charles ye second by the Grace of God King of England, &c, his Heires and 
Successo' 5 - All and singular y e Powers Franchises liberties priviledges and authorities 
whatsoever and howsoever granted to or to bee used or exercised by y e said Masters 
or Governo rs by vertue of any right Title or Interest vested in them by any Charters 
Letters Patents Custome or Prescripcon in force of or concerning the electing nominating 
constituting being or appointing of any person or persons into or for y° severall and 
respective offices of Mast' Wardens Assistants and Clerk of y e said Company. And 
y e said Masters or Governo' 5 do hereby humbly beseech his Ma lie to accept of this their 
surrend' and do with all submission to his Majesties good pleasure implore his grace 
and favo r to regrant to y e said Masters or Governo' 5 the nameing and Chusing of y e 
said Officers and the said libertie and franchises or so many of them and in such 
mann 1 as his Majesty in his great wisdome shall judge most conducing for y e governm 1 of 
y e said Company, And with and under such reservaccons restrictions and qualifications 
as his Majestie shall bee pleased to appoint. In Witnes whereof the said Mast rs or 
Governo' 8 have hereunto affixed their Cornon seal the sixteenth day of Aprill in 
y e Thirty sixth year of y° reign of o' sov"aign Lord Charles y c second, &c, and in 
y e year of o r Lord Christ 1684. 

Similar forms of surrender were adopted by other Companies. 
I am unable to say whether or no the King interfered with the 
franchises of the Barber-Surgeons, but think not, as no record of 
such meddling is to be found in our books, though, doubtless, the 
Court took care, remembering the rod in pickle, to govern in accordance 
with the wishes of the King. 

Some time in this year (1684) certain unquiet spirits, Surgeons 
of our Company, got up a petition to the King, setting forth that the 
union of Surgeons with Barbers hindered rather than promoted the end 
for which the two bodies had been united, and praying the King to 
incorporate the Surgeons a distinct and separate body. Nothing came 
of this application beyond a reference (ordered by the King, 15th May, 
1684) to the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, and the Lord Chief 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 14-j 

Justice of the King's Bench, who were directed to examine and report 
upon the petition, but whether they ever did so or not, I don't know. 

27th February, 1685. James II, in the first year of his reign, 
granted us a Charter, which is contained on seven skins of parchment, 
all of which have handsomely designed head-pieces and borders, 
the first one having a fine portrait of the King as well ; only a frag- 
ment of the great seal remains, and the charter itself is considerably 
damaged, apparently by rats. It is in Latin, of great length, and, 
like others granted to other companies at the period, is an "unreal 
mockery." The Charter recites the " Surrender," and proceeds to 
grant another charter in which, inter alia, the appointment of any 
Master, Warden, Assistant, or Clerk should be subject to the approval 
of the King, that all members of the Company should take the Oaths 
of Supremacy and Allegiance, be in the Communion of the Church 
of England and receive the Sacrament, and that no person who 
frequented a conventicle should be eligible for the Livery. 

4th April, 1687. The King having published a declaration, 
allowing liberty of conscience to all his subjects, suspending and 
dispensing with the penal laws and tests, and even with the Oaths 
of Supremacy and Allegiance on admission into offices civil and 
military, numerous addresses of thanks for this liberty were presented 
to the King, among others the following one from our Company, 
which is preserved in the " London Gazette" of 20th October, 1687. 

The Humble Address of the Masters Governors Assistants 
and Members of the Mystery and Commonalty of Barbers 
and Surgeons of London. 

May it please your Majesty 

We having daily before our eyes the munificent Bounties of your Royal Brother 
of Blessed Memory, and other Your Ancestors, and also that of your Majesties Gracious 
Favour, in restoring to us our new Charter, we must be esteemed ever ungrateful and 
undutiful Subjects, if we did not with all humility acknowledge the same. 

U 2 

14S cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

But we are in more especial manner bound to cast ourselves at Your Majesties 
Feet, and return our most humble and hearty Thanks for Your late Declaration ; wherein 
You are Graciously pleased to give us Your Royal Word, whereby we are protected in 
the Profession and free Exercise of our Religion, and also in the Enjoyment of our 
Liberties and Properties in Peace and Safety ; for which Your Gracious Condescension 
and Goodness (as God hath made it our Duty), Your Majesty hath made it our Interest 
duly to pray to the Divine Majesty for his Blessing upon your Royal Person, Family and 
Government. And that after the enjoyment of a long and prosperous reign here, over 
a Dutiful and Obedient People, You may receive an everlasting Crown in the World 
to come. 

And that it may be so, it shall be as it becomes us, the constant and utmost 
endeavour, as well as the hearty Prayer of, 

Dread Sir ! 

Your Majesties most humble, most Loyal, 
and most obliged Subjects. 

1688. Matters were now rapidly approaching a crisis with 
James, who in vain, when too late, sought to conciliate the citizens 
whom he had wronged. One of his acts of propitiation was the 
redelivery to the Companies of the "surrenders" which they had 
made of their franchises and charters in 1684. We have no note of 
the date of the return of our surrender ; but it was towards the end of 
November and within about a fortnight of the King's flight when this 
tardy act of justice was done, and the Barber-Surgeons thus partly 
restored to their ancient rights and privileges. The Bill of Rights 
was shortly afterwards passed, the quo warranto declared illegal, and 
all charters granted by Charles II and James II since the judgment on 
the quo warranto, declared absolutely null and void, thus practically 
reinstating the Guilds in statu quo ante. 

28 July, 1690. Ordered that in pursuance of an order of the Comon Counsell 
& Lord Mayor &c. that the Company advance towards the provideing one Rigiment of 
Horse & one of Dragoone the sufiie of one hundred pounds. 

cA mi als of the Barber-Surgeons. 14 c) 

1699. Jealousies arose in the Company in consequence of the 
more frequent election of Surgeons than Barbers, as Governors. The 
By-Laws required that every year there should be two Barbers and 
two Surgeons chosen (a Barber being defined to be any member who 
did not practise Surgery). The Surgeons disregarding the law and 
the old custom, seem to have been able to procure the election of an 
undue number of members of their own craft to the offices of Master 
and Wardens, whereupon certain of the Company filed an information 
in the King's Bench against the Masters or Governors ; the Barbers 
were successful, and having obtained a Mandamus, a fresh election took 
place. This altercation between the Barbers and Surgeons was never 
forgotten, and, indeed, helped to pave the way to further estrangement 
and the absolute separation in 1745. 

The following Minutes relate to these proceedings : 

14th December, 1699. Ordered Mr. S'geant Wright Mr. S'geant Darnell Mr. 
Coition S r geant & Mr. Dee bee advised with upon the Informacon ag' the Govern"- 

25th January, 1700. Ordered that the Cause ag 1 the Govern' 5 at the prosecueon 
of the Barbers bee referred to S'geant Darnell & his opinion to bee taken & to p°ceed 
thereupon, Mr. Oades Mr. Pleahill & Mr. Barnard to meet tomorrow at the raine bow to 
attend him by five in the afternoone. 

2nd May, 1700. Ordered Mr. Dee bee consulted concerning the Rule of 
Court of King's Bench for a copy of the by laws &c. & to follow his advice &c. He 
advised to give Copyes if required & not to oppose it. 

nth May, 1700. Ordered that Mr. S r geant Darnell have three guineys Mr. 
Cornon S r geant & Mr. Dee have two a peece given them for the Tryall of the Informacon 
on Tuesday next & that all the Court of Assistants bee desired to bee there. 

28th June, 1700. Ordered that nothing bee done in the Cause ag' the Company 
untill the Mandamus be served & then the Comittee to meete. 

4th July, 1700. A punitory Mandamus being served the last Court, Ordered 
that on Tuesday next by two of the Clock in the afternoon there bee an eleccon of two 
Wardens Expert in Barbery for the remainder of this yeare. 

i jo c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

9th July, 1700. An election took place, with the result that 
Mr. John Pinke and Mr. Richard Marks, both being Barbers, were 
elected Wardens. Mr. Pinke was already a Warden, but the Mandamus 
required two Barbers to be elected, and he was simply re-elected. 
Mr. Marks took the place of Mr. Bartholomew King, Surgeon. The 
Master, Mr. Lichfield, and the second Warden, Mr. James Wall, were 
both Surgeons. 

13th January, 1709. It was agreed that a new set of By-Laws 
which had been settled by the Common Serjeant and Sir Edward 
Northey should be presented to the Lord Chancellor, etc., for 
confirmation, it being considered that the existing By-Laws were 
defective in many parts, and that "good & wholesome Lawes were 
the life strength & support of this Company." 

6th April, 1709. A set of By-Laws of this date was confirmed. 
They are comprised on thirteen great skins of parchment, and, like 
previous ones, are far too voluminous, and indeed not of sufficient 
interest, to warrant transcribing, being practically the former set with 
sundry technical and minor alterations. There is a fine portrait of 
Queen Anne on the first skin, and the Document is signed by William 
Lord Cowper, Lord Chancellor, Sir John Holt and Sir John Trevor, 
Lords Chief Justices, whose seals are pendant. These By-Laws were 
brought into Court on 5th May, 1709. 

13th January, 1709. The Court were informed that the Barbers 
of the Company were in treaty with the Peruke Makers " of the other 
end of the town," -about incorporating them into this Company, and 
that they were endeavouring to procure an Act of Parliament to that 
effect, whereupon the proposition was approved and leave given to the 
Barbers to petition Parliament in the name of the Court. 

a/1 minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 1^1 

5th December, 1709. A petition was presented by sundry- 
liverymen (Barbers) representing that Peruke making was an encroach- 
ment upon the art of Barbery, and praying the Court to obtain an 
Act of Parliament incorporating the Peruke Makers with the Barber- 
Surgeons ; the petition was favourably received by the Court and a 
Committee appointed, who met the next day and recommended the 
proposed union, the Peruke Makers paying such fees as other 
members of the Company paid. 

24th December, 1 709. A petition for an Act was ordered 
to be drawn by the Clerk and submitted to several eminent counsel 
for their perusal. 

9th January, 1710. Five hundred copies of the proposed Bill, 
and a similar number of the reasons for the suggested incorporation, 
were ordered to be printed ; but in the result nothing came of this 
proposed union with the Peruke Makers. 

25th August, 1 7 14. The following precept relating to the 
Accession of George I was received : 

To the Master and Wardens of , j> v THE ^ W0R 

the Company of Barber Surgeons. I 

Whereas it hath been resolved in Conion Councill y' if our most Gratious 
Lord King George upon his comeing into this Kingdome be pleased to pass through 
this his City of London, y' he shall be received by us & our fellow citizens with all the 
Demonstrationes of Joy & affection as are suitable to our duty and Loyalty. 

These are therefore to require you to have your Rayle Cloaths Standings 
Banners Streamers Ensignes & other Ornaments of triumph belonging to your Company 
in a readiness to sett up imeadiatly upon Notice y' shall be given you of the time & place 
by any further precept & y' yo r Cloaths Banners Streamers Ensignes & other ornaments 
be fresh & Good & y' you forthwith send to all the Liverymen of yo' Company that they 
be well & decently apparrelled in their best Cloaths is: Gowns to attend in their Standings 

1^2 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

y' so your Company may be ready (when required) to receive his Maj" c to his satisfacon 

& the Honour of this City and thereof you are not to faile. Dated this 25 ,h day of 

August, 17 14. 


23rd December, 171 7. The Company having had great 
difficulty in getting in some of their rents, and various of the houses 
being empty, determined to sell their property in Mowse Alley, 
East Smithfield, and in Butcher Row in St. Botolph's, Aldgate, 
agreeing to convey the fee simple to Mr. Robert Finlay for ,£1,250. 

And it is further ordered by this Court that till such time as the said sume 
of 1250 1 ' can be laid out in a convenient purchase of houses or lands with the 
approbation of the Court of Assistants, The same shall be forthwith placed out at 
Interest by the Governors upon such Government or other Publick securitys as they shall 
think fitt, But that the said sume of 1250'' or any part thereof shall never be expended 
on the Company's common occacons or be any way lessened or broke into on any 
account whatsoever. 

17th April, 1 7 18. The following record was ordered to be 
made of the " reasons " for disposing of this property : 

The Estate in East Smithfield in eleven years time produced to the Company 
above all disbursements relating thereto 1 but ^28 15.1-. in the whole, Whereas the 
annual interest of ,£1250 at 4 j? cent, is ^50. 

Eleven years interest at ^50 fy ann. for ^1250 amounts to without computeing 
Interest upon Interest ^550. 

The Company have run behind hand for severall years by means of the great 
sumes laid out upon this Estate. 

Whoever goes backward every year must in time be undone. 

The Estate is still in such a condition as to require a great suiiie of money to be 
expended upon it in Repairing and Rebuilding in order to make it tenantable. 

The Company had not money to lay out upon it. 

1 But these disbursements had been very hea\y in the nature of repairs. 

c/liwals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 53 

If they had, the Estate is so scituated that there is no room to hope, even 
in case the whole had been rebuilt (as it wants to be) that it would have answered 
the laying out so much money. 

And if the Company had let it upon building Leases The j?sent method 
of building is so as to last exactly the term for which the Lease is taken, woud have put 
the Company in the same condicon as they are now, when the term expired, besides loss 
of Rent, & disputes with such Tenants in the mean time. 

It was therefore thought better to dispose of the Estate. 

Following are the details of negotiations with one or two 
parties other than Mr. Finlay, and some curious particulars of the 
Company's title to part of the Estate, which seems to have been 
an equitable rather than a legal one, whereby the Court apprehended 
some difficulty in disposing of it to another party from whom a 
somewhat better price might have been obtained, and therein, under 
the circumstances, showed themselves good men of business by 
concluding with Mr. Finlay : we cannot however now, but regret 
that this most valuable property should have passed from us for so 
comparatively insignificant a sum. The purchase-money was laid out 
in thirteen East India Bonds of ^ioo each. 

7th April, 1730. M r Serj' Uickins the Master of the Company informing 
the Court, That he having the honour to be acquainted with the Right Honourable 
The Earl of Burlington and with his Lordships most extraordinary genius and superior 
judgment in Architecture, had taken the liberty to address himself to the said noble 
Earl, and to make it his humble request to his Lordship that he would be pleased 
to favour the Company with his opinion, in what manner it would be safest and best 
to repair the anatomical Theatre built by the celebrated Inigo Jones about one 
hundred years ago. 

That his Lordship had thereupon condescended to take a view of the Theatre 
and most obligingly directed the proper method of repairing a structure of so peculiar a 
frame, and afterwards out of his accustomed generosity, and in regard to the memory 
of that great Architect offered to defray the expence thereof. 


/ 5 4 a/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

It is thereupon resolved Nemine Contrabicente by this Court, 
That the Master and Wardens of the Company together with the late Master 
William Cotesworth Esq' be, and they are hereby desired forthwith to wait on the 
Right Honrile The Earl of Burlington, and in the most gratefull manner to assure 
his Lordship in the name of the whole Company 

That they do receive this noble instance of his Lordships bounty and 
generosity as a most distinguishing & illustrious mark of honour shown by his Lordship 
to the Company & Profession. 

And that this Court will take care so to record & transmitt the remembrance of 
this magnificent action of his Lordship to their successors That the gratitude of the 
Company to his Lordship's person and memory may be for ever preserved among them. 

13th August, 1730. A marble Bust of the Earl of Burlington 
was ordered to be set up in the Theatre. 

27th April, 1739. "The Court taking into their consideracon 
that several of their By-Laws, which had been confirmed by the 
Lord Chancellor and Lord Chief Justices for the time being, were 
in want of alteration, by reason of the variation of the times and 
circumstances of the Company and their Members since such By-Laws 
were made, and several new By-Laws being also wanting for the 
better government of the Company in times to come," It was ordered 
that a Committee of six should consult and draw up fresh By-Laws, 
to be submitted to a future Court of Assistants, but in the result no 
action was taken. 

1744. The long slumbering animosity between the Surgeons 
and the Barbers had now reached a climax, and indeed it is a matter 
of surprise that an union which had become grotesque should have 
existed for as many years as it had. The Surgeons, many of whom 
had attained to great eminence, naturally chafed under a system 
which required their diplomas to be signed by Governors, two 
of whom were always Barbers, or members of some trade or 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 155 

profession other than that of a Surgeon, and with the rapid progress 
of science and of surgical skill and knowledge, they felt their 
alliance with the Barbers a restraint upon their advancement, as also 
that the exercise of their profession under Charters and By-Laws, 
antiquated in form, and more adapted to the times in which they were 
framed, a hindrance rather than an incitement to further proficiency. 

There is little in the records as to this disagreement, it being 
tacitly agreed that neither side should place their arguments or 
grievances in the books, which were their joint property. 

20th December, 1744. This day the gentlemen on the Surgeons side having 
made known at this Court their desire of being separated from the gentlemen on the 
Barbers and that each may be made a distinct and independent Body free from each 
other, and producing a Case intended to be offered to the Honourable House of 
Commons praying such separation, which being read at this Court It was agreed that 
the following gentlemen on the Barbers side viz 1 — 

M ■ Warden Negus M r Parker M r - Maurice M r - Truelove and M r Haddon. 

& on the Surgeons side viz'- — 

M'- Serj' Dickins Will'" Petty Esq r James Dansie Esq rc M r - Freke and M r - Sainthill 

be a Committe appointed to meet on Monday next at the Kings Arms Tavern 
in Saint Paul's Church Yard at one of the Clock at noon to receive the proposals from 
the Gentlemen on the Surgeon's side for such Separation, and that when they had so 
done that the Gentlemen on the Barber's side members of this Court should lay the 
same before the Livery on their side, by a Meeting to be had for that purpose, and that 
a Court of Assistants should be held on the Tenth day of January next, at which time 
the Gentlemen on the Barber's Side Members of this Court, should then report their 
opinion and assent or Dissent to such proposals made. 

At the same time it was agreed that any Member of this Court should at any 
time have the free liberty of examining and inspecting into the several Books and 
writings belonging to this Company In case the same should be in the presence of 
the Master or one of the Wardens but not otherwise, but no such Books or writings 
be at any time removed from the Hall, on any account whatever unless by a special 
order of this Court first had and obtained for that purpose. 

X 2 

/ 56 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ioth January, 1745. Pursuant to an Order of the last Court of Assistants 
the gentlemen on the Barbers side Members of this Court, did this day make their 
report on the proposals made by the gentlemen on the Surgeons side for a separation, 
by Dissenting in general to such proposals made. 

By the Journals of the House of Commons, 18 George II, it 
appears that the Surgeons on 31st January, 1745, presented a petition 
to Parliament, in which among other things they recited the Act, 
32 Henry VIII, and also that Charles I in the 5th year of his reign, 
by Letters Patent under the great seal confirmed the Barber Surgeon's Company 
in their possessions and privileges and gave the Company power to make by-laws 
and to constitute ten persons to be Examiners of Surgeons during their lives, and it was 
thereby further granted that no person whether freeman foreigner native of England 
or alien should practise Surgery in London or Westminster or within seven miles of 
the City of London unless previously examined allowed and admitted by the Company 
in manner therein mentioned ; and that the Surgeons so examined might practise in 
any part of England ; and that the Masters and Governors of the said Company might 
appoint and have a public lecture for the science of Surgery, for the better instruction 
and information in the principles and rudiments of the art and science of Surgery, 
and that no person exercising the art of Surgery within the limits therein mentioned 
should go out or send any apprentice or servant from the Port of London to serve 
in quality of a Surgeon for any ship without the approbation and allowance of the 
said Company, in such manner and under such penalties as are therein mentioned. 
That since the said Act for incorporating the two said Companies, those of the said 
Company practising Surgery have from their sole and constant study of, and application 
to the said science, rendered the profession and practice thereof of great and public 
benefit and utility to this Kingdom, and that the Barbers belonging to the said 
Corporation are now, and have been many years, employed in a business foreign to 
and independent of the practice of Surgery ; and that the Surgeons belonging to the 
same Corporation, being now become a numerous and considerable body, and finding 
their union with the Barbers inconvenient in many respects and in no degree conducive 
to the progress or improvement of the art of Surgery, are therefore desirous that the 
Surgeons being freemen of the said Company, may be made a Corporation separate 
and distinct from and independent of the Barbers of, and belonging to the said Company ; 
and therefore praying the House to give leave that a bill may be brought in dissolving 
and vacating the union and incorporation of the Barbers and Surgeons made by 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 57 

the said former act ; and for making the Surgeons of the said Company a separate 
and distinct Corporation ; and for making a partition and division of the real and 
personal estate and effects of and belonging to the said united Company, unto and for 
the separate benefit of the said two Companies so proposed to be separated, as to this 
House shall seem meet and reasonable. 

Whereupon it was ordered — 

That the said petition be referred to the consideration of a Committee and 
that they do examine the matter thereof, and report the same with their opinion 
thereupon to the House. 

A Committee was at once appointed with power to send for 
persons, papers, and records. 

On the 6th February the Barbers presented a Petition against 
the proposed separation, and asked to be heard by counsel ; whereupon 
it was ordered — ■ 

That the said petition be referred to the consideration of the Committee to 
whom the petition of the Surgeons of London, whose names are thereunto subscribed, on 
behalf of themselves and other the Surgeons in the City and suburbs of London is 
referred : And that these petitioners the said Barbers, if they think fit be heard by their 
Counsel before the said Committee according to the prayer of the said petitioners. 

This petition of the Barbers to the House of Commons was 
identical with a very scarce pamphlet " The Case of the Barbers," a 
copy of which has been kindly given to me by Mr. D'Arcy Power, M.A. 
It is full of interest, and will be found in Appendix E. 

27th February, 1745. The Committee brought up their report, 
which was read by the Clerk, and recited the various documents 
produced and the evidence tendered ; among other matters it is stated 
that Mr. John Hay ward, a Past Master, was examined and deposed, 
that the Master (who every other year was a Barber) and the Wardens 
present, sign the diplomas. That there are ten Examiners who have 

/ 5 8 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

each half a guinea for their attendance, and the Master and Wardens 
have the like. That he did not know that the presence of Barbers at 
these examinations was any inconvenience, but he apprehended it 
would be more eligible if the Master were always a Surgeon. That 
the Barbers are generally present at the four public lectures of 
Anatomy, two of which are at the expense of the Company, the other 
two being at the expense of the Surgeons. That the Demonstrators 
of Anatomy and Osteology are chosen by the whole Court of Assistants 
(fifteen of whom are Barbers, and fifteen Surgeons). That he 
apprehends the present union is the reason why so many persons 
do not bind their sons apjDrentice at the Hall. He never knew of the 
Barbers interfering in or giving interruption to examinations, and he 
never heard any fact mentioned as a reason for the separation desired 
by the Surgeons, except that a great many foreign brothers (who are 
gentlemen that practise both in and out of town) refuse to come into 
the Company on account of the present expense. 

Being examined as to the money generally given to the Poor's 
Box by Sea Surgeons at the time of their receiving a Qualification, 
he said that it was always expected, but that if they are not in a 
capacity it is not insisted upon, and that he never heard of any 
person being denied a Qualification for refusing to pay it. That 
the Qualification is delivered to the party sealed up, to be carried 
to the Navy Office, and that the Master commonly signifies to him 
what fees are expected ; that the said Box is examined every month, 
and about nine-tenths of the money distributed by the Master and 
Wardens, among the poor of the Barbers. 

Being asked what proportion the Barbers pay to the Poor's Box, 
he said that the greatest part of the income applied to that use arises 
from the examination of Sea Surgeons, but that the Apprentices of 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 159 

Barbers (who are as twenty to one) always pay when bound at the 
Hall, and at their admission to the freedom, as well as the Surgeons. 

Mr. Hay ward put before the Committee a statement of the 
fines received by the Company, which was as follows — 

For Freedom by purchase 

,, Livery fine, and all Offices to the 
Parlor door - 

,, Examination for great Diploma 

,, The fine for not serving the four 
several offices of Master and the 
three Wardens, which the Sur- 
geons often pay, but the Barbers 
never do, sometimes 30 guineas 
but oftener - - - - 40 o o 40 

,, The fine for Master and Stewards of 
Anatomy when called upon in turn 
(and if they serve, the expense is 
rather greater) - - - - 40 o o 


£ s. 






10 10 





6 6 

^131 16 o £71 6 

The Clerk's and Beadle's fees are not included in the above. 

Mr. Joseph Wheeler, the Clerk of the Company, was examined 
by the Committee, and generally confirmed Mr. Hay ward's evidence. 

The next witness, Mr. Neil Stewart, was evidently called in 
the interest of the Surgeons, to show the inconvenience which had 
arisen (in his case at all events) by reason of the warrants being issued 
by the "Barbers and Surgeons." He deposed that he was surgeon 

i6o oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

to H.M.S. The Looe, and, being taken prisoner by the French, was 
put in the common prison at Brest, where he petitioned to be removed 
to an open hospital at Dinan, and enclosed his warrant as a surgeon 
with his petition to the French authorities ; some days after, he 
enquired of the " Linguist " as to the success of his petition, and 
was informed that " the Superintendent did not know by his warrant 
whether he (the witness) was a Barber or a Surgeon : that upon his 
desiring the linguist to read the warrant, by which it would appear 
he was a surgeon, the linguist replied that it might be so, but that if 
the witness had been taken on board one of the King of Great 
Britain's ships it would have been out of doubt." This witness further 
stated that he believed the unfavourable notice which was taken of 
his petition was because his warrant came from the Masters of the 
Barbers and Surgeons. 

With reference to the gift of Edward Arris the Court minutes of 
29th February, 1675-6 were produced which stated that " Mr. Edward 
Arris a very worthy member of this Company having formerly 
settled by Deed .£30 a year for a dissection of a body yearly and 
Reading on the Muscles, desired that deed might be delivered up to 
him," and he in return would pay the Company ^510 to enable them 
to apply the interest to the same purposes, which was agreed to. 
Mr. Arris dying on the 28th May, 1676, the Company soon became 
involved in a Chancery suit with his son, Dr. Thomas Arris, and the 
Court minutes of 20th January, 1677-8 were produced and read 
to the Committee. These set forth the answer which the Company 
filed to the Bill of Complaint before the Master of the Rolls, and 
stated the circumstances referred to in the minutes of 29th February, 
1675-6, and that Mr. Arris gave as his reason for this "That his 
only son and heir, the now Doctor, had and did then receive the 
profits of the said lands to his own use upon condition and under 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 161 

promise to pay the said ,£30 per annum for the said Dissection ; but 
he found that he did never pay one penny of it, or ever would do, 
when he their benefactor was dead, without trouble or suit ; with 
some severe and sharp expressions, which we will by no means 
mention, although they were the very words of the father spoken 
of the son." 

The answer goes on to express the hope that the Company will 
not be compelled to enter into any further covenant with Dr. Arris 
than they had done with his father their "pious benefactor," for the 
carrying out of the trust, or be ordered to refund the ^510 to 
Dr. Arris. It also prayed that he might be ordered to pay the 
costs of "this troublesome and unnecessary suit, which doth so 
much shew what they must expect from him hereafter, if they should 
part with the .£510." As the Company retained the .£510 till the 
separation in 1745, there is no doubt but that Dr. Arris, as he 
deserved to do, lost his suit. 

Various extracts from the Company's books were read, on 
behalf of the Barbers, to show that the united Company had always 
assisted the Surgeons, and promoted the cause and interest of Surgery 
out of the common fund of the Barbers and Surgeons. 

Part of the Will of Robert Ferbras, Citizen and Surgeon, 
dated 2nd December, 1470, 1 was read, whereby it appeared that 
several estates formerly belonging to the said Company, were given 
to the Barbers before their union with the Surgeons in Henry VIII's 
time. And a declaration of Bryan Sandford, dated 8th March, 1490, 
was read, whereby it appeared that the site of the Hall was purchased 
by the Barbers before the said Union. 

1 But see p. 61 as to this Will. I cannot explain the discrepancy. 

162 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The Committee of the House of Commons reported that 
they had recommended the parties to settle the dispute as to the 
division of the property between them, and that thereupon the 
Surgeons had proposed that they should have given up to them 
Dr. Gale's Annuity of ,£16 per annum and Alderman Arris' gift of 
^"510; also that for about three years until the Surgeons could 
provide themselves with suitable premises, they should have the 
use of the Hall, Theatre, &c, at a nominal rent of one guinea 
per annum. 

The Barbers agreed to give up Gale's and Arris' gifts, but 
proposed that the Surgeons should take a lease for such days in 
the year as they commonly used the premises, at ^80 per annum, 
and pay the Barbers .£100 towards the expenses to which they had 
been put by this suit in the Parliament. 

In the result the Committee reported: — (a) That the Surgeons 
had made good the allegations of their petition. (6) That the proposed 
separation was desirable, (c) That the propositions of the Surgeons 
touching the division of the property were reasonable. 

Subsequently the Bill passed both Houses and received the 
Royal Assent, the quaint union being dissolved 25th June, 1745. 

By this Act (18 Geo. II) the Surgeons were erected into a 
separate Corporation, and the Barbers were re-incorporated under 
the style of " The Master, Governors and Commonalty of the 
Mystery of Barbers of London." So much of this Act as relates 
to the Barbers will be found in the Appendix F. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 



The first Court of Assistants of " 1 §E§e ^SctrGers' @ompam? ' 
was held on the 25th June, 1745, at 10 a.m., and there were present :— 

Mr. Jonathan Medley 

Mr. Humphry Negus - 

Mr. William Parker. 
Mr. John Barnwell. 
Mr. John Truelove. 
Mr. William H addon. 
Mr. John Negus. 
Mr. Edward Boxley. 




Second Governor. 

Mr. Samuel Rutter. 
Mr. Robert Scrooby. 
Mr. Richard Switiiin. 
Mr. Edward Colebeck. 
Mr. Togarmah Jones. 
Mr. John Gurney. 

The Act of Separation being read, and the Oaths as formerly 
required to be taken by Freemen, Master, Warden, Assistant, 
Clerk, and Beadle being also read and considered, the Court 
settled and formulated the various Oaths, and the same are entered 
in the Minutes. 

The Election of nine fit and able persons to be Assistants was 
then proceeded with, and Mr. William Jackson, Mr. John Bearblock, 
Mr. Will 1 "- Roberts, Mr. Thomas Cotton, Mr. John Whiting, Mr. 
Richard Lookes, James Theobald, Esqre., Peter Theobald, Esqre., and 
Mr. John Pepys, were unanimously elected. 

Mr. Edward Boxley and Mr. Samuel Rutter were chosen third 
and fourth Governors or Wardens. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Jonathan Medley and Mr. Humphry 
Negus "for their great care in defending and preserving the Rights 
Priviledges and property of this Company on their Separation from 
the Surgeons." 

y 2 

164 zA mi als of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Thanks were also voted to Mr. John Paterson " for his great 
care and diligence in executing the orders and directions of the Master 
and Governor about the defence and preservation of the rights 
priviledges and property of the Company " and to further mark their 
sense of the same, the Court unanimously elected Mr. Paterson 
as Clerk. 

The two Beadles, Henry Gretton and William Littlebury 
were re-elected. 

It was ordered that all Charters, Books, Plate and goods 
belonging to the Company, then in the custody of Mr. Joseph 
Wheeler (the late Clerk) should be delivered to Mr. Paterson, who 
was to make and sign an Inventory of the same, and also to examine 
Mr. Wheeler's accounts, and report thereon to the Court. 

The Common Seal was directed to be altered by omitting the 
words Et Chirurgorum and by adding Anno MDCCXLV. 

A Committee was appointed to peruse the By-Laws of the late 
United Company, and to report as to which of them required amend- 
ment or were fit to be repealed or added to. 

8th August, 1 75 1. Mr. John Brooks attended and produced 
a Deed to which he requested the subscription of the Court ; this deed 
recited that by an Act of Parliament passed in the 10th year of 
Queen Anne, it was enacted that a duty of 2d. per lb. should be laid 
upon all starch imported, and of id. per lb. upon all starch made 
in Great Britain, that no perfumer, barber, or seller of hair-powder 
should mix any powder of alabaster, plaster of Paris, whiting, lime, 
etc. (sweet scents excepted), with any starch to be made use of for 
making hair-powder, under pain of forfeiting the hair-powder and ^50, 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 165 

and that any person who should expose the same for sale should 
forfeit it and ,£20. Also that by further Acts additional duties were 
laid upon starch. And by an Act passed in the 4th year of George II 
the penalties were somewhat mitigated. " And whereas the said laws 
with respect to hair-powder have by experience been found not to 
answer the end proposed by the Legislature, the sum arising by the 
said duties upon starch and hair-powder having gradually lessened, 
whilst the fair traders have been great sufferers by the practice of 
those who by the greatness of the duty have attempted to make vend 
or use the said prohibited articles. And whereas the trade or business 
of making vending or dressing of Perukes or other Ornaments 
of hair for the head and also of cutting and dressing the hair of the 
head being considered as distinct from the business of Barbers is under 
no regulation whatever," etc., the parties whom Mr. Brooks repre- 
sented (and whose names were signed to the deed) had, therefore, 
agreed to join in an application to Parliament for reducing the duties 
on hair-powder, as also for incorporating all persons carrying on the 
trade of Barbers and Peruke-makers within the Bills of Mortality, 
into one joint Corporation or Body politick, and for restraining 
persons from exercising those trades who had not served seven years' 

It was stated that subscriptions towards defraying the costs 
of the proposed Bill had been paid to Messrs. Gosling & Bennett, 
Bankers in Fleet Street, that John Paterson, Esq., Clerk of the 
Company, was Solicitor for the Bill, and Mr. John Brooks was 
Secretary of the Petitioners. 

The Court, having considered the application, decided to 
contribute Twenty Guineas, but the matter seems to have been 
in abeyance for eighteen months, as the petition to the House 

1 66 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of Commons was not sealed by the Company until the 7th 
January, 1753. 

13th January, 1753. The petition was this day presented and 
is recorded in the Journals of the House ; it states, among other 
things, that the Company " are in danger of being unable to support 
themselves and that the petitioners who exercise the art of Peruke 
making in the liberties and neighbourhood of the said City are not 
a body corporate, nor under any order or regulation ; for want whereof 
great frauds are practised in the said manufacture to the discourage- 
ment of the fair trader, and manifest injury of the consumer, And 
therefore praying the House that leave may be given for the bringing 
in a Bill for incorporating the Peruke makers as well within as 
without the liberties of the City of London, and within such distance 
thereof as the House shall think fit, with the said petitioners" — the 
Barbers' Company. This petition was referred to a Committee, but no 
report of that Committee is entered in the Journals. 

4th December, 1 764. The Peruke makers turned up again 
in 1764, for we find in the Minutes that certain of them attended with 
the draft of a petition to the King, to which they asked the assent 
of the Court. This petition which strangely commenced " We the 
Company of Barbers and Peruke makers" stated that the suppliants 
laid before his Majesty the distresses into which the Peruke makers 
had fallen by reason of the change of fashion, and thus appeals to the 
King, " Where can we look for relief but there only where it is 
to be found, for as the Fashion your Majesty approves will very justly 
be a pattern to your subjects, We most humbly hope not to be too bold 
in wishing Perukes may soon be as much in fashion as the wearing of 
hair is at present, which will increase the Revenue, give happiness to 
the indigent and distressed Peruke makers, and increase the many 

c/Innals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


great unmerited Favours, We as a Company have received from 
Royal Hands ! " 

16th January, 1765. The Court took this ridiculous petition 
into consideration, and of course refused to adopt it, informing the 
suppliants that they were concerned to observe the decay in their trade, 
as it was connected by usage with that of Barbery, but as the Charters 
of the Company did not extend to Peruke making, the Court could not 
with propriety address his Majesty on the subject. 





29th August, 1550. "gRiemovarxbum the xxix"' day of Auguste in the house 
belonging to the sayd Company it was condescended and fully agreed by the aforesayed 
M r and Wardeins M r Geen Thomas Johnson Thomas Stocdall and Mathew Johnson 
w' thassent of thassistance being there present that is to say M r Kyrke n (Kyrkeby)' 
M r Vycary 2 M r Bancks 3 M r Byrde 4 M r Yonge s M r Henderbe 6 Robert Postell 7 Willm TylT 
(Tylley) 8 Peter Dayseman 9 Robert Waterforde 10 Richard Bowll" Henry Pemberton' 2 
Robert Sprignell' 3 Robert Brownell' 4 John Smythe' 5 Willm Otherborne' 6 and Austeyn 

An order That Thomas Knot shalbe dischardged and not called to no manner of 
concernin&re office unto such tyme that it shall please the m rs to agree for Another 
Thomas Knot, order. And also that he shall not paie no maner of scott lot nor subsedye 
nor any other chardge concerning the saied Crafte but shalbe dischardged of and 
from the same Ecept onelie his quarterage and except that which he shall gyve & 
paye of his owne fre will and gentelnes. 

An order for JUsoo yt was ordered and agreed the sayd daye by the hole assistaunce that 

the eleccon of , . , ,, ...... r . . , . . 

the Maister. the maister shall put in iuj or into his bill for his electyon and so the 

same byll to goo through the house and every man to prycke as his mynde doth 

serve him w"'out any telling and when every man hathe pricked about the house then 

Master 1526, 1533. " M. 1530, etc. 3 M. 1532. 

Warden 1544. 9 W. 1546. '' W. 1547. '» W. 

" M. 1563. '' W. 1547. ' 

1 M. 1542, 1545. 5 M. 15-14. * M. 1547. 
1549. " M. 1553- 1! W. 1539. " M. 1554. 
W. 154S. '• W. 1554. 

17° cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

the byll to be brought to the M r And he that hath the moste pricks to have the 
roome of M r the yeare ensuynge. The names of the ellecyon for the M r was M r Geen 
Richard Ferres Robert Postell and Willfn Tylle. 

An order for Alsoo for the elleccyon of the upper wardein he shall put iiij or names into 
onhe^pper ^is ^' anc * s0 t0 » 00 through the house like as the M r Byll -hath dooen. 
wardein. The names for the elleccyon for upper wardein was Thomas Johnson, 

Richard (The remainder of this line is torn away in original). 

An order for Alsoo for the Elleccyon of the Seconde Wardein he shall put in iiij or names 
theEieccon m n ; s j^jj an( j so t0 g 00 t i lr0U gh t h e house like as is before mencyoned. 
Wardein. The names for the Elleccyon was Thomas Stocdall, John Atkinson, John 

Smyth and Thomas Knot. 

For the Alsoo for the Elleccyon of the youngest wardein he shall put iiij or into his 

Eleccyon of g jj an( j so tQ through the house like as before. The names for 

the youngest ' ° ° 

Wardein. the Elleccyon are Mathew Johnson, John Tholmoode, Richard Elliot 

and John Shryffe.- 

ioth Sept., 1 55 1. It was ordered that — 
An order that ^he second Wardein shall receyve all maner of Receite as fynes quartras* 

the Seconde _ J ' ^ 

Wardein shall for prentises, for fremen and all other casualtyes \vhatsoev r yt be. And he 

fynes quar- to P a >' e a ' s0 a ^ maner OI wa g e , And the Bedyll to have a booke of all 

trage and suche receitte and dischardge as the seconde wardein hathe for his 

casualtyes. dischardge. 

Also yt ys agreed that the younger wardein shall receyve nothing but onely the 
Rents of the Londes, and to see reparacons dooen where as nede shall requyer and that 
he shall take Appulton 1 w ft him when he goeth to receyve the rentes of the Londes so 
that bothe there books may agree. 

4th Nov., 1 55 1. It was agreed — 

That there shalbe allowed in goyng and searching of their Londes vj s viij^ 

Ordered — 

That John West shall bring in his fyne which ys vj s viij d for speking opprobryous 
wordes against John Androwson in the presence of the M rs - 

1 The Beadle. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 7 / 

17th Nov., 1 55 1 . It was ordered — 

That the Kings maiestyes Barbor or Barbors to his highness parson And also his 
mat s Surgeon or Surgeons shall sytt next to the Last M r upon the bcnche where as the 
M" nowe usually doo sytt and alsoo shall goo next to the M rs in all goyngs and syttings. 

It was ordered that no Barber should take a "foreigner" as 
journeyman and set him to work, before presenting him to the Master 
and Wardens, under a penalty of 3^. \d. per week. 

This order was made because many foreigners {i.e., non-freemen) 
who were inexpert had lately come into the City, and the Court 
directed that each foreigner should give proof of his skill, and then 
that he should remain for one year only and in one service, and no 
Barber was to pay a foreigner higher wages than the Masters should 
from time to time " sess " or determine under a penalty of 135. \d. 
for " every weke so offending." The Beadle was directed to keep 
a register book of all foreigners for the year, and when the year 
was expired, the Barber who kept a foreigner and was minded to 
keep him longer was to come to the Hall within fourteen days to 
have him re-registered under a penalty of 35. \d. per week. And no 
Barber was to " entyce or envegyll any mans servant from him upon 
peyne of forfeyting for a fyne xiij s - iiij' 1 " 

The Court fixed the wages of these men as follows — 

The best jorneyman that is a forrein shall have for a weke xij d - the second x d - 
and the thurde as the sayd M rs - shall thinke meate & convenyente. 

17th November, 1 55 1 . It was ordered that the youngest 
Warden should be chosen out of the Livery and that he should be — 

in especcyall one that hathe byn stewarde so that he be a man that hath usyed 
himself in that behalf honestleye and discretly. 

z 2 

1 7 2 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

It was also ordered that all freemen should come every quarter 
day to the Hall to pay quarterage, hear the rules read, and to hear 
the book set forth by the Corporation of London concerning Orphans, 
and no man was to sit out of his appointed place, under a penalty. 

17th July, 1553. It was ordered that Mr. John Enderby 
(Master 1547) — 

shall have the benevolense of the crafte fewer marks a yere. 

20th September, 1553. The Masters agreed with Richard Drewe — 

For a barge when the Mayer goeth to Westm for Twentie sixe shillings and 
eighte pence. 

1 2th August, 1554. Being Election day it was agreed that at 
the choosing of the Masters — 

There shalbe a solempe masse 1 or other dyvyne servyce sayd and songe that the 
M rs - be choessen and the hole lyverye to be therat in their best clothing and to meete at 
the hall at or before the hower of ix of the clocke and he that fayleth his hower to paye 
xij d for his fyne w'out any redempcyon or gayne sayeing. The sayed masse 2 to be at the 
chardgs of the Companye. 

1st Oct., 1555. The following Articles were agreed upon by 
the Court — 

I. There shall no man ffreeman fforyner or straunger of the Clothinge or w'out 
the clothing shave wasshe a Bearde or tryme any man w th any Instrumet as to make 
cleane teathe upon the Sondayes within the Cytie of London or withoute in his owne 
house or in any mans house or chamber or in any place els he shall forfayete at every 
tyme beinge duely proved for a fyne to the hall the some of xl s - And further that no 
fforyner being no ffreman shall carry out any Bason or clothe or Instrumet to make 
cleane teathe to shave poll or wasshe a bearde or to tryme any man but w'in the Lybertye 
where he dwellethe But w'in the Cytie of London he shall not tryme any man at no 
dayes w'in anye of their howses or in any place els w'in the Cytie upon payne to lose at 
every tyme beinge duely proved for a fyne to the hall xl 5, 

1 The word " masse " has been subsequently erased. 
2 " Masse " has been subsequently erased, and "s'rvice " substituted. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. ijj 

II. That Apulton the Beadle of the Clothing was to be the 
Clerk, and that the Beadle of the Yeomanry was to help the Clerk at 

coronaeon tyme or at other greate tryumphes when any other greate man 
cometh in or when the kinge or quene comen through the Cytie. 

III. That whenever the Shreif be chosein or the Mayor or the burgesses of the 
parlyamet or upon the kings or queenes comlg into the Cytie or any other greate man 
comyth in or upon any other greate truymphe whereapon comaundement ys geven by the 
Mayor of London to the sayed Company of the Clothinge of Barbors and Surgeons to 
geve their attendaunce Then the hole Company of the Clothinge to meete at our owne 
hall of Barbors and Surgeons in our owne lyverye all to gether fyrste, and afterwards to 
gooe out of the hall two and two together as of olde tyme yt hathe been used, and when 
the Mayor goeth to poules' then the M r and governors to gooe throughe out Wood streate 
to poules w ,h the rest of the Company of the Clothinge. And that M r and governors 
that dothe not this shall forfaycte for a ffyne to the hall vj" xiif iiij d And they of the 
Clothing that dothe not come to the hall firste but will meete us at the place where we 
shalbe appointed to stande and to remayn and dothe not kepe his hower shall loose for 
a ffyne in the hall at every tyme so offending iij s iiij d Provyded alwayes yf the Mayor gooe 
not to poules at the Mayors ffeaste Alhollande daye xpemas daye twelves daye and 
Candlemas daye In what streets we doo gooe throughe yt be not throughe Wood streate 
yt shall not be prejudycyall to the master and governors of the Company for the tyme 

IV. It was ordered that Apprentices, before being presented, 
should pay 2s. 6d. fine, also Srt'. to the Clerk for drawing the 

8th October, 1555. Further ordinances were framed, viz': — 

I. That at all sittings of the Court when any business was 
discussed the Members should speak to the subject in order of 
seniority, and any one interrupting or speaking out of turn was to 
pay nd. fine. The Beadle also was to stand without the door, in 
the Hall, and there to give his attendance whenever the Master 
should knock for him. 

1 St. Pauls. 

i j 4 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

II. That there should be an Armourer with a yearly fee 
of \os., and — 

for the same he shalbe bounde to make cleane our harneys w"' daggers gunnes 
armyng swords and bills and with all other things that doethe appertayne to an Armorer 
for to doo in mending of buckells lethers or any other thinge which dothe appertayne 
to that whiche we nowe have. 

III. When the Master and Governors should go to view their 
lands and tenements to see the state of repair, the Bricklayer was to 
go with them to advise and to have a fee of " ij s and his dynnar." 

IV. This relates to the Clerk (see Clerk). 

V. That a Minute book be kept to record all the orders 
made at any Court, and that such orders be read at the next Court 
and signed. 

VI. That no freeman shall serve a foreigner under a penalty 
of 135 4^. for every time so offending, and any foreigner taking a 
freeman to serve with him should be fined 26s. Sd. 

19th November, 1555. John Demynge, "Cowper 1 & ffre 
denysen," was granted a lease of a house belonging to the 
Company at St. Katherine's, Tower Hill, at £2 per annum for 
thirty years, with a fine of £\ on sealing the lease and a " barrell 
of doble beare." 

26th November, 1555. Thomas Glynton, Goldsmith, was to 
have a lease of the house in Tower Street, where he then dwelt, for 
30 years from Christmas, 1555, no rent stated, but a fine of £\o to 
be paid on sealing the lease. 

1 Cooper. 

oAmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 775 

5th March, 1556. Several further Ordinances and awards were 
made by the Court, among which were the following : — 

I. That the Masters and Governors should not let the Hall to 
anyone to — 

daunce or use anye other kynde of games els whereby the sealinge or other 
things being broken in the hall or kitchen shall redowne to the losse of the Company 
Yf therefore the sayed M r and governors for the tyme being doo let out the hall to any 
bodye to thentent aforesayde w'out the consent of the hole howse to be called for the 
same they should forfeit and pay etc. 

IV. The ffourthe Artycle is that if any of the Lyverye or of the yomanrye come 
to sesse any man being a jornye man to serve him as the order is that he taketh i d for a 
yere or ij d for ij yere That his M r shall not put him awaye at his pleasure as many now 
a dayes do, but he shall complayne to the M r and Governors for the tyme of the 
demeaner usuage and evell behaveor of the sayed Journyman for noen kepinge of his 
M" howse all the weke daye by reason wherof he dothe lose his custom's or that he 
goeth out at his pleasure and come in at his will againe w'out asking of any leave of his 
M r or mysteris w cl1 pertayneth not to a servaunte for to doo for theyse consyderacons and 
other the m r maye complayne. The Jornyman lykewise may complayne of his M r yf that 
he doo not paye him his wages and to have his meate and dryncke as Jornymen shoulde 
have according to the agremet of bothe the partyes as the M r and the Jornyman shalbe 
at a pointe when he cometh to sesse any Jornymen because that if the Jornyman doo 
not his dewtye that he may be punysshed and put in prison to thentent that Jornymen 
may be kept in good order otherwise then they be nowe. And that the M* and gov'nors 
for the tyme being shall declare to the Jornyman what is his dewty to his M' when he 
dothe come to be seste to thentent that he shall knowe his dewtye to his M r and if he 
doo not the same then he knoweth the pryce. And agayne to declare to the Jornyman 
what his M r shall doo to him, as to paye his wages mete and dryncke and other things 
that a Jornyman oughte to have. Yf any of the Clothinge or of the yomanrye put awaye 
his Jornyman before his yere or yeres come out and not declaring the matter to the M r 
and governors [he] shall forfaycte at every tyme so doinge for a ffyne to the hall vj s viiij d - 
And that all ffremen being Journymen may be preferred and taken, being a workman 
before any fforyner duynge his dewty to his M r as is aforesayed because we are bounde to 
preferre the ffremen w ch beare scot and lot to the Cytye and company w ch the Jornymen 
doo not being forryners but come out of the contrye to Iearne there scyence here and so 
after warde goo away agayne w ch is not to the welth of the Companye. 

ij6 cAimals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

VII. No Liveryman was to presume to come into the parlour, 
whilst the Court was sitting, without being sent for. 

VIII. Freemen were not to put away apprentices to make room 
for others by whom they might get money. 

IX. Two Stewards for the Anatomy were to be chosen 
every year. 

X. The Clerk having claimed to provide the napery and 
vessells, and to appoint the Cook for the Anatomy dinners, alleging 
an old custom to that effect, it was ordered that he should not again 
do so as he had aforetime for a " lytle lucer of moneye," but that the 
Stewards of the Anatomy should make their own provision and "dresse 
there meate clenly and honestlye because of worshipfull men comyng 
thereunto," and if the Clerk again offended he was to " paye to the 
hall for a fyne his half yeres wages w ch is x s - " 

XII. The Twelve Article is that if Olyver Wilson dothe hereafter speake 
evill of the M r and governors and thassistaunce of the clothinge or of any of the 
yomanrye as heretofore he hathe dooen w ch by profe hathe been tryed and therfore 
hathe been punnished in pryson, yf ever hereafter he dothe the like he to be expelled. 

Note. — In all cases penalties or punishments were specified 
for breach of the foregoing ordinances. 

5th March, 1556. William Goodwin, Merchant Taylor, leased 
to the Company for 99 years " all the houses next the hall w th the 
house of the prevy w'in the hall for yj 1 ' vj s viij d " per annum, the 
Company to keep the premises in repair. 

27th June, 1556. Arnold Tymes, " beare brewer," had a lease 
of a " gardein lying in easte Smithefelde " for 40 years, paying \2(i. for 
an earnest penny, and to pay at the sealing of the lease £\, and at 
the Audit day other £4. 

oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. lyj 

9th July, 1556. John More, Cordwainer, and Richard Wiston, 
had leases of houses in St. John's, Walbrook, for 30 years from 
Midsummer, and about this period there are several other notices 
of leases for 30 years having been granted of property in East 
Smithfield, Holborn Bridge, and Mugwell Street. 

22nd July, 1556. An order was made : — 

That there shalbe a painter belonge to the hall, and he to have a pencon 
yerely of vj s viij' 1 by the yere to be payed at fower tymes of the yere and for the same he 
shall make cleane all the paintinge w'in the hall bothe above and benethe as the Tables 
in the hall and other things and in the gardein every qiHer of a yere if it so neede : and 
to amend faults where there ys anye at his owne proper costs and chardgs as is afore 

26th August, 1557. It was ordered that Mrs. Dawson, the 
Widow of one Bryckett — 

a Toothe drawer shall paye no quartryge to the hawle nor hange oute any 
signe or clothe \v' h teethe as she hearetofore hath don. 

1 2th October, 1557. John West was discharged out of this howse bycawse 
he wold not abyde y e order of y e M' & gov'nors and one Asheton had lycence to 
arest hym. 

Various entries occur about this period of freemen being 
brought before the Court and punished for using " obrobrious worcles." 

9th November, 1557. It was ordered that Robert Postell 
(Warden 1544) should have a "yerely anewitie oute of thys 
howse " of 40 s- 

A freeman before "setting up shop" was required to procure 
the testimony of one or more citizens that he was worth 10 marks, and 
to obtain a licence from the Court ; there are numerous examples 
in point, e.g. : — 

16th November, 1557. Heare was before the M r and Gov'nors Rychard Lynley 
and he had Lycece to sett up hys shoppe and one Johan Coale of the Cytie of London 

2 A 

iyS cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Cytizen and Clothwoorcker Deposed that the sayd Rychard ys worthe and valued 
of hys proper owne vj 1 ' xiij s iiij d ' 

23rd November, 1557. Licence was granted to William 

Thomlyn — 

To drawe teethe and to make cleane teethe and no more and he ys so admytted 
a brother into thys howse but not yet sworne and he hathe payde x s and rest other ten 
shyllings he wyll brynge in as sowne as he can. 

nth January, 1558. The same daye Tyndall y e Armorer is dysmyst & shall 
have no more his fee oute of this howse bycawse he gave none attendance whan o r 
soldyers wer sett oute to calyce' & John gamlyn is admytted armorer & he to have 
y e same fee y' tyndall had y' is to saye by the yere x s 

19th April, 1558. My lady Aylyff gave a fyne table cloth of damaske worcke 
to srve for the uppermost table in the hawle the w ch of her jentyllness she gave frely 
unto this hawle. 

22nd November, 1558. An order was made against John John 
that he should pay 6s. to William Bourne for " ij Barbores potts" 
which he had lost. 

1566. The second volume of Court Minutes contains a long 
list of " Lawes Actes and Ordenances " enacted by the Court in 
1566, but as many of these are not of sufficient interest to warrant 
transcribing, the headings of such will only be given here. 

1. An order to avoied grudg or displeasure for the eleccon. 

This was that no one was to " fynd fault " with the election of 
Master or Governors if the persons so elected should at any time 
be chosen out of their turn. 

2. An order that solempne service be saied one the day of Eleccon. 

Also yt is ordayned that the M r and gov^noures of the saied mystery for the 
tyme beinge yerelye uppon the daye of eleccon of the newe M r and governoures shall 
cause Devine service solempnely to be kepte at the churche therefore to be appoynted. 

1 Calais. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. ijqj 

And that the whole company of the Clothinge or Lyverye of the said ffellowshippe shall 
p sonallye be present at the same yf there be no Lawful 1 and reasonable cause of Absence 
to be allowed of by the M r and governo rs of the sayed mysterye uppon payne that 
whosoev absenteth hym self shall for ev r 'y suche default paye xij d - The said service 
to be at the charges of the common Boxe. 

3. An order ffor the allowance of the Dynner one the daye of Eleccon. 

This directed that ,£13 6.v. 8d. should be allowed yearly towards 
the Election Dinner out of the common box. 

4. An order that y° Clothing shall bring home the M r & gov'nors in their LyVyes. 
Also yt is also ordayned y' uppon the day of the Eleccon of the newe M r and 

governoures of the saied mysterye After that they shall be chosen and that suche of 
them as be present have taken their othe that then they and every off them shalbe 
had home unto their howses with the Lyvery or Clothinge and their hoodds uppon 
their shoulders accordinge unto an ould custome heretofore used. 

5. An order howe ev°y man shall behave hym self in the Court tyme. 

This relates to the order in which the members of the Court 
shall speak upon any debated point ; the Master to speak first, the 
Upper Governor next, and so on down to the junior Assistant, and, in 
the event of the Court being equally divided, the Master to have the 
casting vote. 

6. An order that ev°ye one of thassistaunce shall come to all courts of Assist 5 - 

7. An ordre against the Lettinge out of the Hall. 

The Hall was not to be used or let out for "weddings sportes 
or games therein or playes or dauncinge or for any other like entente," 
but by permission of the Court. 

8. An ordre that y c M r and upper governor shall quarterlye take accompte of the 
youngre gov'no'- 

9. An order that y e younger govV shall quarfly make an accompte to the M r 
& upp r govVior. 

2 A 2 

180 c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

io. An order concernynge the younger govYior his receipts & payments and to 
see all repacons' done. 

ii. An order concerninge the Secound gov°nors receiptes and payments. 

12. An ordre concernynge y e examynacon of such as shall be admytted Surgeons. 
No one was to be examined for admission to practise Surgery 

but in the Common Hall, and in the presence of at least three 
Examiners and one or more of the Masters or Governors. 

13. An order that everie man of the said company shall abide the ordre and 
award made by the M r and governors. 

14. An order that no pacient be brought unto the hall one y e Court dayes. 

15. An order for chosenge M rs and Stewards of thannothomye. 

There shall be chosen yerelye for ever two Masters and twoe Stewardes for the 
Anathomyes and that those twoe whiche were Stewardes the one yere shalbe Masters of 
The Anathomies the nexte yere ensewinge To thende that thereby yt maybe betf? knowne 
howe to wourke and make the same. 

16. An order concerninge the Anathomyes. 

This provided that all anatomies, whether public or private 
should be made at the Hall and "that all private Anathomyes shall 
reverently from hensforth be buryed as publick Anathomyes ar for 
the worshippe of the said mysterye, any skelliton to be made onelye 

17. An order that none supplant or take anothers cure from him one paine 
of v 1 '- 

18. An order that none take any app''ntice for Surgerie but that he can write 
& reade. 

19. An order how many s'Vnts ev'y man may kepe. 

No liveryman was to keep more than four apprentices or 
servants working in his art, and no freeman more than three. 

' Reparations (of the Company's houses). 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 181 

20. An order that none use eny mann r of Barbory on Sundayes. 

Yt is ordayned that none of the said mysterye usinge any man n of Barberye 

shall uppon any sondaye shave wasshe poule or trymme any manne 

or w th any Instrum' to make cleane teeth either w' h in his howsse or in any other place 
elles where privelye or appartlye uppon payne of forfeture of xl s - 

21. An order that none doe make any shewe of Barborye one Sonndais or 
other holy days. 

This provides that Barbers shall not " hange upp set or put out 
any bason or basons pott or potts uppon his poule Racke shoppe 
windowes or otherwise " on Sundays or holy days, and is the earliest 
mention of the " Barbers' pole" in our Books. 

22. An order that assistaunts maye be made nev beinge any Governor. 

23. An order that none being out of thassistants com into the plor except he 
be called. 

24. An order that no courte of Assistaunce be houlden one the tuesdayes. 

Tuesdays were set apart for Lectures and for the ordinary or 
Monthly Courts ; no reason is given why Courts of Assistants should 
not be held on the Tuesdays. 

25. An order for the p'sentacon of apprentices before they be boundc. 

Every apprentice was to be presented to the Court that they 
might " uppon the sight of him allowe hymme to be cleane in pson 
and Lymme and meete for the excersycinge of the same mysterye." 

26. An order that none put away his app'Vitice before the cause be knowne 
before y e M r & gov p nors. 

27. An order that none lett any bloud stand to the annoyaunce of the people. 

" Barbours excercyseinge fleabothomye or bloud lettinge " were 
not to show blood in vessels in their windows. 

1 82 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

28. An order that all p°sentac6ns in Surgery shalbe p°sented to the M r w th 
his governoures for the tyme beinge. 

This order provided that any Surgeon having a patient in peril 
of " mayme " or death, was to "present" or make known the case to 
the Governors within three days, and the Court would then appoint 
certain expert Surgeons to see the patient and assist in the cure. 
There are scores of entries in the books of Surgeons being fined 
for not " presenting" patients. 

29. An order that none take any p'sentacons but y 1 ' M' & gov'noures for 
the tyme beinge. 

30. An order that the M r and governoures and their deputies shall goe to the 
poore as well as to the rich. 

Any Master or Governor being sent for to see a sick or 
hurt person and refusing to go without payment, was to forfeit 20 s - 

31. An order for puttinge the rules in execucon. 

32. An order for multipliinge speche in the corte tyme. 

This was an early form of closure directed against such 
members of the Court as were given to an over-indulgence in oratory. 

33. A rule for order in goinge. 

Every member of the Company was to take his place 
according to precedence, at burials, anniversaries, Courts, etc.: — 

And if anie of them of any scrypulosytie frowardnes folly e or pusyllanimity 
refuse to take his owne romme or place accordinge to the order in good obedyent 
manner he was to be fined i2 rt 

34. An order for the view. 

This relates to the yearly inspection of the Company's property. 

4th March, 1566. In Thys Courte Willfh Gyllam was discharged and released 
oute of warde and hath [id his arerages and he hathe confessied y' Richard Bromehed 
doth shave the vycar of Stepney in his howse every sondaye.. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 183 

4th July, 1566. It was ordained that if any of the Court 
hereafter might "happen to lyght or fall into povertie or dekaye" that 
he should have a pension out of the Common box. One who had served 
as Master was to have per ann. ,£4 ; an Upper Governor £$ ; Second 
Governor £2 ; Younger Governor £1 ; and an Assistant 13J. \d. 

It was also ordained that Thomas Hall should have an 
exhibition of 405. per annum— 

towardes hys studye in the unyvercytie for Surgery anexynge physycke thereunto, 
and thereby hereafter to p°phet his other brethren beynge of this sayde mystery and 
comynaltie usynge and ocupyenge the sayde syence & arte w"'in the cytie of London by 
Readynge lectures unto them in y e Comon Hall and other wyse by his councell conynge 
and knowlege in the same science & arte of Surgery. 

It was also ordained that whenever the Lord Mayor should 
invite the Masters and Governors to dine with him, that — 

then and there after the same dynner ys don The M r or gov°nors shall make his 
oracyon or request in the behalf of the sayde Company as to hys wysdome yt shall seme 
best in most descrytest maner and shall then geve and delyver unto the sayde Lorde 
maior of lawful mony in golde I s and in orther corrant mony iij s iiij d that is foure marks 
by waye as a good wyll of the same Company. 

Also It ys Ordayned That god callyng oute or frome this Trancytory vale or 
worlde any of this saide Company decessed and beynge w"'in the clothing or lyvery of 
the same, his best hood shalbe layed upon the hearse and unto the churche and y r upon 
yt shall so remayne untyll the takynge of of the said herce clothe w ch is used at the 
goynge forth of the M r gov^nors & company of the clothinge oute of the churche & the 
corps goynge to be buryed. And then and y r the clarke of the saide Company shall 
take the same hood and [it] shalbe his p°per owne of dewtie. (In default the widow 
or executor was to pay 6s. Sd.) 

The Beadle was directed to look after, and to help in removing 
back to the Hall, the standings, banners, carpets, etc., after they 
had been used on any public occasion, and a small yearly fee was 
to be allowed him for this service. 

1 Off. 

i 84 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

3rd November, 1566. Edward Parke, referred to in the 
next minute, was constantly getting into trouble, and sometimes 
into the Compter : — 

Here was Thomas Lambkyn & John Merryt wytnesses against Edward Parke 
for y' he saide he wolde not coirie to the Courte beynge warned & y' yf the M r coifiytted 
hym to warde he wolde brynge the M r before the lorde cheefe Justice And yt is ordered 
y' the saide Parke shall [be] & is upon his humble submyssion remytted. 

1 6th Jan., 1567. The old vellum book of ordinances, etc., 
containing portions of the four Gospels in Latin, and still in our 
possession is probably the book referred to in the minute of this date, 
which states that Willm Grene had " taken an othe upon the blacke 
booke that serveth in this howse for the same purpose." 

13th Nov., 1567. Yt ys ordayned that Wyllyam Bull Chrystofor Swalldell 
William Crowe Wyllyam Grene Henry Rankyn and Leonard Coxe is elected to be of the 
clothyng and Lyvery and that theyre hoods shalbe by the M r for the tyme beyng put upon 
theyre shoulders w ,h in the p^lor one Chrystmas day next ensuyng before the company go 
to pawles to weyghte on the lorde mayor, unto the olde usuage in that behalf provyded 

27th Jan., 1568. In this court Rich Hughes is graunted to have the hall to 
kepe a maryage in upon Sonday So" a sevenighte. 

Again this year a licence for a similar purpose was granted to 
Francis Partridge, and there are other instances. 

1 8th May, 1568. In this Courte here was Phillip Jorden for trymynge on the 
Sondayes & for now he is forgeven beynge the fyrst tyme. 

13th Oct., 1568. Here was W m fferrat for Trymyng upon the Sonday but he wyll 
do yt no more here after. 

About this period there were numerous cases of Sunday trading 
before the Court, and in many instances the offenders were fined or 

1 Come. 

zA nn als of the Barber-Surgeons. 185 

9th Nov., 1568. In thys Courte here was Rich Roberts and he is comanded 
that he shall agree w th this mystery as a brother or ells he to shutte up his shoppe and 
ocupye no more but as a servant upon the penalities of the statute. 

10th March, 1569. It was ordered : — 

That Richard Wysto for his mysdemeanor and unquyet behaveor and beyng a 
troublesom p°son, so that the courte of assystents canne neyther thincke well or good on 
hym, therupon and therfore he the saide Richard Wysto is relynquyshed depryved and 
dysmyst of his office and yong r gov'norshyp and also fourth of assystents of the saide 

Wysto appears from time to time to have given the Court 
trouble, his offence on this particular occasion being that he had 
ordered his apprentice to let a man blood in the Compter contrary 
to the order of the Aldermen. Wysto was contumacious for a long 
period, but seems on 17th July, 1572, to have made humble submission 
and apology, whereupon an order was made " That none do stirre 
upp any talke consrninge the deprivacon or submyssion of Ric. 
Wistowe " ; he was subsequently re-admitted on to the Court and 
served Master 1586, but the animus against him revived, and on 
7th November, 1587, certain parties were before the Court for reviling 
him on the old score, and were duly threatened and admonished as 
to their future behaviour. 

22nd November, 1569. Here was Phillip Jordan for trymming upon the 
sabboth daye and he once agayne is warned upon the penalltie of the acte that he 
do y' hence forwardes no more (see 18th May, 1568). 

10th October, 1570. Margaret y l was M r Vaughan' his mayde is graunted 
to kepe one Sonday her wedyng in the hall & no more. 

1568 to 1570. There are several entries in the books of 
members of the Court being removed for misbehaviour. 

1 George Vaughan, Master 1569. 

2 B 

i86 a/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

27th January, 1 57 1. It was ordered that — 

a newe Bayle be made to thentent them of the clothing of this mysterie 
maie decentlie stand to attend all soch tymes as it shall please the Queenes ma" e to 
come through the citie of London. 

The Bayle was a movable stand or platform ; there are various 
notices as to the one previously in use, having been out of repair. 
It was taken out on all great days of processions or triumphs and 
on Christmas day when the " lorde maior went to Poules," and 
numerous references are also made to the Company's banners which 
accompanied it. 

19th January, 1573. Here was Willfn Carrington for havinge iiij servaunts one 
Christmas even and ordre was taken that he should laye downe his ffyne. 

15th March, 1573. Here was a question moved concerninge takynge in 
certeyne into the Assystaunce But the howsse would not consent to the takinge in of 
any more for that there were alredye xxviij p'sones. 

Here was a question moved concernynge the takinge in of certayne p°sons 
into the clothinge but the house did not think good to take in anye for that the 
nomber is alredy fyftye. 

26th May, 1573. Here was John Johnsonne and brought in his fyne for 
kepinge a foryner uncest xx d ' 

There are frequent entries of freemen being fined for not 
"cessing" foreigners and journeymen, and for teaching foreigners 
their "science." 

It would seem from the following precise minute that commit- 
ments to prison were made by the Court direct, and not always upon 
Warrants obtained from the Lord Mayor or a Justice. 

15th March, 1575. Here was one M°kes [Markes] servnte w"' M' Tholmwood 
sometyme, sent to the Compter by Willfn Eden Clark to this misterye for not p'Yorming 
an Awarde made betwene the saide M r Tholmwood and the saide M°kes and divers 
others stubborne and lewde behavio" The comitte"" made by the saide M'and Wardens. 

oA 'id nils of the Barber-Surgeons. 187 

22nd March, 1575. Here was John Clark sessed w"' Edward Park for two 
yeres to begin at the ffeast of Thannunc of o r Ladye next viz'- the first yeare xxij s and a 
payre of hose, the seconde yere xxvj s viij d a payre of hose and a Capp. 

15th May, 1575. Here was a p°sept sent by my Lo'de maior straitly charging 
and commandinge the companye in her Majesties name that they take immediate 
order that theyr s vaunts and appntices nor any of them in any wyse or sorte do mysuse 
annye svyng man page or lackey or anye other p°son that shal goo throwe the streets 
of this Cittee, nor shall attempt anything to the breach of her Ma ,ies peace either 
in wordes acts countenaunce or otherwise at their uttmost p°yll, whereupon all the 
whole Companye were sent for and had that Comaundement. 

1577. Thomas Hall (see 4th July, 1566) was appointed an 
Examiner in Surgery and to dissect the anatomies for ten years. 

There are several instances of exhibitions to sons of freemen 
(generally 405. a year), to enable them to study at Oxford and 
Cambridge, and these entries extend over a great many years. 

22nd Oct., 1577. Here was M r Skarlet the Quenes Bargeman and he p°mised 
the Companie that they shoulde have a barge called the Greyhounde belonging to the 
maydes of honor for lij s iiij d yf my Lorde maior do go unto westn?. 

This sum would not of course include the Bargemaster's or his 
men's fees for their services, or the providing banners, accessories or 
attendants, all of which were paid for by the Company in addition. 

23rd July, 1582. At this Co°te John Yates Thomas Lamkin and Edward Parke 
were dismist from their places and owte of thassistance for revelinge of secrets contrarie 
to a rule in that case p\ided. 

6th March, 1583. Yt was agreed that whereas a dcmaunde was made by the 
L. Maio' and Co'te of Alderme unto o r Companie for a contribution of certein monie for 
certeine Landes we hold as the saide Corte gave in Certificate of John Johnsons guifte 
for thuse of an obit. The answere was made by the consent of the said Masters that 
this house will joyne w ,h other Companies in the charge accordinge to their porcons. 

2 B 2 

1 88 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

21st Nov., 1583. Mr. Banester, a liveryman, being indebted to 
the Company ,£5, gave a "watche or clock" and it was ordered that his 
debt should be cancelled in consideration of this gift. 

The following minute refers to the obit for John Johnson (vide 6th 
March, 1583) the property having been declared to be held for 
superstitious uses, the Company purchased their right to retain its 
possession for ^13 65. Sd. 

5th July, 1585. At this Co'te yt was agreed That whereas a Tente in Tower 
streate belonginge to this house ys founde [to] be concealled Landes. That the pattenist 
should have for agreament to have o r Tente surelie the some of xx tic markes. 

The next is a curious instance of an ancient tenure. 

29th Sept., 1586. A lease for 21 years of a house in East 
Smithfield was granted to Humphry Rowland at £6 per annum, and 
the said Humphry was to — 

deliv r and geve unto the saide masters and to suche as shall come w" 1 them to 
viewe the said Tente yerely the nombre of xviij shoing homes franck and ffree. 

14th Aug., 1587. It was also condiscended and agreed That the newe masters 
or governo' 5 of this o r Company shall evy yeare on the daie of o r Elleccon of them be 
brought home to their howses with the Levery or some pte of them as heretofore hathe 
ben accustomed evy one wearinge his hood in decent order. 

6th July, 1592. Certein newe silver booles are to be bought for those p°cell 
gilt booles w ch were the guifte of M r Vaughan. 

oth February, 1596. It was agreed for "the taking in of the 
water w ch cometh from the Themes by pipes into this howse." Hereto- 
fore the water had been supplied from a well, and later on by a 
leaden " pomp." 

1596. In this year a curious episode occurred, which showed 
that the Court were not unwilling to shield their freemen when 

o/lnimls of the Barber-Surgeons. i8q 

offending, if the party taking action against the offender did not 
belong to the Company. Four freemen (one being an Assistant) 
had been "put into" the Court of Exchequer by "one Holmes an 
Informer for using both Barbery and Chirurgery against the Statute," 
and the Court, without troubling to enquire if the offence had been 
committed or not, ordered that £10 should be lent the parties to 
assist them in defending the suit. At the next Court the matter was 
much debated as to whether the Barber-Surgeons should go on with 
their defence or make terms with the informer, and the parties them- 
selves were consulted, whereupon it was finally decided "among 
themselves to agree w th the said Informer w ch they related to the whole 
Corte, whereupon the Corte rose and the said pties made their owne 
agreement privately w th the saied Informer to their best likinge." 

ioth December, 1596. Mr. Storer came to the Court and 
agreed with the Company, by indenture, in consideration of £5 per 
annum for seven years, to relieve the Company from all charges in 
respect of the provision of grain for serving the market during 
that period. 

9th June, 1597. This daie one septer or mace and twoe pictures latelye and 
verye loveingelye given to this Companye by William Martyn' of the Clothinge in 
token of his love to this house was presented to this Courte and verye gratefullye accepted. 

This daie one cupp made of an Ostridge Egge or shell and sett in silver and 
guilte given by the laste will and testamente of M r Thomas Bankes divers tymes M r of 
this Companye was likewise presented to this Courte and verye gratefullye accepted. 

15th Jany., 1598. This daie William Clare one of the Lorde Maiors serjeantes 
at mace is chosen officer of this house and where his fee to fore was but vj s viij d per Ann 
it is nowe by this Courte uppon good consideracon augmented to x s p Anil and John 
Smith in his absence is appointed deputye. 

1 Master 1606. 

ujo oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The duty of this officer was to attend the Courts of Assistants 
and to arrest and convey to the Compter such persons as were 

30th Jan., 1598. Nicholas Kellaway, in consideration of his 
years, was excused serving the offices of Steward and Master of the 
Anatomy and " freelye gave one standinge cup double guilte w ch was 
kindely accepted." 

14th Aug., 1598. There is under this date an interesting 
account of the Election of Master and Wardens ; twelve Electors 
from among the Livery were appointed : — 

Which electors after they had their chardge given them by the Maisters or 
Governors of this Companye and their several] billes for the eleccon delivered unto them 
after longe and deliberate consideracbn had, did electe for the Maister John Leycocke 
and for the upper Governor John Burgis and for the seconde Governor John Pecke and 
for the yongeste Governor Roberte Johnson Which saide John Leycocke beinge not then 
presente the garlande accordinge to the manner and custome of this house was by the 
Maister for the yeare paste placed uppon the heade of Mr. Docter Browne as deputye for 
the saide John Leycocke, after which another garlande was likewise placed uppon the 
heede of the saide John Burgis by the upper governor And a like garlande tendered to 
the saide John Pecke which he utterlye refused and for the same was fined at ffortye 
shillinges which fine he paid accordinglye likewise a nother garlande was placed by the 
yongeste Governor uppon the heade of the said Roberte Johnson and by him gratefullye 
accepted And the saide Maister Burgis and M r - Johnson were sworne standinge for the 
due execucon of their offices. 

1598. In the Minute Book commencing 1598 there are scores 
of cases of Barbers being fined for working on Sundays; the informant 
was generally the Beadle, and it is amusing to note how frequently a 
delinquent, after purging himself by a fine, voluntarily took to the office 
of Informer against his brother Barbers. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. i q i 

Many Barbers and Surgeons were fined for presuming to 
"sett up shoppe" without licence, here is an instance: — 

28th November, 1598. This daye George Collimer appeared before the M rs 
of this Companye and had daye till the next court to bringe in his fine for openinge 
his shop w"'out licence. 

nth December, 1598. This daye Thomas Powell appeared before the M' s 
for workinge on the saboth daye and puteth him self uppon his tryall, wherefore 
he is comaunded to attend here the next Court And in the meane tyme for his 
unrev°ent behaviour towards the M' is comitted to the Compf- 

15th January, 1599. Where divers grudges and manye greate inconveniencies 
have happened amongest suche as have benne familiar frendes and brothers of this 
Societye by the unadvised rashnes of some of the Assistance of this Companie whoe 
have disclosed and revealed suche secretes as have bene advisedlye and discretlye 
for the benefit of the said Companye spoken in the courte tyme Contrarye to the 
solempne othes of suche assistant to the greate dishoner of god and scandall to the 
said Companye, ffor reformacon whereof it is ordered by consente of a full Courte 
of Assistance That if at any tyme hereafter any of the Assistance of this ffelowship 
shall utter or reveale to any other p°son beinge not Assistante any secretes uttered 
and spoken at any courte which oughte not to be uttered or revealed And also 
if any Elector of the M r or Governors for the tyme beinge shall at any tyme hereafter 
utter or reveale any speches concerninge the election to any person which oughte 
not to knowe the same suche person soe offendinge and due proffe thereof made, 
beinge of the Assistance shalbe dismissed oute of his place and livery, and beinge 
onlye of the livery shalbe dismissed oute of the liverye. 

Where this house hath a barrel of Gunpowder It is ordered that the same 
be soulde to the beste benifitt of this house. 

30th January, 1599. This daie Edward Downes was comitted to the Compter 
for calleinge villayne before the maisters of the Companye. 

6th February, 1599. It is ordered that John Mullines shalbe comitted to 
the Compter for his disobedience in not payeinge his debte to this house. 

iQ2 cA * finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

17th April, 1599. This daie Michaell Bullocke complayneth of William Webbe 
forren brother for workeinge with Henrye Needeham beinge not ceassed with him and 
for grindeinge of rasares' And Needeham is to be warned to the nexte Courte. 

8th May, 1599. Marmaduke Jefferson hath till the nexte Courte to bring in 
his fine for hangeinge oute his basones on maye daie. 

5th July, 1599. Richard Sprignall, to be excused serving the 
office of Master, presented a — 

drinckeinge cupp made of a nutte and garnished with silver and guilte which 
was thankfullye accepted. 

17th July, 1599. This daie William Lacye is Comitted to the Compter for 
his contemptious behaviour towardes the Maisters of the Companye and for workinge 
in the trade of barberie beinge noe freeman. 

24th July, 1599. This daie Richard Samborne complayned of one Phillip 
Winter for settinge upp a shoppe in paules church yarde beinge not free. It is ordered 
that the saide Winter shalbe comitted to prison untill he be free, or bounde before my 
lorde Maior to departe the Citye. 

This daie Gabriell Hunte appeared before the Maisters and was comitted to 
prison for workeinge on the sabouth daies. 

30th July, 1599. This daie Thomas Hobbes hath lycence of the Maisters to 
sue Thomas Watson at the Comon lawe for not accomptinge with him for iij 1 '- due in 
the tyme of his apprentishipp. 

13th August, 1599. It was further ordered that because this tyme is troblesom 
and to avoyde the evill speches of men, that there shoulde go home with the Maister 
but eighte of the liverye and with the rest of the Governors sixe a peece and that 
withoute their hoodes. 

29th May, 1600. It was ordered that two streamers and 
two banners should be purchased to garnish the Company's barge. 

3rd July, 1600. This daye Anthony Millington Esquier Executor to the laste 
Will and Testament of Elizabeth Scoloker deceased payd unto the M rs viz., M r Wood 

1 Razors. 

?/l finals of the Barber-Surgeons. i gj 

M' Dardes & M r Martin a legacy of tenne poundes by the sayd Elizabeth bequeathed 
to this Company whereuppon it is ordered that there be a Cup made w" 1 the same money 
And that her name be ingraven uppon it as a thinge geven by her. 

nth Aug., 1600. Whereas Thomas Cole a verye disobedient and pervers 
brother of this Companye did verye disobedientlie and perversely behave himselfe 
towardes the Maisters or Governors in the presents of the Assistants and liverye there 
assembled And alsoe for that hee refused to paie the musicions iiij d according to order 
It is ordered by the consent of a full Courte of Assistants and of the reste of the 
assemblie that he be dismissed oute of the liverye of this Companye And not to be 
warned to any assemblies or meetinges in other sorte then one" of the yeomanrie till it 
shall please a Courte of Assistants at the like tyme to restore him to his former place, yet 
he is to paye his quarterage dulye. 

Thomas Cole reformed his ways, and was subsequently 
re-admitted to the Livery. 

4th Nov., 1600. This daye it is ordered that Wheelis dwellinge in Longe Lane 
take downe his basons and make no shewe towardes the streete uppon payne to be 
comitted to the Compter. 

22nd Apl., 1 60 1. This daye where this howse alloweth but v 5 to the parson of 
St. Olaves for his sermon on the Election daye It is ordered by this Court that the 
same be augmented to x s - 

5th May, 1 60 1. This daie Henry Eaton uppon warninge appeared before the 
maisters or Governors for keepinge a forren Jorneyman whereuppon it was ordered that 
the said Eaton shoulde put a waie the said fforren before the next courte daye. 

30th June, 1 60 1. Noah Bayley, a Surgeon, who for two or 
three years past had continually been complained of for various offences, 
and disagreements with patients and apprentices, came at last to grief, 
for having — 

not onely abused M r Warden Thorney w th reprochefull & slanderous speeches 
but also M r Mapes and M 1 ' ffenton twoe of the assistants of this Company making mowes 2 
and mockinge them as they sate in the Courte in contempt of the said Court it was 
ordered that hee therefore shalbe comitted to the Compter uppon the Lo : Maiors 
commaundement for example of oth rs - 

1 Than as one. * Mouths. 

2 C 

ip4 c/Jiiimls of the Barber-Surgeons. 

22nd September, 1601. This daye Richard Higgins was committed to the 
Compter by the M rs uppon the Lo : Maiors commaundm 1 for refuseinge to paye his fine 
for his absence from the hall at the daye of gen'all Rules. 

This day Thomas Allen ' was fined for his absence from the said rules. 

6th October, 1601. This daye it was ordered that Will"' Braye for certayne 
speeches & for his misbehaviour towards M r Warden Atmer should be p°sently comitted 
to the Compter, of w ch imprisonm' at his humble suite and uppon his submission to the 
said M r Atm r hee was dischardged of his said imprisonm'- 

10th October, 1601. This daye Will™ Deepeinge Owin Jones and Edward 
Waterhowse were appoynted for three of the wiflers for the yere ensuinge. 

A committee was ordered to meet at " M cers Chappell by sixe 
of the Clock in the morninge to viewe the repacSns of the howses 
belonginge to this Company." How many members of the Court 
would now attend at 6 a.m. in chill October? 

27th October, 1601. This daye it is ordered that the M™ of this Company 
& also M r Bird M r Wood M r John Izard Thomas Thorney William Martin & John 
Gerrard 2 be warned to meete on ffrydaye next by sixe of the clock in the morninge 
to goe on serch accordinge to custome. 

23rd February, 1602. This daye it is ordered that Richard Jackson a brother 
of this Company shall be committed to the Compt' for not appearinge before the M re 
uppon warninge to answer the complaint of Edward Bird his apprentice. 

22nd March, 1602. This daye it is ordered that John Rea Strang' shall be 
committed to the Compter for settinge out his billes 3 uppon the gates & oth r places 
in the Cytie contrary to his tolleracon. 

30th March, 1602. This daye it is ordered that M' Warden ffrederick M r 
Thorney M r Will" 1 Martin M' John Peck M r Gerrard r & M r ffenton shall meate on 
ffrydaye next by eyghte of the clock in the morninge at Lyon Key to goe from 
thence to my Lord Admirall 4 to complayne against Robert Derham for his contempt 
in refusinge her Mat s imprest. 

1 First .Master of Dulwich College. - The celebrated herbalist. 

3 Probably quack doctor's advertisements. ' The Earl of Nottingham, at Greenwich. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 1 93 

13th April, 1602. This daye Robert Durham (Derham) appeared before the 
M rs of this Company of his owne voluntary And it was by this Courte ordered that for 
his sev°all contempts of this Company aswel in their serch as in their prest hee should 
bee committed to the Compt r uppon the Lord Maiors Commaundem 1 whereuppon hee 
was sent to the Compter But at the speciall instance and request of one M r Meredith 
and M r Morgan twoe of the said Derhams ffrendes hee was sent for back agayne and 
uppon his humble submission & intreaty hee was dischardged of his imprisonment And 
thereuppon did promise to be obedient to this Company at all tymes hereaft'- 

24th November, 1602. This daye it is ordered by the M rs or Governors of this 
Company that Robert Redhead one of the Lord Maiors officers shalbe officer to this 
Company as aft r the decease of Will" 1 Clare And to have such fee for the same as the said 
Willm Clare held the same And also hee is to be confirmed in the same place by the 
next court of Assistance. 

20th March, 1604. This daye it is ordered that on thursdaye next the M rs of 
this Company shall attend the Lord Maior to knowe his pleasure concerninge their 
places of standinges. 

The Masters on this occasion procured an order of the Court of 
Aldermen ranking the Company as sixteenth in order of precedence, 
and this is set forth in the Minute Book as follows : — 

17th April, 1604. Jl gjopic of an order of Courte set downe the daye and 
yere hereaft'' expressed concerninge the place of this 
Company in all assemblies of the Companyes of 
this Cytie. 

gilarfts decimo septimo die Aprilis 1604 Annoq^ regni Dili nri Jacobi Regis 
Anglie &c scdo. 

Bennet \ Soane Garrard Lee Hollydaye Wattes Rowe Craven Anderson Swynerton 
Maior ) Hayes ac Romney un vie &c. 

^3l?ere it appeareth to this Court aswell by the humble supplicacon of the 
Maisters or Gov°nors of the Mistery & Coialtye of Barbors and Chirurgeons of this Cytie 
as by an ord r taken by the same Courte the fowerth daye of ffebruary in the tyme of the 
Maioraltie of S r Stephen Peacock knighte and in the fower and twenteth yere of the 

2 C 2 

iq6 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

reigne of the Late Kinge of famous memory Kinge Henry the eight That the M rs or 
Governors of the said mistery & Coialty of Barbors & Chirurgeons & their p'decessors in 
the order of their goinges standinges rydinges sittinges & oth r assemblies of the liv°yes 
of the sev'all Companyes of this ho : Cytie have bene alwayes tyme oute of mynde reputed 
taken & placed as the seaventeneth Company amongest oth re the sev°all Companyes of this 
Cytie next & imediatly from & aft r the Company of Mercers Grocers Drap°s ffishemongers 
Goldsmythes Skinners Marchaunttaylors Haberdashers Salters Iremongers Vinteners 
Stockfishmongers Clothworkers Brewers Lethersellers and Pewterers And forasmuch as 
it doth likewise appeare to this Co'te that sythens the makeinge and establisheinge of the 
said order the said M rs or Governo ri of the said Mistery and Coialtie of Barbors and 
Surgeons have enjoyed the Benifit of the said order and borne all chardges taxes and 
contributions whatsoev' imposed on them from tyme to tyme w' h credytt to the good 
likinge of the Magistrats and Governors of this Cyttie as well as other Companies of like 
sorte and State have done And yett notw ,h standing of late at the Royall passages of the 
Kinge and Queenes most exelent Ma" es and the prince of wales attended by the Nobilitie 
and gentry of the land through this Cyttie on the fifteenth daie of March last when 
through ignorance theie were misplaced by the Comittie appoynted by this Cyttie for the 
mannaginge of those affaires. It is therefore this daie upon due consideration had of the 
p^isses, and for that the said Company of Stockfyshmongers have bene since the tyme 
of the said order wholelie dissolved and abrogated and noe Company or Corporacon 
remayninge w ,h in this Cyttie of that name, ordered and decreed that the said M' s or 
Governors of the said Misterie and Coialtie of Barbors and Surgeons shalbe from hence- 
forth reputed taken and placed as the syxeteenth Companie w' h in this Cyttie in all theire 
goeings rydinges sytteinges standeinges and assemblies whatsoever, any misplaceinge of 
them on the said fifteenth daie of March last to the contrary notw"'standinge. 


22nd May, 1604. This daie it is ordered that from henceforth the Clark of this 
Companie shall against ev 9 y Courte daie bestowe iiij d in hearbes and flowers. 

1 2th June, 1604. This daye Will 1 " Wrighte a very disobedyent Broth' of this 
Company was accordinge to the Rules of this howse fined at vj s viij d for callinge the 
officers of this howse knaves and for other his lewde & disobedient behaviour and 
is to bringe it into this Court on tewsedaye next. 

8th November, 1604. Mr. Thomas Goodall and Mr. Kellaway 
were each fined 10s. "for not riedinge w th the M rs when the kinge came 
through the city " (probably in March last). 

.. - '• "' ■■" '••"/>■ Iff.) 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. /gj 

5th February, 1605. This daye Marcus Davie appeared before the M rs and 
was rebuked for shewinge the Copie of or Chre' to a Scrivener. 

28th February, 1605. This daye it is ordered that the numb' of 16 p n sons of 
the Assistance of this Company shalbe accompted a full Court of Assistance. 

It was also ordered that a " fay re parchem' booke " be bought 
for engrossing therein the Charters of the Company ; this book is still 
in our possession. 

28th February, 1605. This daye M r Warden ffrederick made request to have 
a Deputie to supplie his place and office of upper warden and to sit in his place till 
his retorne from Spayne whith' the saide M r ffrederick is bounde And alsoe to kepe his 
keyes whereuppon it was ordered that he should make choyce of any sufficient man of the 
Assistant^ to keepe his keyes in his absens if hee pleased. But it was denyed that any 
should sit in his place as deputy. 

Christopher Frederick was Serjeant-Surgeon to the King, and 
father of Sir John Frederick, Lord Mayor in 1661. He was of alien 
birth and did not work harmoniously with the Court of Assistants. 
In Repertory xxvii. fo. 117 (at Guildhall), is an order of the Court 
of Aldermen that Sir Thomas Garrard and four other Aldermen were 
to call the Master and Wardens and Mr. Frederick before them and to 
end their controversies (which, however, they did not succeed in doing). 

2 1 st March, 1605. Mr. Frederick brought a letter to the 
Court from the Earl of Nottingham, saying it was the King's pleasure 
that Mr. Frederick should appoint a deputy to act as Warden in his 
place, whilst he was away with the King in Spain, but the Court 
adhered to its decision of 28th February. 

This daye M r Warden ffrederick p^sented to this Court a letter wrytten to the 
M rs or Governors & Assistants of this Company the contents thereof hereafter ensueth, viz'- : 

Aft r my very hearty commendactins I have thoughte good to signifie unto you 
his Ma ties pleasure That I should have to attend me in this my ambassage into Spayne 

1 Charter. 

ip8 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Mr. Xpofer ffrederick one of the nowe Governors of yo r Company w ch by reason of the 
place hee berelh amongest you can hardely be spared nevertheles because the necessytie 
of the service urgeth the same It is thought fit by his Ma' ie that hee shall noiat and 
appoynt such a sufficient man to execute his place in his absens as fonrPly hath borne 
that office, wherefore I doubt not but you will admitt and allowe of such a one as for that 
purpose hee shall noiat to sit in his absens as his deputy who shalbe answerable for all 
matt s as if M r ffrederick were there himself So to continue eyth r untill the tyme of the 
yere that you make choyce of some other p°sone fit for the same or M r ffrederickf retorne 
oute of Spayne w ch shall first happen, of whose ready care to satisfie the Kinges 
expectaetin and my desyre I dowbte not And evenso I bid you righte hartely farewell, 
ffrom Arnedell howse the ix ,h of March 1604. 1 

Yo r very lovinge frend 
Notingham 2 

I do praye you that Will 1 " Martin be 
excepted 3 in his place till M r ffrederick^ 
retorne Notingham 

26th March, 1605. This daye M r James Hodson one of the tenaunts of this 
Company accordinge to an order of a Court of Assisstance payd to the M re his fyne ot 
L u for his lease And had lycence graunted unto him to demyse the tenement w ch hee 
holdeth of this Company or any pfe thereof And did p°mise to geve unto this howse one 
hogshead of clarret wyne when it should for the use of this howse be called for & 

9th April, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Humfrey Gorston bringe in his 
fyne at the next Courte for teachinge of a forren his Art. 

1 6th April, 1605. This daye Stephen Abraham was commaunded [to] geve over 
his keepinge a barbors shop in Phillip Lane untill hee shalbe made free of this Company 
uppon payne of imprisonment. 

23rd April, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Stephen Abraham be committed 
to the Compter for contempt of the M" 5 order heretofore set downe. 

1 l6oi. - Lord High Admiral. 3 Accepted. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. iqq 

Abraham must have instantly obeyed the order, and shut up his 
shop in Phillip Lane, and directly afterwards have opened another in 
Finch Lane, for we read : — 

30th April, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Stephen Abraham shall take 
downe his basons and geve over his shop in ffynch Lane and shall continue w th his mris 
mris Smyth orels to be committed to prison. 

24th May, 1605. fforasmuch as Mathew Peele a broth' of this Company hath 
delt underhand w th the tenante in possession of the howse where in one Edward Sares 
lately dwelt at Dowgate, makinge the tenant to beleeve that hee the sayd Mathew Peele 
had a lease graunted unto him from this howse of the same and p°ffered to sell the same 
to the said tenaunt where there is no such thinge to him graunted. It is therefore 
ordered that an order made the xviij" 1 of March whereby it was determyned that the sayd 
Mathew Peele should have the first puffer of the next tenem' that should fall voyde of this 
Company better cheape by x" then any oth' p'son shalbe voyde & of none effect to all 
intents & constructions. 

nth June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Willfn Wrighte shalbe committed 
to the Compter for abuseinge the late M ra of this Company. 

25th June, 1605. This daye John Crispe dwellinge in St. Martins Barbor is 
dischardged from kepeinge a shop. 

1 2th September, 1605. This day it was agreed that the p^nte M rs shall p ceed to 
build againe the wall latelie taken downe betwixt o' yard and the Bulwark w th Brick only 
And the same to be correspondent to the reste of the bricke wall of the said yard In 
which wall they are to cause to be made and placed such and so many convenient 
wyndowes w th lettice and casement^ as they shall thincke fitt. And it is further agreed by 
the consent of the Court that they shall proceed w"' the worcke now in hand for the 
erectinge of a steyre and steyrecase to be made to passe through the p°lor into the said 
Bullwarke or garden plott And the same to be finished and done in such mann° and 
forme as the said M 15 shall thincke fitt And also shall repaire and amend the defectf of the 
wainscott in the said p n lor where need shall require. And that such chardges shalbe borne 
by this house as shalbe in that behalf disburssed. 

26th September, 1605. This day M' Nicholas Collins is chosen to be of 
Councell w th this Company and is to have a fee of xl s p° aim. and is to continue in the 
same place so longe as it shall please the Assistant^ of the same Company. 

20 o o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ist October, 1605. This day William Gravenor was fined for hanginge out of 
his basons on Bartholomew day And also Humphry Gorston. 

This day there was redd to this Court a Ire directed from Doctor Browne to the 
said court importinge that Christopher ffredricke was as forward in his advice as in his 
Assistaunce in the cuttinge of S r Anthony Cooke as M r ffenton was. 

About the year 1605 the Court were at law with Mr. Frederick 
as appears by the Wardens' accounts, though there is no reference to 
the subject of the dispute in the Minutes, beyond the above reference 
to a surgical operation performed on Sir A. Cooke, and the controversy 
about the Deputy Warden when Mr. Frederick went to Spain. Mr. 
Frederick was alien born, and the following order, without doubt, had 
a reference to this circumstance : — 

10th October, 1605. This day it is ordered that from henceforth no Alien or 
stranger borne out of his Matf dominions shall hereafter be capable or eligible to 
beare or take upon him any place or places or office of a M r or Governour of this 
Company And that an ordinaunce shalbe p^ntlie drawne to such purpose if by o r 
Councell wee shalbe advised so to doe. 

The above order was rescinded 21st July, 1608. 

8th October, 1605. This day Thomas Emerie William ffarris John Heydon 
John Burrowes Roger Brecknocke John Hullins Wyddow Turner widdow Eaton John 
Phillipps and Robert Samme were fined for workinge upon last Saboth. 

10th October, 1605. This day it is ordered by this Courte that the reparacons 
of the Citties wall next to the Bullwark shalbe accomplished and done according as the 
p°nte M rs or Governo" of this Company shall thincke fitt And all charges therein 
disburssed shalbe borne by this house. 

7th November, 1605. It is also ordered that the p°nte M rs or Governors of this 
Company shall if they cann bargaine w th the Ladie Windsor for the glasse in the 
wyndowes of the Bulwark And for such other thingC as are by her Ladishipp to be sold 
and to give such Composition for the same as they in their discretions shall thincke fitt. 

o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


This day it is ordered that the youngest Governo' Rento' doe cause all needful 
and necessarie rep°acons to be done upon such tenemtf as ought to be repaired by 
this Company And also shall cause the privit hedge in the garden next the Bullwark to 
be taken up and the ground to be leveled and another hedge to be planted and sett all 
alonge from the further end of o r new bricke wall to the furthest corner of that garden. 

19th November, 1605. This day it is ordered that the M rs of this Company 
togeather w th M r Bird M r Wood M' John Martin and M' Mapes are to goe in search on 
satterday and upon munday next And they are to meete in Powles.' 

28th Nov., 1605. This day it is ordeyned that o r M r shall compound with some 
Baker to p n vide for this Company 50 quarte rs of good wheate at such yearelie rate and for 
such tyme as they can agree And he to be Baker to the house so longe as he behave 
himself well. 

One Will 1 "' Clifton was on 17th December following appointed 
Baker, and agreed to find 50 quarters of wheat for £5 per annum. 

28th January, 1606. This day John ffoxe a forren Barbor appeared before the 
M rs and was by them forbidden to keepe shopp in London any more for Barbinge or 
Surgery, And he p^missed that he would not. 

1 6th June, 1606. In the controv°sie betwixt Thomas Orton & ffrauncf 
Holland It is ordered that the said Orton proceed not in suite of law against the said 
Holland otherwise then by takeinge the peace of him till the next Court Att w ch tyme the 
said Holland is comaunded by this Court to bringe in his fine of xP for strikinge of him 
the said Orton. And the said Orton is to geve his attendaunce at that Courte. 

14th July, 1606. This day uppon the suite of the p^son and p°ishione rs of St. 
Olaves in Silver Street It was ordered by this Court that at such tyme as the now church 
of the said pish shal begin to be reedified beinge now in great decay and fallen into ruyn 
That then the M rs or governou rs of this Company for the tyme beinge shall of the stocke 
of the said Company pay to the then church wardens of the said pish the somme of x 1 ' 
towardf the reedifieg of the said Church w"'out makinge further suite for the same. 

1 St. Paul s. 

2 D 

202 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Several liverymen were complained of for not having attended 
in their liveries of late, and among other notes is the following : — 

14th July, 1606. This day Henry Bradley one fferris and Henry Bracey are 
dismissed out of the Clothinge and Assistaunce of this Company for they have not given 
their attendaunce in their liveryes uppon summons. 

8th September, 1606. This daie Mr. Peck did lend voluntary to this howse L 
gratis for a yeare next ensueinge. 

This daie M r ffenton did lend C" gratis to this Company for a yeare next ensueinge 
Also he did lend to this Company L B more for a yere at x 1 ' p° cent. 

23rd September, 1606. This day it is ordered that Percivall Jackson shalbe 
comitted to the Compter for his severall Contemptf to this howse. 

30th September, 1606. This daie Percivall Jackson was dischardged out of 
prison upon his mothers intreatie. And is to bring in his debt to Burrowes at the next 

7th October, 1606. This daie John Hedlow paid to the M rs vj s viij d w ch by them 
was tofore paid to officers w ch attended to committ the said Hedlow for his severall 
contempt^ to this howse. 

13th October, 1606. Percivall Jackson was again committed to 
the Compter for his " severall contemptf." 

4th November, 1606. This daie John Kerrell Richard Cade & Richard 
Houlden were fyned for being absent from the funerall of M r ffyneinge. 

10th March, 1607. This daie Thomas Grig was fyned at xii l1 for not wearinge 
his Cap on Candlemas daie last. 

19th September, 1607. The Clerk's child having died of the 
plague, and being carried through the gate of the Hall, an order came 
from the Lord Mayor commanding the Court not to sit for 28 days, 
and it was thereupon ordered that the Courts should sit at Mr. Fenton's 
house in Bartholomew's Court during that period. 

o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 203 

This daye it is ordered that Carehills wyef be warned to the hall against the next 
Court for keepinge of twoe shoppes of Barbinge w th out Bisshoppesgate. 

8th October, 1607. This daye it is ordered by this Courte uppon due 
consideration had That from henceforth the M rs or Governors of this Company every yere 
yerely shall geve to the Recorder of this Cytie a yerely fee of money oute of the stock of 
this Company at their pleasures so that it exceede not the somme of iiij 1 '" 

It was ordered that no liveryman should henceforth — 

attend in his lyvery and w"'out a ruffe band uppon payne of xij d for ev y offence. 

3rd November, 1607. This daye uppon the humble suite of one wydowe 
Burrows shee is admitted to keepe her Barbors shop where shee now dothe for 2 yeres 
next ensuinge not w ,h standinge that w"'in the said tyme shee mary an husbond of any 
oth r trade. 

1st December, 1607. This daye Thomas Allen' and James Mullins were fined 
for wearinge of falleinge bands \v"' their liv°y gownes. 

2 1st January, 1608. This daye it is ordered that .... Braye [be appointed] 
Informer to p°secute suites by informacon against such p°sons as the p°nt Masters shall 
noiat for one yere next ensuinge at the chardgf of this howse And hee is to have tenne 
poundes for his paynes therein. 

27th January, 160S. Five of the Company were fined for 
not being at the funeral of Mistress Izard in their liveries. 

5th April, 1608. This daye lycence is geeven to Will" 1 Buckley to arrest John 
Dodd breakeinge his wyndowes. 

21st July, 1608. This daye it was thought fit that the p°nt Assistant^ showld 
sit in Court w th out their Gownes for that the weath r is hot. 

It is ordered that the laste quarters peneon due to John a Lee lately deceased 
shalbe paid to the poore woman w ch kept him in his sicknes. 

At almost every Court, charities in sums varying from 2 s to 40 s 
were given to poor members for their relief, or to the widows of 

1 The first Master of Dulwich College. 

2 D 2 

204 qA finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

former members, and in many cases yearly annuities were granted 
out of the stock of the house, independent of the Trust charities 
distributed by the Court. 

14th February, 1609. This daye John Stubbes one of my lord maiors officers 
is appoynted a Serjeant to this Company. 

27th June, 1609. This daye it is ordered that George Dugdale shall before 
Michaelmas next paye to Thomas Shephard v s w ch hee oweth him Orels to be 
Committed to the Compter. 

6th July, 1609. This daye Roger Rayney Marchaunt tayler is elected & 
chosen Butler to this howse so longe as hee shall well & honestly behave himself 
therein And is to have all such fees and allowances as to his said place or office 
are incedent or belongeinge Provided hee enter into bond to the M" of this Company 
w th sufficient surety w th Condicon to make good to this howse all such plate linen & 
oth r thingf as shalbe committed to his chardge by the M re of this Company the 
Steward^ of the Maiors feast The Maisters or Steward^ of the Anathomy or Wardens 
of the Yomanry. 

This daye uppon the due examinacon of sev°all abuses & misbehaviours 
comitted by Thomas Goodale on of the Assistant^ of this Company towardf Mr. 
Edward Rodes maister of this Company wrongefully chardgeinge him w lh injustice 
before the wholl Courte And for oth r his misdemeanures hee is by the wholl Consent 
of this Court dismissed oute of the Assistance of this Company. 

26th July, 1609. Whereas heretofore it hath byn observed for a rule and 
customary order that the M re of the Company to whom the Electo' 5 on the Election 
day before dyiin should deliver the names of such p°sons who were at such tyme elected 
M re of the Company for the yeare insuinge, should not give any notice to any new M r so 
elected before the garland should be put upon his head, it was now thought fit that that 
rule should be put on one side, and that those chosen should be at once informed of 
their Election that they may make p°vision for the entertaynement of the livery, etc. 

10th August, 1609. This day Richard Browne was admitted Armorer to the 
Company and to have p. ann. xiij s iiij d and he to have a speciall care to keepe the 
Armour in repacons and to be therefore paid by the Rentor warden for the tyme beinge. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 205 

This day Mr. John Leacocke' contemptuoslie deputed out of the Courte w"'out 
licence of the M re or of any of them And albeit he was required by the Clarke by the 
comand of the M re to come into the Courte beinge deputed out of the hall, he answered 
that he would not come againe Therefore it is ordred by this Courte that he shall pay 
his fine of iij s iiij 1 ' for dep r 'tinge the Court without the M rs licence And if he refused to 
pay the said iij s iiij' 1 then the soiiie of xl s is by this Courte ordred to be assessed and 
ymposed upon him w ch if he shall likewise refuse to pay then he is by this Court 
dismissed out of the Assistaunce ipso facto. 

Mr. Leacocke submitted and paid his fine 26th September, 1609. 

21st August, 1609. In answer to a precept from the Lord 
Mayor, a certificate was sent to his Lordship that there were 
remaining of the 50 quarters of wheat wherewith the Company was 
charged, 20 quarters, and that the remainder had been sold in the 
Markets according to former precepts. 

19th October, 1609. It was ordered that : — 

no M r or gov°no' of this Company shall from henceforth have power or authority 
in them or any of them to sell morgage or ympawne the fower pieces of Tapistry 
hanging^ or any of them w ch were bought for die use and creditt of this house. 

9th January, 1610. Att this Courte Henry Jones paid vj d to the pore's box for 
hanginge out his basons one Twelveth day last. 

6th March, 1610. Att this Courte it is ordered that Thomas Burgis shall 
at the next Tusedayes Courte pay unto the widdow Burrowes his late M" iiij 5 for that 
he hath broken her Combes and Sise re - 

21st March, 1610. Att this Court it is ordered that the wyddow Saunde rs shall 
no longer reteyne in her service one Allexander ffarrington uppon payne that if shee doe 
her basons shalbe taken downe & she comitted to the Compter. 

8th May, 1610. At this Court it is ordered that Pyramus Porter shall be pn°tely 
discharged out of Prison being layd in by Richard Gessell for that Porter was layd in 
w th out the M re Consent^ . 

1 Master in 1604. 

20b cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Porter was Gessell's apprentice, and their disagreements had 
been before the Court on a previous occasion. 

20th August, 1610. Mf. William Gale (who had been Master, 
1595) was elected Master; he was an eminent Surgeon but, dying on 
19th November, 16 10, was succeeded in his office by Mr. John Peck 
(who had been Master in 1605). Mr. Gale was buried at Monken 
Hadley, in the chancel of which church may still be seen in the floor 
on the North side of the Altar, a brass with an inscription to his 
memory, and two brasses with the effigies of his sons and daughters. 
There were formerly brasses of the effigies of William Gale and his 
two wives, but they have unfortunately been removed. 

The arms of Gale (as appearing on his son's brass in Monken 
Hadley Church) Az. on a fesse betw. three saltires ar. as many lyons' 
heads era. of the field langued gules. 1 

20th September, 1610. Att this Court a motion being proposed by the 
present M rs to thentent to bringe the howse out of debt, w ch cannot be soddenly effected 
except the Assistauntf of this board shall of their owne free willf by their p^ticuler 
free guiftf or other wise by the voluntary free loane of money to this howse for a 
certayne tyme, be assistinge And thereupon M r Warden ffenton declared that o r M r 
was contented towardf soe good an accon to gyve freely xx H and M r Warden ffenton 
vj" xiij s iiij d M r Warden Veare iij" vj s viij d M r Warden Hassald xl s And demaundinge 
of the residue of the bord what they would gyve, M r Wood he would gyve x" if the 
howse will renewe his lease, M r S^jaunt Goodorus would thinck of itt, M r Leycock 
M r Thorney M r Gerard M r Rodes & M r ffrederick would doe the lick M r Thomas 
Martyn would gyve xx s M r Isard vj 5 viij d M r Mapes would gyve xl s M r Johnson M r ffoster 
M r Ingolsby & M r Coghill they would doe as others in their Ranck would doe. M r 
Cook would gyve xxxiij 5 iiij d - 

1 6th October, 16 10. Att this Court It is agreed that one Henry Pullyard 
a Drummer shalbe admitted to be the Drummer to this howse And he is to have 

1 The tinctures are from Burke's Armory. 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 207 

for ev°y dayes service that he shall serve as a Drummer to this Company on the 
lord Mayors daie the some of xiij s iiij' 1 - 

20th November, 1610. Att this Court ytt is ordered that William Jones 
shall bringe in the next Tuesdaye Cort xx 5 for a ffyne for keeping two shoppes. 

22nd November, 1610. Roger Joanes, a Waterman, was 
appointed Bargeman with a yearly fee of 20s., and was in con- 
sideration thereof to find a Barge with " all thingf therein and 
therewith fittinge " whenever the Company should require the same 
for £$ on each occasion. 

nth June, 161 1. Itt is likewise ordered that the Clothworker w ch practizeth 
Barberye about Thames Street if he be found workinge, that then he shalbe comitted 
to the Compter. 

1 8th July, 161 1. At this Court upon the humble suite of Edward Handsome 
it was thought fitt & decreed that he should first agree w" 1 the Informer, w dl being 
done come & make his suite to this house at some Court of Assistant^ and then he 
shoulde knowne & fynd howe kyndlye they would deale w th him. 

8th October, 161 1. Att this Court John Scott was ffyned at vj s viij d for 
refuseinge to holde the place of a whiffler. 

4th May, 1613. At this Court Henry Clawes came before the M rs and by them 
is p°hibited and forbidden to keepe a Barbo" shopp or deale any more in surgery for that 
he is noe denizen. 

22nd August, 16 14. It was ordered that in future, any 
liveryman being called to the Court should pay a fine of five marks. 
It does not appear that before this time a fine had been taken on like 

By an entry about this date, it seems that when a "foreigner" 
was admitted to the livery he paid £5 for yeomanry and £5 for livery 
fines in one payment. 

208 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

30th March, 1615. At this Court it is further ordered that the new Ryver water 
shalbe taken into this howse so as it maie be had for 30 s fyne & 30 s p' anil in rent. 

6th July, 1 61 5. The hall, which was in "great decay," was 
ordered to be viewed by a Committee of the Court, as to its restoration. 

1 ith November, 1615. At this Court our M' acquayntinge them how unfortunatlie 
it hath happened that the Hall on Tewsdaie night last beinge 7 November was broken 
open & what losse the howse susteyned thereby. Whereupon it was then presentlie 
considered and then ordered that a present course be taken for the spedie repaieringe 
of the howse & tresory howse and that the same shalbe forthwith stronglie borded & 
made up at the charges of the howse. And for this purpose this Court did nolate the 
p''nte M' together with M r Peck M r ffenton M r Martyn & M r ffoster for to be Comittees 
for the well orderinge & appojntinge of the workmen to doe & finish this worke as in 
their discretions shalbe thought mete. And what the Comittees or anie three or two of 
them shall thinke fittinge to be done this howse will rate for & allow of as also of the 
charge to be borne by this howse. 

Note That the xj th daie of November Thomas Lyne confessed how he was the 
plotter for the Robbinge of o' Hall and how o r plate was Carried to Westm 5 & our 
monie was devided amongst the theves who were these Thomas Jones Nicholas Sames 
& Walter ffoster wch did break open the Hall, whereupon the Clarke haveinge order 
from o' M r went to Westm & upon search there made found our plate locked up in a 
trunke in the howse of one .... a shoemaker xj 1 ' xviij s of the monie M r Warden 
Coop found the same daie in the howse of one ffulses in Fleete Street. About the 
xvj ,h of Nov. then followinge Thomas Jones was taken who beinge brought to Newgate 
in December followinge Jones & Lyne were both executed for this fact. 

In January followinge Sames was taken & executed. In April 161 6 ffoster was 
taken & executed. Now letts pray God to blesse this howse ever from any more of 
these damigees. Amen. 

13th December, 1615. At this Court was gyven unto the officers in regard of 
their paynes taken in apprehendinge the theves & obteyninge our plate 5" that is to the 
Clarke 40 s & 30 1 a peice to the beadell & Porter. 

30th June, 1617. At this Court is gyven unto the weif of John Davis a fre 
brother who lieth in prison x s - 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. log 

27th January, 1618. Upon the humble peticon unto this Companie preferred 
by Thomas Shaw a pore brother of this Companie & now lyeinge in Ludgate thereby 
sueing for some releife to discharge him out of prison. It is therefore ordered by this 
Court that if the some of 30 s will discharge him out of prison it shalbe disbursed out of 
the stock of this howse. 

20th September, 1622. At this Court is gyven to Susan the Clarkf mayde 
toward( J her marriage 40 s in gratuity. 

At this Court it is ordered that Jones the Waterman shall have for the hier of 
our barge against the lord Maio 15 day fower poundf So as it is a large barge will hold 
the hole lyvery And to worke w"' 7 or 8 oweis.' 

31st January, 1625. It is straightly ordered by this Courte that the p^nte M rs or 
Governo' s and their successors shall take speciall care to comence and prosecute any suite 
by lawe against any ignorant imposters or other p°sons exerciseing the arte of Chirurgery 
aboute this Cittie not free of this Companye & alsoe such as shall keepe shoppes for 
barbery within this Cittye being free of other Companies & not of ours. 

19th January, 1626. This daye John Mills and George Roades are chosen to 
be of our Assistants for Barbars and Henry Blackley and Peter Thorney for Surgions. 

Item this Courte takeing into their consideracons the fewnes of our Livery many 
of them being lately dead by reason of the late greate visitacon doe elect and choose John 
Finder Edward Charley Edward ffleete Robert Clarke Samuell Dye and Lewis Gossidge 
to be of the Clothing of our Companye. 

15th February, 1626. At this Courte it is ordered that William Kellett do bring 
in his fine of vj s viij d at the next Courte for his unseemely carriage and vile language to 
Walter Preist being contrary to the ordinance and good goverment of this house, which 
fine the said William Kellett here in Courte refused and said he would not paye it. 

At the same Court Priest was ordered to pay Kellett ^3 which 
he owed him. 

8th June, 1626. Kellett, not having paid his fine, was ordered 
to be dismissed out of the livery. 

1 Oars. 

2 E 

no oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

26th October, 1626. But becoming repentant, he made humble 
suit to the Court to be reinstated, " protesting here in Courte that as he 
hopeth to be saved he did not speak those wordf and if he did he is 
very sorroy for it," upon which submission and payment of his fine, he 
was readmitted to the livery. 

23rd February, 1626. This daye upon the peticon of Thomas Borne and a 
certificate under the hand of Docto r Allott that the said Borne was a Scholler of the 
house in St. Johns Colledge in Cambridge it is ordered by the Court that for one yeare 
ensueing he shall have iij" to be paid him by M r Ward Molins. 

1st February, 1627. Item It is ordered by this Courte that there shalbe given 
unto M r Docto' Gwyn and his sonne for his preferm 1 in takeing degree of Batchelo' of 
Arte in the universitie of Oxenford xij h as the free gift of this Court. 

9th November, 1628. This daye Richard Roades a Barbar & Surgion hath 
leave to open his shopp according to the ordinances of this house. 

Roades was probably a man who had practised both as a Barber 
and a Surgeon outside the Company's jurisdiction (the common usage 
of those days), but now being admitted a brother he had licence to 
practise "according to the ordinances," that is, either as a Barber or a 
Surgeon, but not as both. 

5th February, 1629. Upon the humble peticon made unto this Courte by 
John ffranck a professor of Surgery the sonne of John ffrancke late of the clothing 
of the livery of this Companie for that the said ffranck is nowe taken prisoner in 
Turkey and his ransome is assessed to 600 Crownes. In comiseracon of whose 
distressed estate in a deede of charitye of soe greate consequence this courte doth 
order that upon the said John ffranckf being safe delivered into England here alive 
he shall have viij™ paid unto such p°tie as the ransome doth belong unto. 

24th July, 1629. This daye in the complaint made unto this Court by 
Henry Edwardf against John Cox for arresting of him without the consent of the 
Maisters they both being here present in Court It is ordered that Edwardf shall 
pave Cox the xx s which he received of him uppon the wager that was wagered betweene 
them, and that M r Cox shall withdraw his accon and proceede noe further in lawe 
and It is further ordered that M r Cox shall paye his fine of a marke on the next Tuesdaie 
for not askeing leave of the Maisters to arrest him. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 2 1 1 

1629. The fine for not serving Steward of the Mayor's feast 
was £15 6s. Sd., and this had been the usual fine for many years. 

1 6th September, 1630. A reference is made to a brick building 
which a tenant of the Company was erecting at Holborn Bridge, 
under the direction of Inigo Jones. 

28th January, 1631. This Court doth give to Marshall Petoe' for his elegies on 
M r Banckf his furTall v* 

15th March, 1631. It is ordered by this Courte that the 12 Electors shalbe 
chosen and drawne by a ballotting box in this manner, twoe out of the auncient M rs 
one barbar one Surgion, 6 out of those of the whole Assistantf 3 Barbars 3 surgions, 
4 out of the livery 2 barbars 2 surgions as shalbe present on the Election daie. 

10th April, 1632. Nicholas Moseley made complaint against goody Smith of 
her unruly and disorderly Hefe amongst the Tenement^ in the alley at Holborne Bridge 
and thereupon this Court doth give him leave to expulse her from dwelling [there] 
any longer. 

2nd July, 1632. This daye upon the humble and pittifull peticdn made 
unto this Court by Richard Hayeward in the behalfe of Ric: Heyward his son whoe 
is now captivated and inthrawled under the slaverye of the Turke and his Ransome 
being to the some of one C'- w dl the said Heyward is not able to raise, This Court 
therefore compassionateing the said Richard Hey wards distressed estate, whoe being a 
Christian is in bondage to those Turkish & heathen Infidelles dothe order that there 
shalbe x 1 ' 1 paid out of the stock of this house for and towards the ransoineing and 
redeemeing the Captive at such tyme as the said Richard Heyward the son shalbe 
delivered alive here in England and not otherwise. 

6th February, 1633. Anthony Mondeys wTdd p'nted to this Court a Booke 
called The Surveigh of London beinge in folio and newlie printed. 

This would be Munday's edition of Stow presented by his 
widow, and for which she, in return, had a present from the Court. 

1 A City Poet. 

2 E 2 

212 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

29th November, 1633. It is ordered that for the stock of Corne to be provided 
yearely by this house every one of the AssistantC of the Liverye shall lend xl s presently 
and every one of the liverye shall lend XX s o' M r giveing a noate under his hand that 
the house shall repaie it within a moneth after each mans death to his executo rs if it 
be demaunded And soe hereafter every p°son that cometh into the Assistant^ to lend xl s - 
or that cometh into the liverye to lend xx~- 

4th March, 1634. 52 quarters of corn only being in the granary, 
it was ordered that 8 quarters more should be purchased to make up 
the complement of 60, which the Company were required by the 
City to keep in stock. 

14th January, 1634. The question of "Ship money" being 
considered by the Court, it was thought that the Surgeons of the 
Company were free from the same by Charter, and a Committee of 
the Court was appointed to take counsel's opinion thereon. 

20th April, 1635. £\o was ordered to be given towards the 
restoration of the Church of St. Alban, Wood Street. 

2nd June, 1635. Hugh Ward, for his absence from lectures, 
was summoned before the Court, when he used "approbrious language," 
and defied the Masters, 

Whereupon this Court did in the Lord Maiors name comitt the said Hugh to 
the Compter in Woodstreete & charged the said Ward to staye but he struggled to gett 
forth of y c parlor soe the M re comaunded the dores to be shutt till an officer had taken 
him in charge, but after the officer had him in charge and they were gone forth into the 
streete (as the officer reported to this Court) Ward stepped from him and drew his knife 
& swoare hee would sheath it in his guttes if he came after him and soe he made an 
escape from the officer. 

13th August, 1635. Ward made his submission and paid a 
fine of \os. 

1st December, 1635. John Robinson a forreyne barb was questioned here in 
Court for setting up a barbars shopp in Ulnckfriers before he had made knowne to this 

xber Surgions London, 

Memorandum. That whereas by Precept yearly from the light Honoura- 
ble , the Lord Mayor, an J Court of Aldermen. Our compsnieis ftreightly 
commanded to provide and have readie L XXX Quarters of Come for this Cities 
{ervice, a Court of Afliftants, was held the 18 th . Day of December 1613. %q 
confider how to raife the Money, in regard our Companie is much indebted, bjp 
building our Granary, c^r.And upon mature deliberation had, it was concluded! 
&ordered,that each Perfon then bemg,or that thereafter mould be, aLivery-nsarfo 
(hould thereunto lend XX s. To be hereafter by theMafters, or Governours> for, 
the time being, repaid out of their Corne-ftock, to fach Livery-mans Executors, 
or Adminiftrators , withinone moneth next^ftcr fuch Livery-mans death, feeing 
demanded, we therefore the prefent Matters, or Governours,do hereby acknow- 
ledge our felves to have received of Mr. \^ <^<&j*d>- — — 
the faid allotted forae of Twenty (hillings for the -life aforefaids And do hereby 
promifc, that we or, our S ucceflors then being, (hall repay the faicl^ XXs^ ac'coj 
ding as is before expreffed wienefs our hands tjiis 3 % dayol Q/^xi^ 
Arm Dm. — 16 &£ /, ...^6. f B o^~l^ / 

CORN NOTE. (See p. 212.) 

On me £<z^i ^std&tf* wo&tz- py/r&z/r t^W //u</ d&rrjtw. Aei^tm^na^A? /£& 

Off/isAjM* <?f ' ,/<7?ukn/. ksu// ^ Me- ^t/m^rl-<x//y c^ &&/ jg/cwnuel. ' \^Jra. 


Tulli/b{lJan- , :jlyff3/>j/J^SmuA G^Mays Buildings. S. 1 Marhns Lan^ 

c/lunals of the Barber-Surgeons. 213 

Court that he had served 7 yeares appnPticeship with a barbar by trade, and had a licence 
to sett upp shopp, said he was bound app°ntice to Rich. Davyes of Hereford barbar 
x"' of Januar xxj"' of King James for 8 yeares but could not bring testimony he had 
served that time This Court doth charge him to take in his barbars pole & basons & to 
forbeare keepeing that shopp any longer. 

8th March, 1637. Whereas there was an intencon to make an open Gallery 
The Court is now resolved & doe order that it shalbe made a convenient faire Parlour 
over the walke leading into the Theater at the costf of y s house. 

30th March, 1637. It is ordered that the Gallery or Parlour leading to the 
Theater from the Bulhvarke shalbe built and the Hall Cupboard that cants into the stone 
yarde shalbe taken downe and the leade thereof shalbe imployed to leade the Tarris that 
passeth from that plo' into the Theater. 

19th May, 1637. ^,10 was ordered to be paid towards the 
ransom of Thomas Wright, a Surgeon, who had been captured by 
the Turks. 

10th June, 1637. It is ordered that the 3 stone Columbf allready wrought 
shalbe sett up and the walk next the hall side to be leaded over and railes & turned 
ballasters to be sett up Alsoe that there shalbe Iron barrs for all the windowes Alsoe a 
Portland stone for the mantle tree Alsoe a tablett of stone shalbe sett up in the front and 
the M r & Wardeins names to be insculpted thereon and a sunn diall to be in a convenient 

24th July, 1637. It is ordered that the Concave seeking of the Theater shalbe 
painted with the Constellacons of the Heavens and the 7 planetts over the 12 signes in 
every peere and sceletons to be wrought and sett up on every one of the 1 2 signes or 

Alsoe that this mottoe shalbe sett in the tablett of stone in the front of the greate 
p°lor. This Parlour was built in y° yeare of o r Lord 1637 M r Richard Powell being M r 
M r John Heydon M r W° Huckle M r Law: Cotton Wardeins. 

13th August, 1637. The painting the ceiling of the Theatre 
was ordered to be deferred until next year, and the scaffolding to be 
taken down forthwith. 

214 zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

20th September, 1637. It is ordered that the seeking of the greate p^lo' shalbe 
boarded shott & planed over with hole deales. 

20th September, 1637. It is ordered that there shalbe given xl s to St Edmunds 
berey for reliefe of the poore people visited with the plague. 

20th November, 1637. It is ordered that the yeomanryes hearse cloth shalbe 
altered and the imbrothered scutchions & figures to be decently sett by an Imbrotherer 
to be alwayes used at the publique discections in the Theater. 

28th December, 1637. This daye complaint was made ag l Thomas Trevilion 
now Rento' Wardein both for his obstinacy and ill words and exacting money from 
yonge freemen and throughing up his keyes of the Threasurye & sayeing he would 
come no more to keepe CourtC at the Hall and desireing to be put out of his place, 
for w ch his misdemeano rs and other evill behavio' being made apparent to this Court 
and his acknowledgem' of them upon due consideracon of all w dl It is ordered by this 
Court y' the said Thomas Trevilion doe stand and shalbe from henceforth absolutely 
removed and dismissed from his office & place of ffowerth M r or Governo r - 

Mr. William Lingham was subsequently chosen in Trevilion's 

The Court sometimes acted in the capacity of private trustees 
of the estates of deceased members, and among the archives there 
remains a deed of acknowledgment signed by the Master and Wardens 
in 1637, wherein it is recited that Richard Mapes, a former Master 
of the Mystery, deceased, had left legacies to his four children, then 
being infants, and had appointed his wife Faith, executrix and trustee, 
with the proviso that in the event of her marrying again the Court of 
this Company were to be the trustees for the said children, and that the 
widow, having remarried, had paid over the children's portions to 
the Masters or Governors. Attached is the seal of the Barber 
Surgeons, unfortunately not perfect, though a good specimen. 

8th February, 1638. It is ordered that the Seaven liberall Sciences shalbe 
provided for the Theater by the M r and Wardens at the house charge soe it exceede 
not x"- X s - the carveing of them. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


29th March, 1638. The whole of the Assistants and Livery 
were called together to know what they would give to the building 
fund, when the following sums were promised. 

M r Serj Clowes - - 

x «. 

Edward Charley 

. v* 

Robert Bulluck - 

- iij"- 

M r Rich Wateson - 

X H. 

Edward ffleete - 

v ii. 

Thomas Bowden - 

- iij"- 

M r Michaell Andrews 


Henry Eaton 

v !i. 

John Dorrell - 

- iiij"- 

M r Hen Blackley - 

x .i. 

Henry Boone - 

- v' 1. 

James Clarke - - 

- iiij" 

M r Warden Burgen - 

v .i. 

Samuell Sambrooke 

- iij"- 

Hugh Warde - 


M r Warden Cotton - 

v ,i. 

Hugh Napkin - 


William Watson - 

- iij"- 

M r Warden Lingham 

v .li. 

Morrice Griffith - 

v 'i. 

Nicholas Brothers 

- iij"- 

M r John Heydon- - 

V H. 

W" Bennett - - 

- iij"- 

John Meredith - 

- iij"- 

M r Nicholas Heath - 

y .i. 

Robert Terrill - - 


Thomas Biggs 

- iiij"- 

M r William Huckle - 


Edward Arris - 

. v «. 

Phillip Gill - - 

. v"- 

M r Martine Browne - 

x , 

Humfrey Painter - 

- iij"- 

Charles Stamford 

- iij"- 

M r W" Kinge - - - 

V s - 

Thomas Allen - - 

ij"- X s - 

James Walsall 

- iij"- 

M r John Pinder - - 


Lawrence Loe - - 

. v"- 


3rd July, 1638. This daye was made knowne to this Court y 1 Jo" Pemberton 
formerly chosen an Assistant hath given his answeare that he will not hold that place 
nor come to the Hall unlesse he were drawne with wild horses thither, whereupon this 
Court doth fine him at x"- & that he shalbe prosecuted for the same at Lawe. 

1 6th August, 1638. A stormy election of Master and Wardens 
was holden this day, and a very precise minute of the proceedings 
is entered, from which it appears that the Court and Livery being 
assembled, the Master declared — 

The occasion of this solempne meeteing & the necessarye succession of the 
Governors & governem' of this Corporacon. And thereupon a ballatting box being 
sett on the table and the names of the auncient M rs & Assistants and livery being 
severally put into the twoe Sells of y' box, o r M r according to order did first drawe 
forth the names of theis twelve p'sons following for Electors viz' for the Six Surgians 
M r Rich Wateson M r Martine Browne M' Jo" Pinder Tho. Tomlinson Edward Arris 
cSj Henry Eaton. And for the other six M r Richard Powell M r William Huckle 
M r Jo" Davyes M r Samuell Die Hen. Hodgkinson & Evan Owen. And thereupon 
the said Electors haveing w'Mrawne themselves from the publique Assemblye & taken 

2/6 c/fnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

their oathes upon the holye evangelists for the election of fower Masters or Governo' 5 
for the yeare ensueing, The M rs and the rest of the Assembly made their repaire to 
the Church and after Sermon upon their returne to the Hall the Masters being called 
to those 1 2 Electors they were informed that the Election could not proceede and 
be made, 

by reason that certain of the Electors being of divers trades 
were unable to agree upon two persons expert in Barbery, and these 
Electors refusing to choose two Masters Barbers, a Court was at once 
held and the six Barber Electors were discharged, six more Electors 
being chosen and called ; two of these, however, being contaminated 
by those already dismissed, refused to serve, and eventually a fresh 
set of Electors was chosen, who retired, and elected Mr. William 
Clowes, Serjeant-Surgeon to the King, as Master, and three others 
Wardens, " and after dinner ended and the Seremonye pfonmed 
by the Masters or Governo rs of chooseing the new M rs or Governo rs 
with silver Garlands in the publique Hall," the new Master and 
Wardens were sworn in. 

8th November, 1638. A great feud having arisen between the 
Court and Richard Morrice, an Assistant, a suit was prosecuted against 
Morrice in the Earl Marshal's Court, when the sentence pronounced 
against him was that he should attend the Court at the Hall, and there 
bareheaded rehearse in an audible voice an abject apology, the exact 
words of which are set out. This Morrice did, and the Master and 
Wardens having testified the same, he was again called into Court, 
when it would seem that his apology had been made under fear of the 
Earl Marshal and not of his free will, for the Court calling upon him to 
make answer "for his contentious carriage & foule & bitter languages 
& invective speeches by him given from Court to Court ag' divers 
Assistant^ to the generall disturbance of their Courtf he refused to 
cleare himselfe or to give answeare," whereupon the Court dismissed 
him from his place as an Assistant. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

21 J 

13th September, 1640. This Court is willing that there shalbe a distribucon of 
M r Mapes Legacy on Cosmas and Damianus day being the 27 th of this Instant September 
to 12 poore people 12 Angells according to the directions of M"' Joy they haveing red 
crosses on theire brests. 

Memorand. on the 27" 1 September being Cosmus and Damianus day 6" 13 s 4 d 
was distributed according to M r Richard Mapes Will, viz' These 12 poore persons free 
of our Company came into our Hall with red Crosses each of them on theire right Brests 
and the Governours gave to each of them 10 s which amounted to 6 U and the 13 s 4 d was 
to themselves for a repast for their paynes. 

The poores 
names were 

Widdow Wright. 
Widdow James. 
Widdow Colley. 
Old Holmewood. 
Widdow Bullock. 
Blind Reynolds. 

Widdow Chapman. 
Widdow Tyler. 
Widdow Pebworth. 
Old Kelham. 
John Mulis. 
Widdow Wadlowe. 

20th November, 1640. A dispute between Edward Molins and 
one Coppinger was heard by the Court, when the decision was 
against Molins, and he was fined for using bad language. 

12th January, 1641. Edward Molins came into the Court and stood in the face 
of the Court with his Hatt on his head and his Armes on his side and told the Court he 
would doe noe obedience to the co tc and swore Gods wounds he would submitt to noe 
man liveing. 

15th January, 1641. Molins was fined 40 s for this contempt. 

1 8th January, 1641. Richard Tompkins & Symon Crouch Surgeons by 
profession yet useing Barbery, This Court doth give them Order by our Lady day next to 
leave barbeing it being against y e Statute to practise both. 

29th July, 1641. Mr. George Dunn hath given 5 1 ' to buy Bookes for the Library 
which is by this Court ordered to be performed accordingly. 

2 F 

2/8 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

There having been many quarrels in the Court, and various 
members expelled, a general shaking of hands appears to have taken 
place, for we read : — 

30th July, 1644. This Court doth thinke fitt and soe order That a Sermon be 
made on the next Election day of thankes giveing to Almighty God for peace and amity 
which is now begun to be restored among the members of the Company And that M r 
Sharpe be desired to performe the same. 

9th March, 1645. ln ' s day M r Callice Barber being complayned of for teaching 
to trimm to other then his Apprentices contrary to the Ordinance of this House did 
absolutely deny the same upon the Oathe that he tooke upon his admission into the 

17th March, 1645. Mr. William Kings this day freely gave for the Ornament of 
this House a great Tortershell Whereon at his owne charge he hath given order for the 
Companyes Amies to be painted. 

This shell is preserved at the Hall. 

7th January, 1646. M r Michaell Markeland appeareing to this Court at the 
request of our M r he was here complayned of to have embalmed severall humane Bodyes 
within this City against the Ordinance of this Company in that behalf being an Apothecary 
and not a Surgeon approved according to Law Nor a ffreeman of this Company which 
M r Markeland acknowledged But alleadged It was through his ignorance Not knowing 
that the right thereof was in approved Surgeons and ffreemen of this Company only and 
none other And being now well satisfyed thereof haveing heard the said Ordinance read 
unto him promised not to doe the like againe. 

2nd June, 1646. This daye Mr. Lawrence Loe Chirurgeon a Member of this 
Company through his good affection thereunto Did for the worship thereof freely offer to 
give for the beautifying of the Hall soe many stones of black and white Marble as shalbe 
sufficient for the Pavement thereof. 

These marbles were laid to form the floor at the upper end of 
the Hall, and when the Hall was pulled down they were preserved and 
now form the pavement in the Entrance to the Hall from Monkwell 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 2 1 g 

There is a Memorandum that Mr. John Bancks by his will 

To the Company of Barber Chirurgions London so long as they shall performe 
the uses hereafter limitted (or els not) To be paid them betwixt the first and seaventh day 
of May next after the decease of the said John Banckes and so yearely for ever the sume 
of Twenty shillings w ch Twenty shillings shalbe by the said Company distributed in forme 
following viz' To Twelve poore householders or widowes of the same Company To each 
of them ffower poundf weight of good beefe Two penny loaves of good sweet bread Two 
pence a peece in mony and each of them one Woodden platter. 

14th December, 1646. This Court doth at the humble suite of the Ordinary of 
the Goale of Newgate freely give unto him 10 s for his releife in his present want. 

7 tii July, 1647. This Court doth give to John ffranck Chirurgeon who hath bin 
for a long time in Captivity in Turkey iiij" towards the setting him forth to sea and doth 
order that he be admitted into the ffreedome gratis when he shall desire it. 

See the Minute 5th February, 1629. John Franck (the son of 
a Liveryman) was doubtless a "foreign brother," and entitled to his 
freedom by patrimony upon payment of the fine, which the Court now 
ordered to be dispensed with if he wished to take up his freedom. 
Being a Sea Surgeon only, it was not necessary that he should be free 
of the Company. He had probably been in slavery 18 years ! 

Several entries similar to the following are to be found in 
the books. 

9th August, 1647. Upon the humble suite of Thomas Tomlinson an ancient 
Member of this Company and of the Livery now fallen into greate Poverty and Want 
for some charitable releife from this Company. This Court being moved in Compassion 
to his deplorable Condicon and calling to mind his former good service to this Company 
Doth freely give him io 1 '- out of the Stock of this House. 

14th September, 1648. Samuell Needier an examined Chirurgeon complayned 
to this Court that he was required to beare Armes notwithstanding his exempcon 
therefrom and therefore craved this Courts Assistance in his defence therein which 
was granted. 

22 o c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

27th October, 1648. M r Warden Madocks and certaine others of the Assistants 
here present desireing to peruse our Charter for theire informacon the better to enable 
them for the Govemement of this Company had a sight thereof and were well satisfied 
in every particuler. 

13th August, 1655. Mr. John Gale of Bushey (son of William 
Gale, M. 1595) a Surgeon of this Company, by his Will of this date 
left to the Barber-Surgeons ,£16 per annum, payable out of certain 
houses on Snow hill, in the parish of Saint Sepulchre, for the 
founding of an Anatomy lecture in the name of Gale's Anatomy. 
This trust was transferred to the Surgeons' Company in 1745. 

Our Minute Books from the year 1651 to i6Sg are unhappily 
lost; they are known to have been at the Hall as recently as 1832. 
Should any reader ever light upon them, he is particularly entreated 
to communicate with the Clerk of the Company or with the author. 

1689. The practice was now adopted of entering all admissions 
to the freedom, etc., in the Court Minute Books (as well as in the 
Register) the forms being as follows : — • 

3rd September, 1689. For an apprentice : 

Johes Rawson appr Caroli Peters admls est ex Rel Magri & Jur. 

for a freeman by patrimony : 

Ptriis Hartley Staconer fil 9 Thome Hartley Civis & Barbitonsor & Chirurg 
London admis est p° patrimon ex Rel Isaacii Boddington Weaver & Witti Bletsoe 
Grocer, Witti Bateman Barbitonsor 1 & Chirurgof' London & Jur. 

for a freeman by redemption : 

Henr Chamberlane admis est p° redemcon v°tute ordem Cur Major & Aldrn 
Dat xviij" die Augusti 1689 & Jur. 

17th January, 1690. This day an order was sealed to presse 40 Surgeons mates 
for the Kings service in Ireland. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 221 

At this period all freemen on their admission " took the oathes 
mentioned in a late Act of Parliament & subscribed the Declaration 
therein named ": these were the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy as 
required by the "Bill of Rights" (passed December, 16S9). 

2nd July, 1690. Ordered that the Clarke keep an accompt of all p°sons faleing 
at a Court of Assistants and that every one faileing for every such time soe doeing shall 
forfeit v s & shall not be admitted to binde or make ffree untill he or they have made 
payment of the same of which they are to have notice except S r John Letheullier 
S r Humfry Edwin & M r Thomas Canham. 

29th April, 1693. Ordered that the 2 Chirurgeons Governo' 5 & whome they 
shall thincke fitting to call to them Attend the Archbishopp of Canterbury conserning 
his Barber practiceing Chirurgery. 

20th July, 1693. Ord cl that a lease bee taken of the Archbishopp for one & 
twenty yeare from the 19 th day of July 1693 for the Barge house 1 & that as the Governo rs 
have agreed a ffine of the same they pay to his Grace the sume of one hundred pounds 
besides ffees. 

3rd October, 1693. Ordered that the Bargeman have a new coate & britches &c. 

19th July, 1694. Ordered that M r George Minikin bee warned before the Lord 
Major to shew cause why he doe not attend the Court of Assistants as he hath been 
chosen one of them. 

1 8th June, 1696. A new sun dial was ordered to be put up. 

About this period there seems to have been a general dis- 
inclination to serve as an Assistant, many of the Livery being fined 
.£10 for refusing to serve the office, while some who had sat as 
Assistants were dismissed the Court for non-attendance. 

25th October, 1697. Ordered that the Barge house bee mended & M r Warden 
Pinke take care to see it done. 

1 At Lambeth. 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1 8th August, 1698. Ordered that the Govern" dispose of the Barge & let the 
Barge house from yeare to yeare. 

1 2th October, 1698. Ordered That there may be papers made for a subscripton 
for a Barge. 

21st October, 1700. Ordered that the ill manadgement of the late Master M' 
Tho: Lichfeild as to his office of Master and his other offices of Warden bee p''sented to 
the next Court of Assistants in order to bee expel°d the s°d Court it being the opinion of 
this Comittee that he deserves soe to bee as alsoe for being any longer an examin' he 
haveing acted contrary to the establish"" of the Corporacon in the s' 1 offices. 

8th November, 1700. A Committee of the Court having waited 
upon the Commissioners of the Navy and reported that Mr. Lichfeild 
had committed irregularities in certifying men as qualified Surgeons for 
sea service, such men not being duly qualified, the Court adjudged him 
to be dismissed from his office of an Examiner in Surgery, and out of 
the Court of Assistants. 

10th March, 1707. The new Clerk, Mr. Chas. Bernard, seems 
to have been industrious in searching out practising Barbers not free of 
the Company, as also others who had committed abuses ; several were 
fined and compelled to take up their freedom and this day the following 
entries occur : — 

Clyett being sumoned for Shaveing on Sunday last appeared before the Comittee 
and the ffact being plainly proved against him the Comittee fined him ten shillings for his 
said offence. 

Newland being sumoned for the like offence appeared also before the Comittee 
but there being no possitive proofe against him he was dismissed. 

John Gould a Dutchman being sumoned for keeping a Shopp and exercising the 
trade of a Barber not being ffree of this Company And the matter being plainly proved 
against him the Comittee ordered him to be prosecuted on the statutes of the 32nd of 
Hen 8 th and the 5" 1 of Queen Elizabeth. 

o/Jnnak of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Ordered that a Second Suinons be sent to all such Defaulters as have not 
appeared with intimation that theire frines will be levied on them by distresse. 

Ordered that Thomas Latham be sumoned to take upp his ffreedome & 
that all other persons exerciseing Barbery not being ffree of this Company be sumoned. 

17th March, 1707. Nineteen delinquents who had been 
summoned appeared, and their cases were heard ; a few examples will 
suffice — One Darby was "seen to comb a persons haire on Sunday 
morning last but alleadging that it was his ffather," he was let off 
with 5J. fine. 

Lewis Roger made answer that it " was onely his Apprentice 
combing a persons haire without his knowledge and that it was 
his first offence," he likewise escaped with a $s. fine. 

James Good was more fortunate, for proving that his offence 
"was onely the Combing of a Lodgers Wigg," he escaped. 

Willm. Haslegrove appears to have filled up the measure of 
his iniquity, for being detected in " actually shaveing a person on 
Sunday morning," he was fined 10s. 

Samuel Beaumont, charged with keeping two Barbers' shops, 
had a month given him to part with one of them, and John Shoard 
who, not being free of the Company, kept a Barber's shop in 
Cloth Fair, was ordered to quit the same within two months. 

31st March, 1707. Elizabeth Presbury being sumoned appeared & alleadged 
that she was very poore & that her husband was an Idle man and promised to reforme 
her method whereupon the Comittee excused her. 

The number of Barbers fined for working on Sundays, or for 
keeping shop not being free, was enormous, and it becomes wearying 
to travel through the records of their offences and fines. 

224 c/Jmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

17th June, 1708. Ordered that the Company's Barge house and the Dwelling 
house thereunto belonging be forthwith repaired. 

13th January, 1709. Sir Edward Northey was appointed 
standing counsel to the Company with a yearly retainer of two guineas. 

15th April, 1709. Upon complaint made against one Henry Drudge for 
exerciseing Barbery & Surgery w ,h in the City not being ffree he attended and alleadged 
that he haveing been a Soldier in the late Warr thought himself intituled to keep his 
Shoppe without takeing up his ffreedome, by Virtue of the Act of Parliament made upon 
the disbanding the Army which gives liberty to disbanded soldiers to exercise any 
trade within the Corporations or places where they were borne, altho they had not 
served seven years to it But the Court believing that act did not extend to Drudge 
by reason he was not borne in London, ordered that in case he did not shut up his 
Shop in a month's time he should be prosecuted. 

21st July, 1709. In consequence of the great expense to which 
the Company had been put in the repairs to the Hall, the Court 
determined to call thirty-one freemen into the Livery, and the fine 
being £\o each on admission or £20 on refusal, a considerable 
sum was realized. 

It having been suggested to the Court that the yeomanry 
objected to pay 20s. for "corn money" when called to the Livery, 
the Clerk was directed to enquire into the origin of that tax, and 
finding that it had been originally levied on each member taking his 
livery, to satisfy the precepts made in 1633, and afterwards for 
providing a stock of corn for the City ; and for that at the present 
time the Company had no Granary or stock of corn to provide, and 
"being out of debt," it was ordered that in future this fine should be 

1 8th August, 1709. At the Election, ten of the Livery who 
had attended without their gowns, were severally fined and paid is. 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 2 2^ 

each, and there are other references to Assistants being fined for not 
appearing in their gowns. 

4th October, 1709. A complaint being made against Richard Stockwell for 
being copartner with a fforreigner & the fact being made appeare pritty plain against him 
the Court fined him five pounds being the penalty imposed by the By Law, But upon his 
promise to discharge his said partner the Court were pleased to remitt his ffine. 

18th April, 1 7 10. M r John Booth a Surgeon at Warrington in Lancashire 
applying to this Court to be admitted a fforeign brother & he being examined in 
Surgery & approved It was ordered that upon his payment of ten Guineas he should be 
admitted a fforeign brother of this Company, But the said M r Booth refusing to take that 
part of the fforeign brothers oath whereby he was sworne to be true to the Queen he 
was not for that reason admitted. 

1st June, 1 7 10. It is ordered that the Members present at this Court shall be 
excused from wearing their gowns in regard to the heat of the weather. 

20th October, 1710. It is ordered for the accomodation of the Members of this 
Court of the Barbers side for the seeing & being heard at Courts of Assistants That for 
the future at all Courts of Assistants the Governo rs on the Surgeons side shall set even 
with the Ma' next on his right hand & the Governo" on the Barbers side next on his 
left. But that at all other Courts all the Governo" shall according to their seniority 
sett along the side of the Parlour Table on the left hand of the Master in such maner as 
has been accustomed. 

nth January, 171 1. The Clerk's and Beadle's houses were 
ordered to be insured against fire, for ^600 in the "Amicable Society." 

20th February, 171 1. Mr. Willm. Smith, an Assistant, com- 
plained that Mr. Joseph Cosins, also an Assistant, and his junior in the 
freedom, had always taken precedence of him at the Courts, whereupon 
the matter was considered and the following order made : — 

Forasmuch as it appeared that M r Cosins was first chosen into the Court of 
Assistants & that it is in the power of this Court to chuse whom they shall think fitt to 
be an Assistant out of the whole Livery without respect to Seniority & for that M r Cosins 

2 G 

22 6 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

continued for many years in his present station as Assistant The Court were of opinion 
& did so declare themselves to be That the s d M r Cosins shou'd continue to take place 
of the said M r Smith as he formerly had done. 

9th July, 171 1. The Common Seal of the Company being 
worn out a new one was ordered to be cut in steel, together with an 
" Ingine," wherewith to make the impressions. 

6th May, 1712. Ordered that the Porter who shaves att the Custome house be- 

27th May, 1 71 2. Walter Browne being "one of the people 

called Quakers," was admitted into the freedom and took a "solemn 


7th April, 1 7 13. Valentine Day Tallow Chandler was admitted into the 
freedom of this Company by Redempcon and at the same time was admitted to fiine for 
all offices to the Parlour door for both which he paid a ffine Clock worth 30 1 '- 

5th October, 17 14. It is ordered that the Musitioners shall have five pounds 
for attending on the day of the Kings Entrance. (George I.) 

5th June, 1 7 16. Nathanael Charles owned that he has several times let blood 
for One shilling & sixpence upon which the Company ordered him to be prosecuted 
as also his Mast' Joseph Roe ; twas observed that Roe could not write his name 
having sett his mark only to the Inttre. 1 

15th August, 1717. M r William Highmore Jun r haveing marryed the Vintners 
widow who kept the Bell Taverne in Nicholas lane applying to this Court and 
acquainting them that he had quitted the Barbers Trade and had undertook the 
trade of a Vintner, and was for that reason under a necessity of becomeing a freeman 
of the Vintners Company or of takeing a License from the Crown to retail wine 
and praying of this Court to translate him from this Company to the Company of 
Vintners, This Court after hearing the By-Law in that behalf read and due consideracon 
had thereof doth order that the said M r William Highmore shall be translated from 
this Company into the Company of Vintners upon payment of ^20 to the use 
of this Company and upon Condicon that he shall not from henceforward exercise the 
trade of a Barber or Perriwig maker. 

1 Indenture. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 22 7 

1st October, 171 7. Robert Rainsford, the Company's Barge 
Master, was ordered to have a new livery provided for him. 

24th June, 1718. The Theatre was ordered to be repaired 
and beautified. 

21st April, 1720. Mr. Berney, Mr. Burroughs and Mr. 
•Fitzhugh, Liverymen Barbers, applied to the Court, giving their 
reasons and praying that the Court would petition the Lord Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Common Council to suspend the act of Common 
Council restraining them from employing foreigners as journeymen, 
whereupon the matter was considered and the Court thought it 
would be contrary to their oaths to join in any such petition, 
because it was a standing By-Law of the Company, as well as 
of the City, that no Barber should employ any foreigner as a 
journeyman ; it was also considered that such a liberty would prove 
a great discouragement to apprentices and that the present incon- 
venience complained of would soon be cured if Masters would 
sufficiently instruct their apprentices so as to make them useful 
during their servitude and competent as journeymen afterwards. 
The Court further decided to oppose, by every means in its power, 
the movement set on foot by Mr. Berney and his friends. 

24th June, 1722. The lease of the Barge-house at Lambeth 
expiring in April, 1723, and the Archbishop having offered to renew 
the same for 21 years at ,£10 per annum and ^"ioo fine, it was resolved 
not to renew it, in consequence of its being an unprofitable property, 
and the Company not then having a barge. The Barber-Surgeons 
let off part of their Barge-house to the Drapers and Ironmongers, and 
the Clerk was instructed to give those Companies notice that it 
was not the intention of this Company to renew the lease from 
the Archbishop. 

2 o 2 

2 28 zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

2nd December, 1729. In consequence (as was alleged) of the 
difficulty in sometimes procuring a full Court, it was ordered that 
in future each Assistant who attended within one hour of the time 
mentioned in his summons and remained till the rising of the Court, 
should receive a fee of 2s. 6d. 

1 st February, 1731. It is ordered that all the Liverymen shall attend on 
Election day and Lord Mayors day in their Gowns and at publick anatomys in their 
Capps upon Forfieture of Three shillings and Fourpence for every offence. 

8th July, 1 73 1. A precept coming from the Lord Mayor 
recommending the Company to contribute "towards the relief of the 
poor sufferers by the late fires at Blanford Tiverton & Ramsey being 
read The Court upon consideracon had thereof and from a just 
sense of the calamity and distress of their fellow subjects the late 
inhabitants of the said towns," ordered .£20 to be paid into the 
Chamber of London. 

1732. The following fines were in force at this date, viz. : — ■ 
£6 6s. orf. for a Barber admitted to the freedom by redemption. 
£ to for a free Barber admitted to the Livery. 

£2,0 for a Barber's or Surgeon's apprentice, made free by 
servitude, admitted to the Livery, and for all offices to the parlour 

£7 js. od. for examination, admission and diploma of a foreign 

£3 35. od. for the same, if the applicant had been bound to a 
foreign brother at the Hall. 

5th March, 1733. It is hereby referred to the Master & Wardens M r Serj' 
Dickins M r Serj' Amyand M r Petty M r Shott M r Parker & M r Maurice to receive proposalls 
for Building a Cupola in the Hall parlor and report the same to the next Court of 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 22 c) 

19th July, 1733. Several of the livery attending upon a complaint against a 
Jew in Duke's place for exercising the trade of a Barber without being free of the 
Company or having served seven years apprenticeship It is ordered that the Clerk of the 
Company shall sue the said Jew in such manner as he shall think fitt or be advised at the 
Company's expence. 

4th May, 1736. At this Court Abraham Diaz Delgadoa Jew was admitted into 
the freedom of the Company by Redemption for Ten pounds Ten shillings which he paid 
down and was sworn upon the Old Testament being a Jew. 

3rd August, 1738. The Company contributed five guineas 
towards the Organ recently set up in the Church of Saint Alban, Wood 

3rd April, 1739. M r John Owen a Freeman of the Company & who lives at 
Islington was chosen Musicianer to the Company in the room of M r Brown deced. 

nth November, 1740. It is ordered (in regard this Company have no Barge) 
That the Waterman shall forthwith deliver up his Livery coat and Badge belonging to the 
Company to the Beadles and that he no longer be annually intitled from this Company to 
a new Coat nor make use of nor wear the old one but that when he shall be employed in 
the Companies service. And also that for the future on every Lord Mayor's day that this 
Company shall walk in procession in order to attend the L d Mayor a Stand or proper 
building shall be provided at the Companies expence for the better accomodation of the 
Livery belonging to this Company and in such manner and fform as several other 
Companies of this City are usually provided with on that day. 

1745. The Surgeons are now separated from the Barbers. 

8th August, 1745. The Clerk reporting that many of the 
Company, as well as Surgeons lately free of the Barber-Surgeons' 
Company, were greatly in arrear in their quarterage, he was ordered to 
acquaint them that unless the said arrears were paid up forthwith, they 
would be sued. 

17th September, 1745. The Company of Surgeons sent to the 
Company of Barbers two documents under their Common Seal, the one 

2 jo cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

authorising Mr. Joseph Cruttenden to peruse and copy any Charters or 
documents in the possession of the Barbers, and the other empowering 
him to take possession of any books, papers or writings relating to 
Surgeons or Surgery only, on behalf of the Company of Surgeons ; 
whereupon the Court acceded to the request, and gave instructions as 
to the same. 

4th December, 1745. Mr. Cruttenden applied on behalf of the 
the Surgeons' Company for ^510 (the Arrisian endowment) which had 
been directed to be paid by the Act of Parliament, whereupon the 
Master told him that by reason of the late fall in the Public Stocks, the 
Company could not without great loss, raise the money, but were 
ready to give the Surgeons a proper bond for the same, with Interest. 

19th February, 1746. Forty-one freemen were reported as 
being fit and able persons to take the Livery, and were ordered to be 
summoned for the same with the intimation that if any refused he or 
they would be sued for the penalty of ,£20 each upon such refusal. 

Of these, seven appeared at the next Court, took the livery and 
paid the fine of £\o; six others begged to be excused. The remaining 
twenty-eight did not appear till later Courts, when some were excused, 
and others ordered to be sued ; subsequently a large proportion of 
those nominated, accepted and paid their fines. 

17th July, 1746. The Surgeons' Company having pressed for 
payment of the ^510 and Interest, and our Company having in Cash 
but ^300, Mr. Luke Maurice (Master 1732, a Wine Merchant in 
Lime Street) lent the Company ^200 at 4^ per cent., and the Clerk 
advanced the balance, whereupon the principal, with ^15 17s. od. 
interest, was paid to the Surgeons. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 231 

18th May, 1747. The Master acquainting the Court that he had employed 
M* Whiston the Bookseller to putt the Company's Library in order and to make a 
Catalogue and valuation thereof And that M r Whiston had appraised the same at 
Twenty Guineas And the Clerk acquainting the Court that a learned Physican had 
offered twenty-five Guineas for the Library together with the Skeleton and other 
curiosities formerly kept in the Library It was ordered that the Clerk should acquaint 
the Master of the Worshipfull Company of Surgeons with the said offer made to this 
Company And that this Court being desirous to manifest their esteem for and preserve 
the friendship of the Surgeons did give them the refusal of the said Library Skeleton 
and Curiosities at the said price of Twenty ffive Guineas And that in case of their 
acceptance thereof the rich and ancient Pall belonging to this Company should be at 
their service as a free gift. 

1 6th July, 1747. The Clerk reported that he had made the 
above offer to the Surgeons who replied that they considered them- 
selves entitled to the Library under the Act of 1745, but that to avoid 
controversy with the Barbers they would be willing to refer the matter 
to Counsel, whereupon it was resolved that the matter should be 
submitted to the opinion of Counsel. 

5th July, 1749. Ordered that the Library of Books formerly belonging to the late 
united Company be forthwith sold for the most money that can be gotten for the same. 

2nd June, 1749. Ordered that the Companys Arms be cast in lead and affixed 
upon the several houses belonging to this Company. 

Various specimens of these castings are extant about the Hall, 
and in possession of Mr. Charles John Shoppee (Master 1878) and 
of the author. 

2nd May, 1750. Ordered that M r Paterson do wait upon the Earl of Burlington 
to know his Lordship's intention about repairing the Company's Theatre. 

6th June, 1750. Ordered that the Clerk do write to the Right Honorable 
the Earl of Burlington to aquaint him of the ruinous condition of the Theatre and 
Company's inability to repair the same and to know whether his Lordship will be 

2 3 2 c/Jiuials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

pleased to order the said Repairs agreable to his own generous proposal in the 
Mastership of M r Rutter. 

Nothing came of this application. 

i st August, 1750. Ordered that the Clerk do cause a Catalogue to be made 
of the Books in the Library, and that he deliver a copy thereof to M' Samuel Rutter. 

9th August, 1750. Mr. Gheys, Sculptor, was ordered to 
have the Skeleton, in exchange for the Bust of Inigo Jones, still 
preserved at the Hall. 

3rd September, 1751. Resolved also that the old Pall be given to the Beadle. 
This, alas! was the "rich and ancient pall." 

The Clerk was again directed to endeavour to sell the Library 
and it was disposed of to Mr. Whiston the Bookseller for £\$ ! ! 

29th October, 1 75 1 . Resolved that the Doctors Gown and Hood be given 
to the Beadle. 

13th August, 1752. Ordered that it be referred to the Master and Wardens 
to treat with M r Thomas Reynolds about erecting a Cupola over the great Parlor 
agreable to the Draft now produced to this Court and about repairing the Roof And 
also repairing whitewashing and painting the said Parlor so as the Contract for that 
purpose do not exceed the sum of One hundred and seventeen pounds. 

19th August, 1752. The Agreement between the Company 
and Mr. Reynolds was entered into at ^116 155., and the Specifi- 
cation of his work is recorded in the Minute Book, from which 
I extract the following : — 

The Cupola compleat and properly secured glazed and ornamented with Stucco 
and the Roof covered with Milled lead seven pounds to the ffoot with good brass pulley 
in the middle fit for a Branch or Lustre. A new white veined marble Chimney piece and 
Slabb with a carved wooden ovalo round it and Slabb of the same Marble The 
Chimney piece of the same dimensions as the present and the Slabb six foot nine inches 
by two foot four inches with a new fire stone hearth. 

oAnnate of the Barber-Surgeons. 233 

The ceiling and ornaments thereof to he secured mended cleaned and 

9th August, 1753. The Great Hall, Kitchen and Lobby were 
ordered to be repaired by Mr. Reynolds in accordance with his 
Estimate of £ 1 01 ijs. 6d. 

8th August, 1754. Ordered that the thanks of this Court be given to James 
Theobald Esq r one of the Ancient Masters of the Company for the magnificent Lustre 
by him lately presented and at his Expense fixed up in their great parlor assuring him 
This Court doth most gratefully accept the same as a monument of his regard for the 
honor and prosperity of the Company. 

This handsome lustre still adorns the Court Room. 

12th September, 1754. The Court having considered the state 
of the Theatre, which was out of repair, and for which the Company 
had no use, ordered advertisements to be inserted twice in three daily 
papers, asking for tenders for the materials of the same, and for 
pulling down and clearing it away. The "N.B." to the adver- 
tisement states that "The Doors, Benches and Railes of the said 
Theatre are of Cedar." 

1 st October, 1754. Three tenders for the materials of the 
Theatre were received, ^21 10s. od.., £$2 and ^35 respectively, and 
the decision thereon postponed. 

4th February, 1 755. William Shakespear (Barber) the apprentice 
of Richard Hulett, was admitted to the freedom. 

5th June, 1764. The Clerk informed the Court of the death of 
Mrs. Elizabeth I'Ans, widow of Mr. Michael I'Ans, and that the 
Master and Wardens had, on the 23rd May, received of the Executors 
of Mr. IAns .£2,200— 3^ per cent. Bank Annuities, and £"75 in 
accordance with Mr. I'Ans' will. 

2)4 nAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1764 and 1765. Mr. James Clowes who had been summoned 
to take up the Livery, refused to do so, whereupon he was sued for the 
fine of ,£20 and judgment obtained against him with costs. 

14th August, 1766. A Committee having been appointed to 
examine and report upon the Theatre, and having done so, were now 
authorised to apply to the Court of Common Council for permission to 
pull down the same, and to treat with that Court for the purchase of 
the ground, for which the Company paid the City £$ per annum under 
an old lease. 

3rd November, 1767. The City Comptroller having requested 
the Company to make an offer for the site of the Theatre, it was 
resolved that 30 years' purchase (£90) be offered for the same. 

7th February, 1769. A plan of the ground leased by the City 
to the Company and on which the Theatre stood, having been 
prepared by Mr. George Dance, Clerk of the Works to the City, it 
was laid before the Court, and the City sold the fee simple to 
the Company for £90. Would that one could buy City freeholds 
at the same rate now ! 

2nd September, 1783. Mr. Sylvanus Hall, of Paternoster Row, 
Carpenter, proposed to take a lease of the ground on which the 
Theatre stood, to take down the whole building, and to erect two 
dwelling houses on the site similar to those he had already built in 
Monkwell Street. The lease to commence at Christmas, 1784, and to 
be for 61 years at £10 ground rent. He also proposed to pay the 
Company ^"20 for the old materials of the Theatre and to clear the 
same away. To all these propositions the Court agreed, and Mr. Hall 
paid a guinea as earnest money. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 235 

1st February, 1785. Mr. Hall having pulled down the Theatre, 
the Clerk was instructed to write to him for the ^20 for the old 
materials which he had removed. 

4lh October, 1 791. There being a sufficient number of Members present to 
form a Court of Assistants, tho° no such Court was called, the Master took the sense of 
the Members present, as an adjournment from the last Court of Assistants, whether the 
Company should go out in the usual procession the ensuing Lord Mayor's day, when on 
the question being put, the same was resolved in the negative. 

4th November, 1794. M r Thomas Holehouse who was on the i* 1 July last 
elected on the Livery of this Company, but had refused to take upon him the same, 
without shewing any cause to the Contrary, and against whom an Action had been 
commenced for the recovery of Twenty Pounds the penalty incurred by such his refusal, 
this day attended and paid the said sum of Twenty pounds together with the costs of the 
said Action. 

9th November, 1795. The following Circular was distributed 
amongst the Livery at the dinner this day : — 

The Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Barbers having 
received information that many persons residing within the City of London carry 
on the Trade of a Barber and Hair dresser without being free of this Company to 
the great prejudice of the Members and the rights of the Company Do hereby 
give notice that they have come to .1 resolution to prosecute all persons carrying on 
the trade of a Barber or Hair dresser within the said City not being free of this 
Company and they request the assistance of their Members for that purpose for the 
benefit of the Company and Trade at large : any information to their Clerk at the 
Hall will be duly attended to. 

by order of Court, 

Edw" Grose Smith, 


9th November, 1796. The By-Laws of the Company having 
been found, on the opinion of Mr. Serjeant Adair, insufficient to 

2 112 

2)6 e/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

enforce the payment of fines for the refusal to serve various offices, 
a new set was drawn up by the Clerk, and submitted to and approved 
by the Court, who ordered the Clerk to get the same confirmed 
and allowed by the Lord Chancellor and two Chief Justices, but this 
was never done. 

5th September, 1797. The Mahogany table now in the Court 
Room was made about this time. There is a tradition that the 
bulb-shaped end of it was a portion of the old dissecting table 
used by the Surgeons. If so, its latter days are more cheerful than 
its first. 

1796 to 1799. Several Barbers were prosecuted for exercising 
their Trade within the limits of the Company's Charters and brought 
to terms, generally they became freemen, and then were compelled to 
come on to the livery ; in other cases the barbers removed out 
the jurisdiction, and paid the costs. 

18th May, 1802. The Commissioners for the Public Lottery 
having advertised for a place in which to hold the lotteries, the Court 
decided to send in proposals offering the use of the Hall (under certain 
restrictions) for the next three lotteries for Six hundred guineas, but 
the offer was not accepted. 

1st August, 1809. A case was submitted to the Attorney 
General (Sir R. Gibbs) who gave an opinion that the freemen of 
the Company were exempt from serving on Juries, but not from 
serving as Constables. 

4th February, 18 12. A memorial signed by four freemen of 
the Company was presented to the Court, the purport of which was 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 237 

that the memorialists having been summoned to act as Ward Constables 
had refused to serve, and that thereupon actions had been brought 
against them, which, being tried before Lord Ellenborough, the 
verdicts were against them and they were ordered to pay the costs 
(£333 9 s - od.). The memorialists alleging that they defended the 
actions for the benefit of the Company and really to uphold its 
privileges, prayed that they might be reimbursed the costs, which, 
however, the Court declined to accede to, but ordered that ^12, which 
had been paid to the Company for copies of the Charters, should 
be refunded. 

1 8 14. The Churchwardens of St. Olave, Silver Street, having 
assessed the Hall at £172, they were requested to attend the next 
Court which they did, and the following delightful method of settling 
these matters is recommended to the Authorities nowadays. 

1 st November, 1814. The parish officers of Saint Olave Silver Street attended 
& stated to the Court that the Vestry of that Parish had taken the subject of the Poor 
rate into consideration, and considering the great increase of the rate they left it to the 
Company to say what they were agreeable to be rated at ; the Court proposed to say 
p£ioo per annum; the gentlemen (having withdrawn) were then called in and informed 
of such proposal, with which they cordially acquiesced. 

2nd April, 18 16. Alexander Rowland the younger [of Macassar oil fame] of 
Kirby Street Hatton Garden, Barber was admitted to the Livery. 

3rd May, 1825. The Livery stand, being in a decayed and 
useless condition, was ordered to be sold. 

2nd May, 1826. But as a purchaser could not be found, the 
Master offered to give .£5 for it, which was accepted, and this, together 
with an additional £5, was ordered to be given to the Committee for 
the Relief of Distressed Manufacturers. 

2 tf 

oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

5th February, 1861. Mr. John Atkinson gave ^100 consols 
for the purpose of distributing the dividends thereof in the purchase of 
Bibles and Prayer Books for the poor members of the Company. 

7th February, 1862. Mr. John Atkinson's Will reciting a 
munificent bequest to the Company is set out in the minutes of this date. 

3rd February, 1863. A Statement of the property left by Mr. 
John Atkinson is recorded in a letter from the Solicitors to his Trustees 
directed to the Court, and entered in the minutes of this date. 



HE BARBERS' COMPANY is ranked the seven- 
teenth in order of the City Companies, and is the 
fifth after the " Twelve great Companies," the 
thirteenth being the Dyers, fourteenth Brewers, 
fifteenth Leathersellers, sixteenth Pewterers, seven- 
teenth Barbers, eighteenth Cutlers, etc. 

The question of precedency in former times gave rise to 
many contentions between the City Guilds, and the Barber-Surgeons 
seem to have had some experience in these quarrels : the City 
pageants, processions, and public attendances at church, were 
numerous in the days of the Tudors and Stuarts, and at most of 
these the Livery Companies attended, each guild jealously striving 
to keep its place, and no doubt to advance its position whenever 
opportunity arose. 

There are extant, lists of the Companies in the City books, 
in which our Company takes various positions ; and Stow, having 
incorporated one of these lists in his Survey, has given it an 

240 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

authority as a table of precedence which it was never intended to 
possess ; he furnishes a list of the Companies attending the Lord 
Mayor's feast, 23rd Henry VIII (1531), and places the Barbers 
as the thirty-second, whereas at that time they were undoubtedly 
the twenty-eighth. 

1 5 16. The first authentic reference to our Company's stand- 
ing is found in Letter-Book N. leaf 5 (January, 1516), where it is 
ordained that the Barbers, although they claimed of their ancient 
right to be the seventeenth Company, yet were adjudged to take 
the twenty-eighth place, following the Cordwainers, and preceding 
the Paynter-Stainers. 

1532. This order was probably in force until February, 
1532, when the Barbers got back their old position {Repertory 8, 
leaf 272) and an officer was directed to wait on the Pewterers to 
" shewe theym that the seyd Company of Barbours Surgeons be 
Restored ageyn to their olde Rowme." Three months later (May, 
1532), the Barbers were "taken down one," and directed to occupy 
the eighteenth place. 

1533. In February, 1533 (Letter-Book O. fo. 213,), is a 
record which is somewhat puzzling, as, altogether ignoring the 
orders of February and May, 1532, it is stated that the Barber- 
Surgeons had petitioned to be restored to their old place of 
seventeenth Company, from which it is said they were dispossessed 
about sixteen years back (evidently alluding to the order of January, 
1 5 16), "so that they be nowe the xxix or XXX th Companye yn 
thordre of such goynges," etc. 

Perhaps the orders of February and May, 1532, had been 
disregarded by the other guilds, and our Company forcibly ousted 
from their rightful position, so that this is in effect an application 

o/l finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 241 

for a confirmatory order, which was granted, and thus they were 
again fixed as the seventeenth Company. 

1534. The Barbers must have given some offence to the 
Civic authorities in 1534, for in October of that year {Repertory 9, 
leaf 79) the last-named order was repealed, and they were put back 
again to the twenty-eighth place, and further the Company were 
ordered that they " shall no more goo yn p cessyons, standyngf, 
Rydyngf, goyngf, and other assembles from hensfurth, tyll it be 
otherwyse ordered by thys co rte." 

1535. This vacillation on the part of the Court of Aldermen 
in settling our position, was not yet at an end, for in March, 1535, 
we were again placed seventeenth, to come before the Cutlers and 
after the Pewterers, and this order was confirmed no less than four 
times in 1535, and twice in 1536. 

1604. At a Royal Procession on the 15th March, 1604, our 
Company got misplaced by some of the Marshals, and this led to 
another application to the Court of Aldermen, whereupon a per- 
emptory order was made that the Barber-Surgeons should stand 
sixteenth in precedence. This order is set out in full elsewhere (see 
page 195); the sixteenth place was then accorded to us in con- 
sequence of the Stockfishmongers, who formerly held the twelfth 
place, having been dissolved, whereby the Barber-Surgeons went up 
one : the Clothworkers who, at that time were the thirteenth 
Company, then became the twelfth. 

Some short time afterwards, the Dyers, who had been the 
eighteenth Company, got the thirteenth place, and we reverted to 
our old position of seventeenth Company in which we still continue. 

1606. An attempt to misplace us was made in July, 1606, 
but this was successfully resisted. (See p. 116.) 

2 1 



HE constitution of the governing body of the Company 
has grown up in the course of time from one Prime 
Master or Ruler to a Master with three Wardens 
and twenty Assistants, forming a Court of twenty- 
four members. 

We gather from the earliest records, that the business of the 
Company was then transacted by the meeting together in Common 
Hall, of the whole fraternity (which probably included both freemen 
and liverymen), under the presidency of a single Master, who, as in 
the case of Richard le Barber in 1308, was invested with the super- 
vision of the craft, and power to make search and scrutiny, and to 
punish offenders. 

In 1376 two Masters were appointed to rule the craft, while 
in 1388 we find that two Masters and two "Surveyors" formed the 
governing body. 

In 141 6 is recorded the admission of five Masters, three of 
whom are described as " Barbitonsores " {i.e., Barbers proper) and 
two as " Masters of the Barbers exercising the faculty of Surgery." 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 24} 

In 1428 there were four Masters, two of each class, and this number 
was the governing body at the time of Edward IV's Charter of 
Incorporation, in 1462. 

As has been elsewhere remarked, this Charter provides for the 
appointment of two Masters only, and they to be skilled in Surgery, to 
be chosen by twelve Electors taken from the Commonalty ; but as our 
records preserve the names of four Masters elected in that year, and so 
on ever since in unbroken succession, there cannot be any doubt but 
that (the Charter dealing almost entirely with the regulation of matters 
surgical) the two Masters of the " Barbers side" were left to be elected 
in accordance with old custom, or under the By-laws which the 
Company were, by their Charter, empowered to make. 

At what period a Court ot Assistants was created in our 
Company is unknown, but I am inclined to think the date is about 
1480 to 1500. The four " Masters or Governors" (answering to our 
" Master and three Wardens") were chosen out of the Commonalty by 
twelve electors yearly, and do not, as seems by the lists preserved, 
appear to have gone up annually by seniority as now they do, i.e., from 
third Warden to second, and so on. Those who had served as second, 
third, or fourth Governors, if not chosen to higher office the next year, 
as a general rule took their places again as simple liverymen ; whilst 
those who had served as Prime or Chief Governor were, at the expiry 
of their term of office, designated "Ancient Masters," and these, with 
some past Wardens, having become qualified by experience in the 
affairs of the Company would naturally be consulted by the ruling 
Governors who sought their " assistance " and advice, and thus grow 
up into a Court of Assistants 1 (nearly always in early time spelt 

'This theory is confirmed by the Ordinances made in 1566, whereby it was enacted that a liveryman 
might be chosen an Assistant without having ever served the office of Governor. 

2 I 2 

244 c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

" Assistance ") and be recognised to a great extent as a power in the 
direction of the Company's business. 

The earliest mention of Assistants is in the By-laws settled by 
Sir Thomas More in 1530, though throughout these By-laws the 
actual ruling power was evidently in the four Masters or Governors. 
The Assistants are here twice referred to, in one case where it is 
enacted that the Masters shall not admit a " fforen " to the freedom 
without the assent of the " xxiiij" assistentes," and in another place 
they are to have, with the Masters, the election of the Livery. 

The Act 32 Henry VIII is silent as to Assistants, vesting all 
power in the Masters or Governors. In 1557 at one of the Courts 
twenty-one Assistants and four Masters attended, and at a Court held 
19th July, 1595, the names of twenty-five Assistants are recorded. 
The number seems to have varied with the times, the full Court, 
however, never exceeding four Masters and thirty-two Assistants. 
The Assistants have always been elected by the Court, and the custom 
became in time to choose the senior liveryman whenever a vacancy 
occurred, though there does not appear to have been at any time a 
by-law to that effect, and indeed this practice has been departed from 
on very many occasions. 

The Election of Masters prior to the year 1633 was on the 
Monday next before the feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle 
(Aug. 24); from 1633 to 1745 it was held on the third Thursday in 
August, and since 1745 it has been held on the second Thursday in 

The ancient practice was for the whole body of the livery to be 
summoned to the Hall in their livery gowns, hoods and caps on the 
Monday at 8 o'clock in the morning "at the furthest" to whom the 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 245 

Masters, sitting in Court, declared the cause of their assembling ; this 
done, the Masters retired, and the livery, sitting there, chose twelve of 
their number to be " Electors," of whom six were to be " expert 
Surgeons," and four at least must never have served the office of 
Master or Governor. The Clerk then called the twelve Electors out 
(the rest of the livery remaining in the Hall). The Masters then 
delivered to the Electors the " Bills of Election," each Master 
nominating two Barbers and two Surgeons, so that sixteen in all were 
nominated, and, after administering to them the oath prescribed, the 
Electors retired to a private room apart to make their choice. Should 
the Electors deem that one or more of themselves ought to have been 
put in nomination, they were to send for the Masters who were bound 
to withdraw such person or persons, and choose others in their place. 
The Bills were to be made out in accordance with seniority, but the 
Electors were not bound to choose by seniority. Having made their 
choice, the Electors sent for the Masters and delivered to them a Bill 
with the names of the four persons selected, and these names were 
(under a heavy penalty) to be kept secret until after the "dener." 

The whole Company then proceeded in state to the Church of 
St. Olave, Silver Street (after the Great Fire to St. Alban, Wood 
Street), maids strewing the way with flowers. At Church there was a 
"goodly masse" celebrated, and in later times a " devyne s rvice," 
which, being ended, the parson and some of the church officials had 
customary fees and returned with the Company to the Hall to celebrate 
the Election dinner. The feast over, the outgoing Masters, according 
to "auncient order," walked about the table, each bearing a garland 
and placing it on the head of the member who had been chosen to fill 
his place in the year ensuing. If anyone elected happened to be 
absent, his garland was placed on the head of one of the Ancient 
Masters as proxy, and the newly-elected Masters were sworn on the 

246 c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Holy Evangelists to the due execution of their offices, absentees being 
sworn at the next Court. 

The Election dinners were held at any early hour in the after- 
noon (1 or 2 p.m.) and were generally followed by a play or a dance, 
sometimes both ; the wives of the livery and Assistants were present 
at the dinner, and the latter had their apprentices in attendance waiting 
at table. 

In 1633 the mode of choosing the Electors was varied as 
follows : a " fair ballating box " with two cells therein, one labelled 
" Surgeons" and the other " Barbers" was placed upon the table, 

Into each cell the Master put the names of two 
Ancient Masters, and drew one out of each - 2 

The second and third Governors put into each cell 
the names of six Assistants, and the Master drew 
three out of each ------ 6 

The fourth Governor put into each cell the names of 
four liverymen and the Master drew two out of 
each ---------4 


The twelve so drawn constituted the Electors, and the proceedings 
were then much the same as has been before described. 

The new Masters or Governors commenced their duties 
immediately upon being sworn. 

From the earliest period the custom has been to hold the 
monthly and ordinary Courts on Tuesdays, but the meetings do not 

o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 24 j 

seem to have taken place on any definite or fixed days, numerous 
Courts being held at irregular intervals and frequently on Mondays. 
" Courts of Assistants," as distinguished from Monthly and special 
Courts, were, in early times, for some reason or other, particularly 
prohibited from being held on Tuesdays, there being several orders 
and by-laws to this effect, but why, I do not know. 

In the year 1557 twenty Courts were held. In 1572 forty-one 
Courts, the average attendance at which was twelve. In 1599 forty- 
six Courts assembled. At the intermediate Courts a great deal of 
important as well as minor business was transacted, including the 
admissions and presentations of freemen and apprentices, the examina- 
tion of Surgeons and Sea Surgeons, and a great variety of business 
connected with the medical service of the army and navy. 

Previous to the separation in 1745, the office of Master was 
supposed to be, and generally was, held by a Barber and a Surgeon 
alternately, the Wardens being chosen in like manner, any member 
not practising as a Surgeon being accounted a Barber, whatever 
his trade or occupation might be. 

Great importance has at all times been attached to the question 
of precedence in sitting at table and in speaking in Court, and many 
have been the rules enacted, and the disputes and jealousies which 
have arisen between members of the Court on this question. 

Some of the powers executed by the Masters of old and by 
the Court of Assistants in later times have been those which now are 
peculiar to Courts of Law, e.g., the settlement of disputes upon every 
conceivable question, the imposition of fines, and their recovery by 
distress levied by the Beadle, the summary committal of offenders to 
gaol, and the issuing of orders for their release, the prohibition of 

248 cAmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

actions and suits at common law (if commenced by a freeman without 
leave of the Court), the inhibition of members from practising their 
profession, and the infliction of corporal punishment upon unruly 
freemen and apprentices. 

The Court as now existing, consists of four Masters or Governors 
and twenty Assistants, appointed under the provisions of the Act 18 
George II, cap. xv. By this Act the election of the Masters or 
Governors is in the Court and takes place on the second Thursday 
in August, but alas ! without the ancient ceremonies of attending 
Church, crowning with garlands, and — may I add? — the Election dinner 
for the Livery. 

As will be seen elsewhere, there have been frequent dis- 
turbances at the Courts, and there are numerous entries of Assistants, 
Wardens, and Past Masters having been expelled the Court and 
sometimes dismissed from the Livery as well, for their misconduct 
or quarrelsome behaviour. Instances of impertinence and abuse 
by freemen and liverymen before the Court, are also by no means 
rare, and in these cases condign punishment by imprisonment or 
fine was invariably meted out. 

9th March, 1624. This daye Mr. Warden Thornebury made knowne to this 
Court y' one Tanner, a brother of this Companie, hath abused him in words. Whereupon 
it is ordered by this Court that John Bayard the officer belonging to this Companie 
shall laye the Lord Maio" comaund on the said Tanner and comitte him to one 
of the Compters of this Cittye And that imediately upon the said comittm' shall 
acquaint the M rs therewith That thereupon the M re maye acquaint the lo : Maio' with 
the reson of his comittem' 

19th January, 1626. This daye the letter directed to the Maister Wards and 
Assistants of the Companie of Barbor Surgions of London from M' William Clowes 
Sarjeant Chirurgion to his Ma"° was here in Courte reade in hec verba viz' Right worthie 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 249 

Maister and Governors and assistants of the companie of Barbers and Surgions in my 
true love I wish all health and florishinge goverment of yo r Company to the glory of 
God the honor of the Kinge and the good of Gods people Amen. Now whereas I have 
bin not only by many Brothers advertised but also of yo r Officer legally by letter and 
otherwise given to understand that you had chosen me Renter warden of the company 
from the w* Election I desired by M r Cooper and M r Thomas Allen I might be freed 
yett could not, I then knewe well that in duty I owed you an aunswer which might well 
be seeme my reverent respect to yo' Authoritye ; and my tender regard of the kinge my 
M' s honor which in yo r Chusinge and my acceptinge maye be considered, which as much 
as in me is I desired to doe, And nowe, not once questoninge the troblesomnes of the 
place, nor other hinderances w ' 1 god Almighty did then send I thus aunswer (because I 
wilbe free of Ambition or pride) that if you can make that appeere upon yo r Records that 
any of my predecessors did beare the office of Wardein after he was sworne Serjeant 
Surgion to any of the K°s or Queenes of England I shall humbly serve it, if not, I Crave 
yo r p°don for I might not soe poorely value the Kinge my M r as thinke him less mighty, 
less absolute a Prince then any Kinge whatsoever hath raigned before him, and so as his 
Servaunt I expect from the Company as good respect as any Sergeant Surgion heretofore 
hath had, for my M' s honor I will not give to any other, And further because I am many 
tymes summoned to yo r Courts and other meetings, w ch service I am very willinge to 
performe, when I shall knowe my place in the Company, which I must leave to yo r grave 
consideracon, only if you please to take notice how the Colledge of Phisitions and the 
Company of Apothecaryes of London have rancked the KingC Phisitions and 
Apothecaryes, you may thereby guess what place I expect, but howsoever if by the 
occasion of back freinds wee may not so well agree as I desire, so as I may personally 
absent my selfe from the Company yett thus much I ingenuously and religiously profess 
that I will alwayes in harty love be present and ready press either by the Kinge my M r or 
any other wayes to doe the Companye any loveing Service I may, And so ceasing further 
troubling you but desireing to heare of yo r smoothe acceptance, I rest. 

Whereas he was chosen renter warden of this Companie for this yere ensueing 
w d ' place by reason of this contagious tyme and other respects he is not able to 
execute, It is thereupon ordered by this courte that he shalbe discharged from the 
said place of youngest warden and second warden of this Company, And it is 
further ordered that he shall take place next unto the youngest of our assistants 
that have served the place of upper warden and when he shall have served the 
place of upper warden of this Companye then he to take his precedencye and ranck 
according to that service. 

2 K 

250 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

21st August, 1626. Serjeant Clowes was elected Master, but 
it seems his election was called in question, as it was the turn for a 
Barber this year, and it was moved that the electors should be fined 
for breach of the ordinance in choosing a Surgeon, but the Court 
decided not to do so. There was evidently a dislike to Mr. Clowes 
on the part of some of the Company, as the Wardens of the Yeo- 
manry were on the 20th September, fined 405. for refusing, or 
neglecting to carry the Standing Cups before him and the Wardens 
of the Livery on the Election day. 

1638. Serjeant Clowes was again elected Master. 

9th April, 1 64 1. M r Warden Martin Browne made his complaint against 
M r Serjeant Clowes and he did freely declare that he did forgive the Serjeant his 
personall Wrong, and did referr the Wrong due to the Court unto the Court, And 
this Court did order that M r Serjeant Clowes shall acknowledge that in his anger and 
passion he did speake some words to the wrong of this Court, and this being done 
this Order to be annihilated. 

22nd September, 1642. Alsoe for the more peaceable treaty and discussing 
matters in times of Courts of Assistants It is ordered That decency be held in these 
Courts proceedings and that every one of the Assistants as he is in his turne and 
time of Delivery to yeild his voyce shall not use any impertinent speeches or divert 
the matter in question into some other busines but give his answer freely to the 
present matter proponed and that during the time of his delivery of his speech or 
opinion none other of the Assistants shall give crosse or thwarting speeches or calumniate 
that Assistant And if any Assistant shalbe soe Uncivill That then the present M r 
or Governour shall cause him to be silent and shall put such Assistants Interrupi-on 
of speech to question concerneing his ffine for evill behaviour and such Interruptor 
being found faulty shall pay the ffine of vj s viij' 1 according to the Ordinance in that 
behalfe made. 

3rd October, 1642. Alsoe M r Cotton layed downe his (fines imposed on 
him at the last Court of Assistants viz' xxvj s viij 1 The M r of the Company moveing 
by the consent of the last Court M r Cotton to withdrawe himselfe according to 
Orders and Custome, he gave this Court this peremptory answer, I will not goe out 

c/tnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


of the Court nor the M r hath noe power to bidd mee goe out and that the Court 
had noe power to fine him, then he threatned M r Warden Arris as he sat in the 
Court saying Winter will come, Alsoe he abused M r Dye in his delivery of speech 
to this Court that his speeches were rotten speeches and thwarted him to the general! 
disturbance of the Court, and to M r Martin Browne threatning him I will make 
you know it better in another place Alsoe he sought to disable the M H hand which 
was signed to Ticketts for his and other appearances at the Hall for defaults saying 
they might choose whether to appeare or not Alsoe he told the Court with high language 
I will not be dismissed. 

fforasmuch as this Court is informed and it doth fully appeare to this present 
Court of Assistants That M r Lawrence Cotton hath from time to time bin a disturber 
of the Unity peace and amity of this Society and hath by many reproachfull Words 
and ill behaviour abused the present M K of the Company and divers of the Assistants 
and Members of this Company Whereupon this Court doth dismisse the said M r Cotton 
out of and from his place of an Assistant and being an Examiner. 

Mr. Cotton subsequently made his peace, was reinstated and 
served the office of Master, 1645 •' 

8th July, 1644. Whereas by Order of the Honourable house of Comons 
assembled in Parliament of the 28"' June last the President of the Colledge of Physicians 
was appointed to call this Company before them and to tender the Covenaunt by them 
This Court conceiveing their Priviledges to be thereby infringed this Co" the M r doe 
advise with Councell Doth order that a Petition be framed to be preferred by all the 
Assistants that are now present or the major part, to the House of- Comons to have the 
tendring of the Coveniit themselves to theire owne Members and the Charge to be 
allowed out of the Comon stock. 

2 K 2 



HE admission to membership in the 
Company has ever been by servi- 
tude, patrimony, or redemption, and 
the fines and fees payable have 
varied so much at different periods 
in our history, and have frequently 
been so capricious, that no attempt 
has been made to tabulate them, 
though references will be made here 
and there to the prevailing fees of 
the period. The fees for apprentices 
have always been of a nominal 
description, and generally so of freemen, though, in olden time, the 
Court, as became the Masters of the mystery of " bleeding," not 
unfrequently bled a new member by a substantial fine on admission, 
but also put him to the expense of a dinner into the bargain. 

An ample fine, suited to the period, has always been taken from 
the Liverymen who were, in the days of the Tudors and Stuarts 

The initial letter T is reducer! from one in the Audit Book 1614-15. 

c/Jmmls of the Barber-Surgeons. 253 

a comparatively small section of the Company, and rarely exceeded 
fifty in number ; they were always chosen from the more substantial 
of the Yeomanry, and if on election they refused " to take the 
clothing," as was frequently the case, a heavy penalty was imposed, 
which, if not paid, the unhappy yeoman was forthwith committed 
to the Compter, where, upon reflection, he generally came to the 
conclusion to submit. It is right, however, to state that at all 
times the Court have, in cases where the proposed Liveryman was 
actually a poor man, remitted the fine, and allowed him to continue 
a yeoman ; on the other hand, contumacious refusal was invariably 
met in the firmest manner and conquered. 

The practice of calling up yeomen to the Livery was at times 
resorted to as a means of putting the Company into funds, and as 
these calls generally took place at periods of national trouble, when 
the coffers of the Company had been emptied by the King or the 
Parliament, the intended Liverymen were themselves not unfrequently 
in sore straits, and great contentions arose. 

About one hundred and fifty years ago the practice of enforcing 
these fines was in regular operation, but since then it has been attended 
with varying success ; not that the Company has not by law the power 
of enforcement, but a prejudice had grown up against the system, and 
the Court has been unwilling to sanction a resort to extremities. 

Early in the present century three or four actions were brought 
against freemen to recover penalties of ,£20 for refusing to accept the 
Livery ; in one case which was ripe for trial the Company withdrew the 
record and paid the costs, and the others seem to have been abandoned. 

All freemen on being sworn were liable to pay "quarterage," 
which has been from the earliest period, and still is, 2s. per annum. 1 

The quarterage is now usually compounded for on admission by payment of a sum down. 

2^4 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

On a man coming up for admission he was " presented," that is, 
seen by the Court who enquired into his position, knowledge, fitness 
and general qualifications, and if approved he paid his fees and 
was sworn. Some of the earlier forms of oath will be seen on 
reference to the Ordinances, and that used up to a very recent 
period was as follows : — 

You shall swear That you shall be True and Loyal to our Sovereign Lady 
Queen Victoria and faithful and true in all lawful things unto the Corporation and 
Company of the Mystery of Barbers of London, whereof you are now made free, 
and accordingly be obedient to the Master and Governors thereof: and as much as in 
you lieth maintain amity and unity therein ; and obey observe and perform all the 
lawful rules statutes and ordinances thereof; and be proportionally contributory to 
the best of your power, to all lawful or reasonable charges contributions and payments 
belonging or necessarily appertaining to you to bear and pay as other Brethren of 
the same Company do. And also you shall obey all manner of summons or warnings 
done, or to be made by the Clerk Beadle or other officer of the said Company 
thereunto assigned in the name of the Master and Governors, having no lawful or 
reasonable excuse to the contrary. All these articles you shall duly, truly, fully and 
faithfully observe, perform and keep to the best of your power. So help you God. 

A few years since, this oath was changed into a declaration, 
the words "You shall declare" being substituted for "You shall 

It was generally the practice, when a member wished to be 
translated to another Company or entirely discharged, that he should 
pay a fine for his dismission. In 1724, Mr. John Bamber, a Surgeon, 
informing the Court that he intended to practise as a Physician 
and to become a Member of the College of Physicians prayed 
for his discharge, which was granted to him on payment of thirty 
guineas, and there are other entries to the like effect. 

The regulations for the governance of the members are 
very fully contained in the Ordinances referred to elsewhere, and 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 255 

it would therefore be tedious to further allude to them here. On 
a perusal of the extracts from the minutes, etc., many curious 
particulars will be seen concerning both freemen and liverymen 
who were liable to be expelled for not being "able" {i.e., solvent) 
and also for not attending in their livery gowns and hoods upon 
summons. There are many and often reminders to the livery to 
appear in their gowns with their hoods upon their shoulders, and 
there are also cases in which individuals were forbidden to wear 
their gowns and hoods by way of punishment. The dress of the 
livery has been well described in Herbert's Livery Companies, and 
Planche's Costume, and we can see it in our great Holbein picture, 
though the dresses worn on that occasion were of a much richer 
description than those in daily use. 

It will be seen that the Livery were constantly going out in 
procession in days of old. There were the services at St. Paul's on 
Christmas and Candlemas days, the Lord Mayor's procession, the 
setting of the watch on Midsummer Eve, the celebration of 5th 
November, the anniversary of Cowrie's Conspiracy, the Election 
Service at St. Olave's, Silver Street, days of thanksgiving and 
humiliation, Royal progresses and Civic pageants. To all of these 
the Livery were bidden to go by precept, and on neglect of the 
summons were fined. In many cases certain of them were appointed 
to ride on horseback with velvet coats and chains of gold about their 
necks, and when not so apparelled they appeared in their gowns of 
black and scarlet, with their hoods upon their shoulders. What would 
we not give for a photograph of one of these gorgeous scenes wherein 
we should see the "liverie of our solempne and grete fraternite " 
riding "ayenst," say, Queen Elizabeth in 1599? 

Our earlier records of freemen are unfortunately lost, the first 
register commencing in the year 1 55 1, but at Guildhall I have 

256 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

discovered several admissions of freemen Barbers to the freedom 
of the City, and here place a few of them upon record. The first 
is in 1 309 : — 

Thomas Orgor barbitonsor admissus fuit in libtate civitatis &: jur° &c die sabl 
p°xima post festfi sci Edmundi Regis & martir anno R. E. fiP R. E. tcio coram Nich'o 
de ffarendon Joh'e de Wyndesore & Henr' de Dunolm Aldris Et dat commitati xx s quos 
p^dci Aldri recep°unt. 

(Translation.) Thomas Orgor, Barber, was admitted into the freedom of the 
City and sworn, etc., on Saturday next after the feast of Saint Edmund the King and 
Martyr in the third year of King Edward, the son of King Edward, before Nicholas de 
Farendon, John de Windsor and Henry de Durham, Aldermen, And gave to the 
Commonalty 20s., which the aforesaid Aldermen received. 

Other entries are much in the same form, a few of which, 
abridged, follow : — 

1309. John de Dodinghurst, Barber, admitted and sworn, etc., 
Friday next after the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle ; paid half 
a mark. 

1 3 10. Ralph the Barber admitted, etc., 1 6th March ; paid 
one mark. 

1 3 10. Gilbert Blaunchard, Barber, admitted, etc., 1st April; 
paid 10s. 

1 3 10. Peter de Pecham, Barber, admitted, etc., 12th May, 
" at the instance of Roger le Brabanzon, a justice of our Lord the 
King " ; paid 5s. 

1 3 to. Galfridus de Trengye, Barber, admitted, etc., Saturday 
before the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist ; paid 10s. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 25J 

131 1. John Syvvard, Barber, admitted, etc., Monday before 
the feast of St. Edmund the King, at the instance of the Lord Walter, 
Bishop of Winchester, Chancellor, " et ideo nichil dat p libtate 
habenda," "and therefore gave nothing to have the freedom ! " 

131 2. Ralph de Bosbery, Barber, admitted, etc., on Monday 
in the feast of St. Valentine ; paid half a mark. 

1312. John de Fynceham, Barber, admitted, etc., 6th April; 
paid i ay. 

13 12. Henry de la Chaumbre, Barber, admitted, etc., on 
Monday in the vigil of the Assumption ; paid half a mark. 

13 1 2. Thomas de Mangrave who was the apprentice of 
Richard le Barber of Bread Street, was admitted on Wednesday 
before the feast of St. James the Apostle, on the testimony of 
Katherine, widow of the said Richard and of Robert de Gloucester, 
the executors of his will ; paid 2s. 6d. 

The "Richard le Barber" mentioned in the last entry was 
Master of the Company in 1308. 

The freemen were formerly enrolled in the "yeomanry" and 
formed a minor fraternity within the Company {see the chapter on 
the Yeomanry). 

All freemen practising as journeymen or assistants, if Barbers, 
Surgeons, or Barber-Surgeons were " sessed at the Hall," that is, 
their wages were settled for them by the Court, and entered in a 
book, together with the period for which they agreed to serve, the 
period being never less than one year nor more than three. These 
men were often called " covenant servants," but they paid quarterage, 

2 L 

2 5 8 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

and were entitled to all the privileges of freedom, excepting that 
they could not take apprentices. 

If a freemen desired to start in business, the By-laws of 1530 
required that he should prove to the Court as an act precedent to his 
so doing, that he was possessed of goods to the value of ten marks. 

A certain class of members called " Foreign Brothers" are very 
frequently alluded to in the Books, and it has been a matter of some 
difficulty to ascertain what their status exactly was, but by collation of 
numerous entries I have come to the conclusion that, with very few 
exceptions, they were all of them practising Surgeons, and that they 
had not been apprenticed to freemen of the Company. If practising 
within the jurisdiction of the Company, they were compelled to join, 
or else to forbear to practise, and it seems that on admission they were 
required to satisfy the Court by the production of their Indentures of 
apprenticeship to Country or other Surgeons that they had duly served 
seven years, and to give ample proof of their skill and knowledge 
before the Examiners ; exceptions to the production of indentures were, 
however, made in favour of those who came with recommendations 
from persons of quality, or of such as had acquired eminence and 
position in the profession. All sea surgeons were " Foreign Brothers" 
and paid a fine (generally seven guineas) on admission, they also paid 
quarterage as freemen, and when they resided within the jurisdiction 
were subject to all the rules and ordinances of the Company as other 
freemen, being frequently fined and imprisoned for malpractice, etc., 
though they were not entitled to the benefit of the charities, to come 
to the dinners, or to confer the right of admission by patrimony upon 
their sons, nor do they seem to have been necessarily free of the City. 
Many Surgeons practising in the Country became Foreign Brothers 
for the sake of the diplomas granted at Barber-Surgeons' Hall. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 259 

There are a few instances of "Barbers" being compelled 

to become Foreign Brothers, for which I am unable to give an 

explanation, unless they be errors of description by the Clerk for 
" Barber-Surgeons." 

Every freeman on admission formerly paid $s. zp/., and every 
apprentice on " presentation " 2s. 6d. For many years the names of 
these persons are entered in the Audit Books, and thus it has been 
possible to ascertain the number admitted extending over a considerable 

It appears that from the year 1603 to 1674, 3,479 persons 
were admitted to the freedom, an average of about 48 per annum ; 
and 9,554 apprentices were presented, an average of about 133 per 
annum. The greatest number of freemen admitted was in the 
year 1647 when 82 came on, and the least in 1666 when but 23 were 
admitted. With apprentices the greatest number presented was in 
the year 1629 when there were 219, and the least again in the 
year of the Great Fire when there were but 54. 

Between 1674 and 1745, about 75 freemen and 162 apprentices 
would be the yearly average. 

After the separation in 1745, and indeed down to the beginning 
of this century, a respectable average was maintained, being about 
40 freemen and 60 apprentices per annum. 

In the hundred years between 1746 and 1845, 2,964 persons 

were admitted to the freedom and 4,298 apprentices were presented, 

being an average of about 30 of the former and 43 of the latter 

for each year. The least number of freemen coming on was in 

1845, when only 5 were admitted, and of apprentices in 1844, when 

but 4 were presented. 

2 l 2 

260 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The apprentices always seem to have been a fruitful source 
of trouble both to their Masters and to the Company, and numerous 
are the entries of their floggings and imprisonments. The term 
of servitude was generally seven years, but in a few instances it 
was eight and even nine, the age at which boys were taken was 
usually fourteen, and before the Indentures were sealed the boy 
was " presented " to the Court that it might be seen that he was 
clean and not deformed or diseased. If approved, the Indentures 
were executed and recorded, and in all cases the apprentice actually 
lived with his Master, who covenanted to find him meat, drink, 
apparel, lodging and all other necessaries according to the custom 
of the City. If the boy's master died or for other reasons was 
unable to continue his business, it became necessary for him to be 
" turned over " to another master, free of the Company, and that 
such turn over should be approved and recorded, otherwise the 
apprentice was disqualified for his freedom. When his term 
expired the Master brought him to the Hall and " testified " 
to his faithful service, whereupon he became entitled to the 
freedom on payment of a nominal fine. Sometimes Masters 
refused to make their apprentices free, in which cases the Court 
enquired into the circumstances, and acted in accordance with the 
merits of the case. 

From the earliest times the custom has prevailed to admit 
women to the freedom, mostly by apprenticeship, but also by 
patrimony, and these freewomen bound their apprentices, both boys 
and girls, at the Hall ; of course the ladies were not admitted 
to the livery, but otherwise they had the same privileges as 
freemen so far as the same were compatible with their sex. 
At the present time (1890) there is one freewoman of the Barbers' 

c/Jimals of the Barber-Surgeons. 



jjpJSgllJj RDERED 17th July, 1551. That Water Lynche whiche was 
premise w"' John Tholmwoode Barborsurgeon shalbe and ys 
contented to serve Thomas Woolf as a prentice from the daye 
above written untyll the viij" 1 yere of King Edward the sixte and 
so the sayd Water Lynche his yeres to be fully ended and ronne 
out at the feaste of all Saints as may appere by his Indenture. 

19th September, 1552. Ordered that when any prentise dothe goo awaye from 
his M r the same M r shall bring in his Indenture and here to remayne tyll the prentice 
come agayne and to be regestred. 

It was also ordered that the Beadle should make out all 
Indentures of apprenticeship, and any one else presuming to do so 
should pay a fine of $s. ^d. 

27th April, 1556. It was ordered that no apprentice should 
wear a beard of beyond fifteen days' growth, and that on breach of this 
order the master of the apprentice was to pay a fine of half a mark. 

15th October, 1566. Here in this Court John James the appnts of John Shryve 
for pylferyng, & so here he had his correction.' 

27th May, 1 567. Robert Cholmeley complained of his apprentice 
for y' he doth not his worke as he ought & for his other ill demeanors And so in 

the p°sents of this Court the saide app°nts humbled hym upon his knees and p^myssed 

his amendment. 

1567. The quarrels between masters and apprentices about 
this period were numerous, and occupied a great deal of the time of 
the Court, who in dealing with them generally pursued a policy of 
reconciliation and made the parties friends again. In certain cases, 

1 That is, he was flogged. 

262 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

masters were fined for ill-treating apprentices, whilst some of the latter 
had their Indentures cancelled or "torn in Court" and were either 
whipped or ordered to behave better, or to find new masters. 

22nd August, 1569. Here was Rich Upton Playntyf agaynst his apjints \V" 
Fyshe for that he ranne awaye frome his said M r the xxj"' of the former moneth and tooke 
w"' hym s°ten instruments for surgery & other things more, \v d ' p^tyculers were here 
p°sently sene & by the said W" Fyshe confessed and that he had no cawse to go frome 
his said M r but that he wolde have gon to the sea and accordynge to his desert had 
correction and punnyshment unto auncyent custom w"' roddes. 

22nd November, 1569. Memorand'' upon the xxij 1 '- day of November 1569 
in the afternowne Gyles Swalldell thappentC of Chrystofor Swalldell for goyng forth 
of his maisters house at unlawfull tymes and houres & in evell company wastinge 
and consumyng his M re grocery wares also therebyc he the appntf then had the 
correction of this hall accordyng to his desertf as the justice & equytie by the M r & 
gov°nors thoughte at the request of his said M r to be most mete and convenient. And so 
the said gyles Swalldell appntf hathe promysed here that he wylbe a good faythfull & 
trusty servant unto his said M r and never hereafter offende any more. 

1 st June, 1570. Here was John thappntf of Thomas Wayte (for) abusying of 
Rog r Laborne & his wyfe and his M r also and he had favorable correction for his offenc^. 

John possibly thought it rather unfavourable. 

By the next entry it would appear that Master Ralph Soda 
found the society of the ladies more congenial to his tastes than 
the practice of shaving and bloodletting. 

15th February, 1572. Here was Henry Lusshe and witnessed how that his 
appntice Rafe Soda ranne awaye ffrom hym and contract hym self to three wemen and 
was asked at Westm' in the church and also had delt unhonestly w" 1 his mayde srVnt. 

19th May, 1573. Here was John Newsam and he was appoynted to brynge 
in his fyne for not p n sentynge his apprentice. 

Here was John Appowell and he was appoynted the lyke. 

c/limals of the Barber-Surgeons. 263 

9th June, 1573. Here was Olyv Pecocke the covenaunte S'Vaunt of Allen 
Colly beinge comytted to Warde uppon Wednesday last on M r Warden Robynsons 
comaundment for goynge ffrom his master ffrom the Sounday untill Wednesdaye next 
and he was nowe relesed so that his master paynge his wages he shall serve hym. 

2 1 st July, 1573. Pecocke complained to the Court against his 
master " ffor not well usinge hym in beatinge hym." 

The next is a quaint piece of dry humour — 

6th October, 1573. Here was an order taken between Danyell Botham and 
his app°ntice that he should well and trewly s°ve his M r and not to make any more 
complainte or trouble the M rs any more, and yf he do nott s°ve his M r accordyngly he 
shall have the Almes of the howsse. 

The " Alms of the house" were on some other like occasions 
promised to troublesome apprentices. 

18th October, 1573. Here was John Staples and brought in his apprentyze for 
evyll behavio r by hym comytted in his masters house w"' his masters mayde and he made 
his submyssion on his knees and asked his master forgevenes in the courte, and he was 
forgeven uppon condycon that he should amend well & faythfullye w"'out farther 
complaint or elles to have the ponnyshment of the howsse. 

nth December, 1599. In the matter in controversie betwixt Juliance Yonge & 
John Bradley his apprentice it is ordered that the sayd Yonge shall take his sayd 
apprentice into his service agayne And that the sayd Yonge shall use him as hee oughte 
to doe And that the sayd apprentice shall well and honestly behave himself towards 
his sayd M r - 

22nd January, 1600. This daye Daniell Hinkesman brought in his fine of xl s 
for sufferinge his apprentice to dwell w"' a gentleman. 

This apprentice had probably been let out to hire as a valet by 
Hinkesman, who received his wages instead of teaching him his trade. 

264 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

20th February, 1600. Noah Bayley having been complained 
of for striking his apprentice Andrew Mathew, he was fined 405., and 
at the next Court Mathew had license to sue Bayley at the Common 
law for " breaking his head." 

17th June, 1600. This daye it was ordered that George Langton apprentice to 
M' ffrederick shalbe comitted to the compter for his unreverent behaviour towardes his M r ' 

7th August, 1600. John Sares is to be called in question for geveinge wages 
to his apprentice. 

2nd December, 1600. This daye uppon complaynt made to this Courte it was 
ordered that Henry Needham should put awaye his apprentice Willm Webbe for that it 
was then apparantly p n ved that hee is marryed w"'in his terine And it was thereuppon 
furth r ordered that the p^sentacon should be discharged by a vacat thereuppon to 
be entered. 

5th May, 1601. This daie the wiefe of Thomas Asbridge decessed did 
complaine of Marke Nurse her apprentice for absentinge himselfe from her service 
and other his misdemeanors towardes her All w ch uppon his humble suite and promise 
of amendment was forgeeven him. 

1 6th June, 1601. This daie it is ordered that Thomas Shurwin apprentice 
to John Urvey shalbe for ever utterly dischardged of his terme of apprentisship for 
that it appeareth to the Maisters uppon hearinge of their controversie that he hath 
the said apprentice colorablie. 

30th June, 1 601. This daye Robert Wallis is dischardged from his apprenti- 
ship for that it appeared to this Court that his maister did not mayntayne him w th 
sufficient meate drynck and apparrell. 

22nd September, 1601. This daye uppon complaynt made by Jelly 

apprentice to Hughe ffell that the said ffell had put him oute of his service before 
hee had acquainted the M 15 therew th It was ordered that the said ffell should receive 
his said apprentice in to his service againe & that hee should p^sently inroll him. 
And that the said ffell should appeare before the M R at the next Courte. 

oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 2 65 

3rd November, 1601. This daye uppon hearinge of the Controversie betwixt 
John Howe & his apprentice It is ordered that hee shall take home his said apprentice 
and use him well hereafter And whereas the said Apprentice hath complayned for 
that the said Howe dothe not exercyse the said apprentice in his trade of Barbery 
& Surgery It is furth' ordered that if the said Howe shall not take a shoppe and use 
his trade before Christemas next that the said apprentice shalbe turned over to anoth r 
of the same arte. 

1 6th March, 1602. This daye it is p°mised & undertaken before the M rs of this 
Company by Robert Leadbeater that hee the said Robert shall & will at the expiracon of 
the apprentisheep of Henry Edwards his apprentice geve unto the said Henry twoe 
suites of decent apparrell & a cloke. 

20th April, 1602. I Michaell Braye doe p''mise and undertake That at the ende 
& expiracon of the tearme of apprenticeship of George Parkins ray Apprentice I will 
geve unto him a new suite of apparrell viz one dublett one p° of hose one hatt one p of 
stockins and one Cloke of decent apparrell In witnes whereof I have hereunto put my 

22nd February, 1603. This daye it is ordered that Thomas Mownsley shall for 
his disobedience to his M r be comitted to the Compter. 

1 6th April, 1605. This daye Peter Saunderson certiefied the Court that hee 
had offered to inroll his apprentice before the Chamberlin and it was denyed him 
because the apprentice could not at the end of his terme accomplishe the Age of xxiij 

4th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that John Udall shall at the next 
Courte bringe in his fine of xl s for puttinge a waye his Apprentice Tho. Hobbes w th out 
o r M ri consent (see 18th June). 

4th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Roger Kiffin shalbe dischardged 
of his apprentiship w th Richard Bonner for that hee wanteth meate drinck & apparrell 
And hee is to finde him selfe a nother M' of this Company. (See 25th June.) 

1 8th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that John Udall shalbe committed to 
the Compter for his contempt. 1 

1 The contempt being that Udall having " put away" his Apprentice, (i.e., had him locked up in Bridewell, 
without the leave of the Court,) and being fined 40s-. for that offence, had refused to pay his fine. 

2 M 

266 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

25th June, 1605. Richard Bonner is to bringe in his apprentices Roger Kiffins 
Indenture at the next Courte or ells hee is to be comitted to the Compter. 

25th June, 1605. This daye Thomas Clemence was fined at x s for that hee was 
not bound apprentice by the Clark of this Company. 

24th September, 1605. This day it is ordered that David Vaughan apprentice 
to Richard Davis shalbe p°ntlie dischardged from his said M r for the residue of his terme 
to come for that his said M r hath given him unlawfull correction as it was affirmed and 
hath not trayned him up in the trade that he used being Barbinge and Surgery. And is 
to bring in the Apprentices indenture att the next Courte or ells to be comitted to the 
Compter for his contempt. And the app°ntice is in the meane tyme to continue w th his 
freindC And is not to s°ve any p°son that useth the trade of silck weavinge any more w th 
in the liberties of London. 

7th January, 1606. This day it is ordered that John Browne and his apprentice 
be here at the next Courte. And he is to be comaunded from our M rs to discharge his 
app°ntice out of Bridewell w cl> he holdeth there And then to be before o r said M rs at their 
next Court both he and his apprentice. 

14th January, 1606. John Browne is to bringe in his fine for puttinge away his 
app'Vitice \v"'out the M rs order. 

5th July, 1608. This daye in the Controversie betwixt Nicholas Braye and 
Humfrey Pittf It is ordered for that the M rs doe fynde that the Apprentice is not kept as 
hee ought to be but is lowsie and also his M r for want of change of apparrell And that 
therefore wee doe not fynde him a fit M r It is ordered that if the said Nicholas Braye doe 
not hereafter use his apprentice in Better Order that then the apprentice shalbe turned 
over to anoth' freeman of this Company. 

23rd May, 1609. This daye Richard Tyler broughte in his fine accordinge to 
a former order for puttinge awaye (i.e., imprisoning) his apprentice w*out the M" order 
And it was mittigated to xx s - 

19th November, 1611. At this Court it is ordered that John Todd shall on the 
next tuesdaies Court bring in his fyne of 40 s for that he did not bynde an app°ntice w ch is 
now w th him according to the Custome of this hovvse. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 26 7 

19th November, 1611. At this Court Robert Hawley the app°ntice of Thomas 
Clarke was for his stubbornes & other imsemely pranckf by him used towardf his 
M r as also for his lewd & bad service brought before the M' s whereupon he promising 
of amendem' his faultf was for this tyme remitted. 

22nd February, 16 13. In the complaint made by William Richardson against 
his M r John Sabyn being heard & proved at this Court by his owne confession that 
Sabyn did use unlawfull correction to his app'Vitice. It is ordered that the M r shall 
not use hereafter any such unlawfull correction for if he doe & his app ntice make 
complaint thereof to the M rs of this Company, then the app°ntice shall be taken 
awaye from him And further it is ordered that the app n ntice shall doe his M r just 
& true service, And that the said Sabyn shall the next Court daie bring in his fyne 
for not inrowling of his said app°ntice w ,b in the tyme lymitted by the ordynancf 
of this howse. 

22nd February, 161 3. This daye Joseph Boreman made promise to p n forme 
such order as the M" did heretofore set downe between him and his app n ntice namely 
that he will give to the same app°ntice two suitf of apparell fitt for such an app°ntice 
accordinge to the true meaning of the same w"'out any fraud. 

27th September, 1614. At this Court Raph Dixon the app°ntice of our M r 
M r Hassall for manie lewd misdemeano" & for getting a woman w th child, being an 
appnntice shold have had the correction of the howse, but upon consideration had 
he is to be sent to bridewell. 

23rd January, 1615. In the complaint made by Margery Stokes in the 
behalf of her grand child John Taft who is th° apprentice of one John Hedlowe for that 
the said Hedlow haveing receaved w th the said appnntice the some of Tenn poundf doth 
now turne him away & refuseth to restore the monie w ch he had w'" him. It is therefore 
by this Court ordered that the said Hedlow shall either receave the same app°ntice 
into his service agayne or otherwise repaie the said some of Tenn poundes wherefore 
he promised unto this Court to take the same app°ntice agayne into his service. 

14th March, 1615. In the matter of complaint made by the weif of one Xpofer 
Greene who is now gone to the East indies of & about her servaunt or appnntice for that 
he kepeth her shop & doth gyve her no allowaunce toward^ the kepeing of her out of the 
getting^ in the same shop w ch being duely herd at this Court It is ordered that the said 
app°ntice shall from henceforth weekelie make unto his M ns a trew &: just accompt of 

2 M 2 

268 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

such monie as he shall gett in the same shop & that from henceforth he shall be at the 
appoyntment of his mistris & of the M re of this companie and his M rls shall have & 
enjoy all such benifitt as shalbe gotten by the said shopp. 

14th November, 1615. In the complaynt made by the servant of William 
Corbett against his M r w ch beinge examyned at this Court It is aparyant that the boy 
hath very stubburnlie & naughtielie behaved himself unto his M r Whereupon it is this 
daie ordered that the boy shall goe home agayne w th his M r & behave himselfe more 
honestlie then formerlie he hath done w ch the boy promiseth to doe. 

1 8th February, 161 6. In the complaint made by M ris Wootten against her 
app^ntice Thomas Hill for his neclect of service & for pleaing at dice & whoring It 
is therefore ordered that the boy be corrected. 

1 8th February, 1616. In the complaint made by David Richardson against 
his M r ffletcher for lack of vittualls It is ordered that ffletcher shall take the boy home 
& kepe him as an app°ntice ought to be kept. 

There are several records of masters being fined for keeping 
more than three apprentices, the usual penalty being ,£5, though this 
was sometimes mitigated on petition. 

13th June, 1626. This daye John Pinder made complaint against Janson his 
app°ntice, this Courte caused the vizard and coate to be brought into the Parlor, and 
the apprentice submitted himselfe to his Maister soe that his punishment was forborne. 

For some particulars as to the vizard coate and bulbegger, 
see p. 393. The mere sight of them had a softening effect upon 
Master Janson, as also upon George Tether, who seems to have 
caught a glimpse of them next year. 

7th August, 1627. This daye the weife of Salomon Carr made complaint 
against her apprentice George Tether formerly bound to Jeffery Baskervile deceased 
and he had the bulbegger showed him, whoe upon his humble submission to his M ris was 
spared in hoape of his better service to her hereafter. 

20th November, 1632. Martine Stamp made complaint a«it John Scott by 
peticon to this Court thereby intimateing that his son Scotts app°ntice is nowe kept and 

o/l minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 269 

imployed onely for digging delveing & planting and pruneing potatoes & tobacco in the 
Barmoothoes Hand. (Query Bermudas.) 

28th January, 1635. It is ordered that Jonas Gargrave shalbe prosecuted to be 
disfraunchised at the charge of this house in regard he tooke a married maun apprentice 

Mr. Heydon's apprentice, next referred to, was doubtless a gay 
and swaggering young gentleman, and the Court in meteing out its 
amusing sentence must have been conscious of touching him on a 
sore place. 

9th August, 1647. Mr. Heydon complayneing to this Court of his apprentice 
here present in Court ffor his evill and stubborne Behavior towards him and frequent 
absences out of his service in Day time and in late houres at night The said apprentice 
being in Court to answer to the same did rudely and most irreverently behave himselfe 
towards his said M r and the whole Court in sawcy language and behaviour useing severall 
Oathes protesting that he will not serve his M r whatever shall come of it This Court did 
therefore cause the Haire of the said apprentice (being undecently long) to be cut shorter. 

8th August, 1729. It is ordered that the Clarke do sue M r - Lee M r - Pemble and 
M r - Bonzer for binding their Apprentices by Scriveners and not at the Hall. 

4th August, 1 741. It is ordered that James Parnell Stevenson who was this day 
bound an apprentice to Tho s - fford be brought here 12 months hence by his Ma r that the 
Court may be satisfyed of his being better improved in his Learning. 

5th November, 1 791. Elizabeth Conyers was apprenticed to 
Elizabeth Castle and presented and bound in Court. This is but one 
of numerous entries of girl apprentices. 

The Registers of apprentices were for a long period kept in 

Latin, e.g. : 

28th July, 1658. Mathew Moy fift M.M. nuper de coin Staford vintener 
defunct: po: se app. Tho. Pace Watchmaker pro 7 annis a die dat. 

The following is an example of a boy being bound to a free- 
woman of the Company. 


^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

23rd June, 1658. Daniel Alderson fitt Jacobi A. nuper Civ. et B. S. Londini 
defunct po: se app. matri suo Katherine Alderson pro 8 annis a die dat. 

And here is an instance of a girl, the daughter of a "gentleman," 
being bound to a Barber-Surgeon and to his wife. 

1 8th December, 1660. Katharina Bowghy fit. Georgii B. de Addley in coin 
Stafford gent, defunct po: se ajip W'"° Bennett B.C. et Martha; uxori ejus pro 7 annis a 
die dat. 


HE earliest recorded fine on admission to the freedom 
was £3, one Martin Partridge being sworn in 
on 26th July, 1 55 1, when he paid £1 and gave 
security for the remainder. 

10th September, 1551. John Bryckett, 
" toothe drawer," was admitted " a brother into this house " and 
paid £1. 

10th November, 1 55 1 . On this day four freemen were 
admitted paying respectively 6s. 8d., 10s., 2s., iod., and another man 
paid nil, which indicates that the fines on admission were variable 
and at the pleasure of the Court. 

19th September, 1552. It was ordered that free journeymen 
should not pay quarterage until such time as they set up for themselves 
and kept house. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 271 

4th July, 1566. It was ordered that in future any one seeking 
admission to the freedom if " Inglyshe borne" should pay £\ and 
any " alyan or straynger " £$. 

7th October, 1567. In this Courte Rich Morrys upon his fre makinge 
p'myssed to gcve the M ri a hucke. 

21st October, 1567. In this Courte Thomas Symons and Willm fferrat are 
swome and admytted brethren of this Company and are lycenced to sett open shoppe 
as parteners to gether w"'oute Smythefelde bars. 

2nd June, 1573. Here was Edward Duffeeld of London a practioner in 

phisick & Surgery and required to be a brother of this Company and yt was agreed 
that he should pay xl s in hand and other xl s at S'- James daye. 

9th June, 1573. Here was Gabriel Petrol for not being admytted a Brother 

[he] occupynge Surgerye w th out admyttaunce and he promysed he would and yt was 

agreed that he should at a moneth ende bringe in xl s in p°te of payment of v 1 ' w"'out 
any farther delaye. 

3rd June, 1600. Henry Wheelis is appoynted to p°cure his M r to make him 
free the next Court or to geve ov° his shop in long lane yf not then to be comitted 
to the compter. 

22nd July, 1600. This daye Henry Wilson of Ratcliffe and Mathewe Eaton 
of S' Bartholomew in West Smythfeyld were suters to the M re of this Company to 
become broth rs of the same whereuppon they are by this Court injoyned to geve their 
answere the next Court what gratificacon they will bestowe of the Company. 

6th November, 1604. This daie Vincent Lowe became humble suiter to this 
Companie to be admytted into the same by redempcon to w ch request this Courte hath 
consented p^vided hee paie to this Companie in gratificacon v 1 ' of lawfull money of 
England and doe bestowe a dinn' uppon the Assistant^ on Thursday next. 


2j2 o/liiiials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

5 th February, 1605. This daie it is ordered that Edward Carclill Inholder 
shalbe translated from his Company to this payinge to the M rs to the use of this 
Company iiij 1 ' and beareinge the ordenary chardge. 

9th April, 1605. It is this daye ordered that Raphe Parsons a freeman of this 
Company and Thomas Sampson Edward Squier and Robert Hoddy late servants & 
apprentices to xpofer Thompson shall fynde them M re in this Company to be turned over 
unto before whitson tyde next And that they shall continue no longer w th their mistres 
because shee is nowe marryed to a Grocer who is not free of this Company. 

29th January, 16 10. fforasmuch as Tobye Johnson would not give consent to 
this Court that James Kent 1 should be made a freeman The Court have thought fytt the 
said James should be at this Court sworn e a freeman of this Company for that ytt cannot 
appeere to this Court that the said Johnson can prove any materiall thinge against the 
said Jame to debarr him of his freedome. 

14th January, 1611. This daie William Tavemor the late app°tice of Widdowe 
Sanderson did before the M' s of this Company promise that he would not at any tyme 
hereafter set up a barbers shopp in any place w th in two p°isshes = at the least where the 
said Widdowe Sanderson dwelleth or keepeth shopp uppon w ch promise soe by him made 
the said Widdowe Sanderson is contented to make him a freeman of this cittie not 
w ,h standing he hath untill October next to serve. 

2nd July, 161 2. This daie at this Court yt is ordered that Edward Squior the 
Dyer shall not be translated from this Company unto the Company of the Dyers for that 
if this howse shall give consent unto him maney others of this Company as well Dyers 
& grocers as other tradf would sue to have the like kindenes. 

9th January, 161 5. At this Court, one John Mathews, "an 
oculist," made suit for his admission by redemption — 

w ch this Court did consent unto conditionallie to gyve this howse a great beare 
bowle sutable to the rest of the great beare bowles w ch he consented unto. 

1 His late apprentice. * Parishes. 

c/J minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 



RDERED 19th September, 1552, that Peter Saxton and Thomas 
Dixon shalbe dysmiste of the Clothinge for their yll demeanor 
and behavyor And also Mathew Johnson because he ys not 
habull. 1 

5th November, 1555. Ordered that Henry Pemarton 
shall not weare his Lyvery hoode nor paye no maner of quartrage 
unto this house but shalbe cleane exempted out of the same. 

26th March, 1558. Robert Foster, Robert Grove, and Thomas 
Barnet were expelled the Livery "because they are not able." 

4th July, 1566. It was ordered that the Livery from thence- 
forth should not exceed fifty persons. 

3rd December, 1566. Thomas Lambkyn and John Morryt 
appeared before the Court and testified against Edward Parke for 
that the said Edward — 

saide he wolde not come to the Courte beynge warned & y 1 yf the M r comytted 
hym to warde he wolde brynge the M r before the Lorde cheefe Justice And it is 
ordered y l the saide Parke shall & is upon his humble submission remytted.- 

26th September, 1581. It was agreed that ev°y one in the Lyverie should go 
decently in gownes all a like at all metinges and assemblies. 

30th June, 1601. This daye Abraham Allen John Hassold Richard Eade & 
Henry Oseyld lately taken into the livery of this Company p n sented themselves in their 
liv'y gownes and the M r accordinge to order placed their hoods uppon their showld re ' 

6th May, 1602. Roger Jenkins, free of the Weavers' Company 
and an "admitted broth r in the practize of Surgery," applied to be 
admitted to the freedom, and upon payment of ^10 was made free and 
taken into the Clothing. 

Able, i.e., solvent. 

Be forgiven. 

2 N 

2J4 c/lnihils of the Barber-Surgeons. 

7th June, 1602. This daye it was ordered that forasmuch as Richard Samborne 
one of the livery of this Company had used divers opprobrius & undecent woordes of 
M r Newsam That the said Richard should forbeare the wearinge of his livery & hud untill 
hee had ord r therefore from the M rs of this Company. 

1 6th August, 1602. This daye Richard Howlden and Thomas Grig were 
admitted into the clothinge of this mistery and were commaunded to p°vide them 
necessary apparrell for the same. 

8th November, 1604. This daye Dominick Lumley became humble suiter to 
this Courte to be dischardged of the office of Steward and M r of the Anothomie and of 
the Liv°y and all officers w"'inne the same and in consideration thereof hee is to paie 
tenn poundf to be converted into three peecf of plate as a guifte for his dischardge. 

5th February, 1605. This daye Richard Cade & Richard Holden were fyned 
for not beinge at Powles' in theire Lyveryes & theire hoodes on Candlemas daye last. 

22nd January, 1606. This daie Roger Buckley & Richard Wood Junio' for 
that they dwell in the Cuntrey and have not for long tyme gyven their attendaunce in 
their lyveryes accordeing to order are absolutely dismissed owt of the lyvery of this 

2 1 st August, 1609. This day Andrew Wheatley was fined to xij' 1 for attendinge 
in a fallinge band w"' his livery gowne w ch he accordinglie payd. 

26th October, 1612. This daie it is ordered that from hensforth the lyv'ie of 
this Company maie at their meeting^ out of this howse weare their hates' w" 1 their 
lyv°ies Any order heretofore made to the contrary notwithstanding. 

29th December, 161 5. Four liverymen admitted this day 
paid £2 each as a fine, and fifteen others paid £5 each. Humphrey 
Downinge, who had been chosen a Liveryman, and would not accept 
the Clothing, was fined and paid ^10. 

27th January, 161 7. It was ordered that from henceforth 
the Liverymen were not to appear at the Hall in their gowns and 

1 St. raul ! s. - Hats. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 275 

hoods on Christmas, Twelfth and Candlemas days " as formerlie 
they were accustomed to doe," but at their seats at St. Paul's instead. 

13th September, 1621. The livery was generally composed 
of an equal number of Barbers and of Surgeons ; on this day it 
was ordered — 

That at the next choise of a new Lyvcry there shalbe chosen a Barber more 
than a Surgeon for that M r Kellett hath not accepted of the place as yett, if he shall 
not accept thereof. 

1636. A great many Liverymen were chosen this year, 
apparently for the purpose of assisting by their fines, the fund for the 
building of the Anatomical Theatre ; from various entries at this 
period it would seem that when a freeman desired to be excused taking 
the Livery, he was obliged to take an oath before the Masters of his 
inability to pay the fine. 

19th May, 1637. This Court upon divers treatise with Abraham Purrott a 
brother of this Companie being chosen into the livery by a former Court &: he being 
summoned to appeare this daye by agreem' yet came not and hath alsoe formerly 1 
answered that he will not hold the place of a liveryman nor paye the fine but would onely 
give a peece of plate of v u to this house as his gift in full satisfaction of all his fines & 
places, \v dl this Court doth think to be farr short And therefore this Court doth impose 
and fine the said Abraham Purrott at xx 1 ' according to the ordinances confirmed by the 
Lords & by the Statute. 

Several others were from time to time similarly fined, both in 
the 17th and y 8th centuries. 

2nd August, 1737. At this Court Robert Young who was the apprentice of 
James Phillips Surgeon was admitted into the freedom of the Company by service and 
was sworn, and the said M r Young at the same time took the Livery, and his master 
M r Phillips out of his own bounty and a just sense of the diligent and faithfull services of 
the said Robert Young during his Apprenticeship did not only pay the charges of the 
said M r Young's freedom but did likewise bestow upon him his fine for the Livery being 
ten pounds. 

1 Formally. 


cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

29th October, 1751. It is ordered that upon all future days for swearing in the 
Lord Mayor of this City at Westminster when this Company shall have their Stand as 
usual No Liveryman shallbe admitted into the same without leave of the Master unless 
he shall walk in the Publick Procession cloathed in his proper Livery gown and hood 
according to his summons. 

3rd October, 1752. It was further ordered — 

That two men and a constable shall be hired to guard the Stand and see that the 
said Order be complied with. 

9th November, 1765. Several liverymen notwithstanding 
former orders to the contrary, having appeared on the Company's Stand 
on Lord Mayors' days without their gowns and hoods, it was ordered 
that any liveryman transgressing in the like in future, should be fined 


HE Yeomanry of the Barber-Surgeons appear to 
have had a most chequered existence, having been 
" established " and " put downe " several times, 
until finally they appear to have died out both 
in constitution and in name. 

The Yeomanry answered exactly to the class of Members who 
are now styled " Freemen," and for a long period were the most 
numerous body in the Company. In early times the numbers of 
the Livery or Clothing were strictly limited, and under the Tudors 
and Stuarts rarely exceeded fifty, but as the persons who were com- 
pelled to take up their freedom, and those who came in voluntarily 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 277 

or by patrimony and servitude have always been a numerous section, 
it appears to have been considered politic to give a constitution to 
these inferior members of the Mystery, and consequently a Yeomanry, 
or Company within the Company was set up, and to this the new 
freeman was admitted after he had been presented and sworn before 
the Masters or Governors of the Clothing. 

The Court of the Company framed the Ordinances for the 
Yeomanry, and whilst delegating to them many of their own privileges, 
as, for instance, the power to levy fines, and to summarily commit 
offenders to prison, they always seem to have retained a very tight and 
jealous hand over them, and were constantly interfering with the 
Wardens of the Yeomanry. 

The Yeomanry had their own four Wardens and Court of 
Assistants, their Beadle and mace, common box, standing cups and 
other silver plate, their annual dinner, and sometimes, when in a 
flourishing condition, no less than four dinners in the year, their 
" corrector " for apprentices, and they also possessed the choice 
privilege of collecting the quarterage from their members. Under 
such auspicious circumstances, it could hardly be otherwise than that, 
in process of time, they should become both presumptuous and 
audacious and thus provoke inevitable collision with the Ruling 
body of the Company. 

The Wardens of the Yeomanry at one period had designated 
themselves, or certainly encouraged others to describe them, as 
" The Wardens of the Barber-Surgeons," an assumption not to be 
tolerated, and, like their Masters on the Clothing, had been accustomed 
to go to their homes (after their gatherings and feasts) in state, 
accompanied by a " trayne or traynes " ; these acts of presumption 
called forth the restraining order of the 15th September, 1588 {vide 

2yS cAnmils of the Barber-Surgeons. 

post). Later on we find that they went "in searche to see what 
ser'vnts some firemen of the Companie had, w ch they ought not to do," 
they gave way to too much feasting and arbitrarily exercised their 
powers of fine and imprisonment, all which offences brought them 
reprimands, and somewhere about the year 1604 their temporary 
extinguishment. They were, however, soon after re-erected, but in 
the year 1635 permanently "disestablished and disendowed." 

Although the Constitution of the "Yeomanry" was then 
abolished, the appellation was retained for over 200 years after, though 
merely as a traditional distinctive name synonymous with that of 
" freemen." Thus, the whifflers for Lord Mayor's day were always 
chosen out of the "Yeomanry," and members of the "Yeomanry" 
are continually spoken of as being chosen into the Livery. 

In the Audit Book, 1 847-1 848, this ancient term is used for the 
last time in respect of the receipts for quarterage, after this the 
designation becomes " freemen." 

19th September, 1552. It is condescendyd and agreed that there shalbe no 
more yomanry of the said Company of Barbors Surgeons. 

1st October, 1555. It was agreed "that the yomanrye of the 
sayed Company of Barbors and Surgeons shalbe establisshed and 
set up agayne and be in as full strenght force and power as ever 
yt was before the plucking downe of the same," and articles or 
ordinances for the Yeomanry were enacted. As, however, these 
articles are excessively verbose, the following descriptions and 
extracts will suffice : — 

Article 1. Out of the Yeomanry were to be chosen four Wardens 
annually, and named respectively, the uppermost, second, third and 
youngest Wardens. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 2J9 

Article 2. One of the Yeomanry to be appointed Beadle of 
the Yeomanry to execute summonses, etc. 

Article 3. The Wardens of the Yeomanry to bring in once a 
year to the Masters and Governors of the Clothing, an account of 
monies remaining in their hands to be delivered to the new Wardens, 
and to be "kept and bestowed as they w'in themselves shall thinke 
yt meete and convenyent to the helpe and comforte of them w'in the 
yomanry of Barbors and Surgeons." The Wardens were also to 
present the new Wardens to the Masters or Governors for approval 
within eight days after being chosen. The Masters or Governors 
were to " have nothinge to dooe withe the monye of the yomanry." 

Article 4. If the Masters or Governors should borrow any 
monies of the Yeomanry they were to repay on a day to be agreed 
upon " the sayed some so borrowed w 1 thanks geving." 

Article 5. The Wardens on the day of Election of Masters or 
Governors of the Clothing shall — 

come to the dynner at the hall in their best apparrell at the daye appointed 
whiche is the mondaye senighte before Barthelmew daye, and when the M r and governors 
of the Clothinge doo gooe and choose the new M r and governors the cheif wardein of the 
yomanrye shall beare the cup before the M r The seconde wardein shall beare the cupp 
before the uppermoste governor of the clothinge. The thirde wardein of the yomary 
shall beare the cupp before the seconde governor of the clothinge and the yongest 
wardein of the yomanry shall beare the cupp before the yongest governor of the clothinge 
in knowledging of the setting up of the yomanrye agayne. 

In the event of sickness or lawful absence, others were to be 
appointed to this duty. 

And furthermore that noen of the wardeins of the yomanrye of barbors and 
surgeons doo presume to goo aboute to make searche to see in anye of the Companyes 
houses to knowe what prentizes they have or journeymen as the M r and governors doo 

2So zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of the clothinge whoo have aucthoritie so to dooe. Yf the wardeins of the yomanry be 
taken or justelye proved that they doo soo, to forfaycte at every tyme so doying to the 
hall vj 1 ' xiij s iiij' 1 

Article 6. The Wardens of the Yeomanry were to collect the 
quarterage of freemen (3^. per quarter) and of " fforyners " (6d. per 
quarter), and duly pay same over to the Masters and Governors, and 
books of account were to be kept by the Wardens. Note. — In 
practice this article was varied, as the Yeomanry kept the quarterage 
and " compounded " with the Masters for a fixed annual sum. 

Article 7. The Masters were to pay the Wardens of the 
Yeomanry £\ which had been "advanced by them in 1543 for 
provysyon of wheete for the Cytie," and which sum had been 
recently refunded by the City. 

Article 8. The Yeomanry were to have the use of the chamber 
"where the Lecture ys reade every Tewysday " whenever they please 
to consult therein. 

Article 9. These Articles were to be written on parchment, 
sealed and delivered to the Wardens of the Yeomanry. 

Article 10. The Masters were to give notice to the Wardens 
of the Yeomanry of any rules which they from time to time should 
make touching the craft. 

Article 11. The rules and ordinances of the Company were to 
be read to the Yeomanry three times in every year, viz. : at Candlemas, 
in May and at Lammas. 

Article 12. The Yeomanry were to obey all the rules and 
ordinances now made or to be made. 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 281 

16th October, 1555. The first four Wardens of the Yeomanry 
were presented to the Masters, their names being Edward Hewet, 
John Surbut, George Corraunte (Corron) and Thomas Buston (Burston). 

1 2th October, 1557. It was ordered : — 

That the Wardens of the yeomanry allwaise for the tyme beinge and by theire 
Assistant^ shall Elect and chuse every yeare to (two) w"'in themsylffs to be CoostfJ' of 
the Lyberary and of the Instrmentf \v ch by the M rs and Governors it was thought good 
and most Convenyent that those too whyche are maisters of the Anathomys to be Elected 
and Chosen the sayde Cowstf (of the) Lyberary and Instrumetis, and the Wardens of the 
yeomanry for the tyme beinge shall delyv" and geve the kayse of the lyberarye and of the 
instrument howse unto those whyche they have Chosen to be Coustose thereof. And 
(further allso That the sayde Wardens of the yeomanry for the tyme beinge shall allwayse 
se and looke y l the saide instrumentf be kepte Cleane and that they shall do upon theyre 
owne Chirgis. - ' 

15th September, 1558. It was ordered : — 

That uppon the Election daye and chusynge of the fowre wardeyns of the 
yeomary of the Mystery or Companye aforesayde And also theyre Wardeyns then beynge 
elected and chosen and also theyre Dyner or Recreocion then at o r hall beynge w* all y' 
Lawfull busynes then don and ended That and then also at theire goynge and dep''tinge 
frome ou r hall the sayde fowre wardeyns of the yeomanrye so named by that name and by 
none other shall in any maner of wyse p'sume or take uppon them nor any of them to 
be wayted on or broughte home unto y r owne houses Neyther shall go unto any other 
place or placf elf where havynge w" 1 or after them any trayne or traynes eyther of y c 
sayde Assystaunce or any beynge oute of theyre sayde assystaunce and Companye But 
every p^sone and persones of the sayde feloshyppe of the yeomanrye then shall quyetly 
departe and go every man his owne waye aboute his necessarye busynesse. 

A fine of five marks was ordered to be taken from the " comon 
boxe " of the yeomanry, if the above regulation should be transgressed. 

Provided Allwaye That the sayde Wardeyns with the Rest of theyre 
assystaunce feloshyppe and Companye of the Yeomanry maye and shall at all Tyme 

1 Custos or keepers. • Charges. 

2 O 

28 2 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

and tymes decently and orderly go unto the maryagis offering^ and Buryalls of theyre 
sayde Brethren and Susters of the sayde Company of the yeomanry as they here to 
fore have dun. 

4th July, 1 566. It was ordered that the Wardens and Assistants 
of the Yeomanry should be allowed to sit at the " Uppermore" table 
in the Hall on quarter days to receive their quarterages, and to read 
the rules and ordinances to the Yeomanry. 

1 8th February, 1567. In Thys Courte here was Edward Parke beynge' 
comytted to warde at the comaundment of the wardens of the yeomanry for his 
disobedyenc''s, and for his oprobrius & obstynat words in the p'sents of this Courte 
to the M r & govViors he is comytted to warde agayne. 

1 8th January, 1569. At this Court seven freemen were sworn 
in to be Assistants to the Yeomanry. 

15th November, 1569. In this Courte the wardens of the yeomanry broughte 
in the p°sentf of this courte John Wyllet Thorns Warren and John Jaggard & they 
reported y' Nycolas Whytemore sholde reporte at the thre tonnes at yeldehall gate y' 
M r Pole of the chauncery shold saye y l we ought to have no wardens of the yeomanry. 
And Nycols Whytemore said y' he was at supper at M r Pole & one M r Lovels & they 
paused the statutf & said to Whyttemore he hath ben warden of his copany & he 
said no he had been warden of the yeomanry & M' Pole sholde saye we cold not 
have a yeomanry. 

18th April, 1570. Here was John Jagger sayth that he was nev° a councell 
or knoleg of any p°moter beyng set to trouble the Company for the state of o' yeomanry 
And also John Wyllet denyeth the byll & wyll not confesse any thinge w th oute the 
p°sentC of his accuser but for knowledge of the p°motter he nev° meante yt he said 
befor god. And Thomas Warren saed he hathe kepte all to hymsylf & nev mynded 
nor thoughte to trouble in any respecte and denyeth the byll also. And yt is ordered 
that they shall agree brotherly together and here after they nor any of them shall 
move or speake or make any rehcrsall of any matter as consernyng the state of 
the yeomary upon payne of iprysonment. And Thorns Warren John Wyllet & 
John Jagger shall take y r romes & placf and brotherly they have eyther of them 
taken one a nother handes & so these matters nev to be reported any more here after. 

1 i.e. Having been. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 283 

This brotherly amity did not long continue, for : — 

23rd May, 1570. Here was John Warren & John Wyllet is comytted to 
warde for dysobedyence, and Thomas Newens said that one Husto an informer his 
neyghbo' saide that the company sholde be arested ' upon a statute & y' yt is one of o r 
company did sett the enformer to do yt but he founde not the statute to holde w"' 
them & y'fore he wolde not deale, but to name the p ,:i te 3 he wolde not. 

Warren and Wyllet must have been sent straight off to prison, 
as a further minute states that on the same day "after diner," Warren 
was brought up out of the Compter for examination. 

On the 29th May, Wyllet made submission and was released 
from prison. 

19th September, 1570. Warren and Wyllet seem to have 
been cantankerous brethren, for they were complained of by the 
Wardens of the Yeomanry for refusing to take upon themselves the 
office of Wardens to which they had been elected. 

7th October, 1572. Wyllet is again complained of for going 
to law with another member of the Company without license from the 
Masters, to which he pleaded that under a statute 19 Henry VII, 
cap. viii, he could lawfully do so. The result of this contention is not 
expressly stated, though there is not the least doubt but that Wyllet 
revisited the Compter, and ultimately withdrew his suit. 

5th March, 1573. It was ordered — 

That where there hath ben an order that the whole bodye of the yeomanrye of 
this mysterie were compelled under a certeine fyne and penaltye to meet theire wardens at 
a certeine place by them appointed beinge by the beadle warned, to go to offre at the 
weddings of their brethren at all times when any of them weare married w ch was to their 
great trouble, and divers inconvenyences grewe thereoff as absence from s°rvice and 
sermons one sonday mornyngs and other unmeate and inconvenient meetinges in steed 
therof. Wherefore, the said order was declared henceforth to be void. 

1 i.e. Sued. - Party. 

2 2 

2 84 o/l finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

6th October, 1573. Here was a controv'sy betweene the wardens of the 
yeomanrye that were the last yere and the Audyto" of yeomanryes accomptes for that 
the Audytoures would not allowe that w ch was required by the said late wardens for 
bread and dryncke at theyre elleccon Daye, the some was xxvij* and order was taken that 
they should be allowed xvj s and they to beare the reste on theire owne chargeis and so to 
be ffrendf and Lovers w"' quietnes. 

6th June, 1577. Here also the wardens of the yeomanry were comaunded for 
good and urgent Cawse to bring in there graunt from the maisters of there yomanry 
against the next Co r te Daie for that they did take more Quarteridge then by the Lawe 
they might do and also contrary to there saide graunte and in breche of the same they 
went after a sort in searche to see what serVnts some ffremen of the Companie had w th 
they ought not to do, and so yt was for that tyme let passe w" 1 warning to do so no more 
and also for that they did not yerelie shewe there accompt w cl ' now they did and hence- 
forth will according to there dutie. 

9th October, 1579. At this Co'te also the Wardens of the Yeomanry brought in 
their accompte before the saide masters and yt was agreed upon good consideracons for 
that manye of the said yeomanrye did ympoverishe them selves by makinge of qrter 
Dyners and suche unnecessary metinges that from henceforthe their shalbe no more 
quarter Dyners be kept in o r Hall by the saide yeomanrye or any of them but shall 
do as heretofore hathe ben accustomed to be don. 

1587. The Yeomanry seem to have again incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the Masters, who thereupon summoned them to appear 
and shew cause why their grant should not be annulled, whereupon 
they came on the 27th July and — 

gave their ffree and full consentf that yf they have broken any p'te of their 
graunte to them heretofore made they will surrender upp their yeomanry. 

10th August, 1587. The privilege of collecting quarterage was 
taken away from the Yeomanry. 

Also whereas there hathe ben a Rule graunted to the yeomanrie that they maie 
send p''sons to ward for disobedyence and to take ffynes yt ys fullie agreed the same 
Rule shalbe void But yf anie varyance happen to be, the same shall be declared to the 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 285 

masters or governo" for Reformacon And further that the said yeomanrie shall take 
none into their Assystance \v"'oute the consent of o r saide masters or governo" and their 
successor - 

7th September, 1587. M r Henry Rankin M r of o r Companie made a motyon 
whether he sholde swere the yeomanry or not and yf they should be sworne what othe 
he should geve them. And yt was agreed by the saide Corte That the Masters or 
Governo" may take the p°sentment of them but not swere them. And further yf the 
yeomanry do request to be sworne they must be answered w* the wordf of their pattent 
w c " ys onlie to p°sent them. And further touching the colleccon of their quartridge yt 
must stand as yt dothe untill further consultacon be had therein and yf they have any 
request to make or ought to saie they must bring the same in writinge into this Corte. 

29th May, 1600. This daie the wardens of the yomanrye made requeste to 
the Maisters that they woulde be pleased to redeliver unto them their booke of orders 
which remayneth in their Custodie, whereuppon it is not thoughte fitt by the Courte 
that the yeomanrie have the Custodie of the said booke, but that the Clarke of this 
Companye keepe the same And that he shewe the same booke to the yeomanrye when 
they have occasion to use it. 

About two years previously the Court had endeavoured to 
put down the Yeomanry and had curtailed many of their privileges ; 
the exact nature of the disagreement is not stated, but it doubtless 
arose from the Yeomanry " takeinge to much uppon themsyllfs." 

17th January, 1604. At this Courte it is ordered That the Ould Wardens of 
the Yomanrye doe bringe in such money as is behind by theire Audite beinge eight 
pounds twelve shillings and eight pence Orells to be committed to the Compter. 

28th February, 1605. It was ordered that a Yeomanry of this 
Company should be established, though there is no entry of its 
extinguishment. Rules and ordinances were to be made by the 
Court, and twenty-four persons were to be nominated by the " present 
wardens of the said Yeomanry" to serve as a Court of Assistants 
for the Yeomanry, with a power of veto reserved to the Masters. 

286 a/J n /nils of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1 6th April, 1605. A Committee sat to consider the patent 
to be granted to the Yeomanry. 

2nd May, 1605. This daye the M r and M r Warden Mapes and M r Thorney 
deliv°ed to the Wardens of the yomanry viz. Robert Jenninges and Richard Alderson 
and also to Robert Wood and Edward Goodale the yomanryes boxe and money their 
Corrector their twoe standinge Cuppes & Covers and their cases and all such oth r 
thinges as they had of the yomanryes, but onely their patent \v ch is to be renued & 
twoe of their keyes were deliv'ed to the sayd Robert Wood and Edward Goodale 
by them to be kept. 

24th May, 1605. This daye the ordynancf of the yomanry were ratiefied & 
confirmed by this Court. Also the quarterages of the yomanry was this daye demised 
unto the wardens of the yomanry from the xvj' h of September next ensuinge for the 

terme of at the yerely rent of 8" to be paid by quarterly 

payments w cl ' demyse was passed by wrytinge indented as by the same more at lardge 
may appeare. 

At the end of the Minute Book, 1 598-1607, is a copy of a 
part of this indenture. 

26th November, 1607. It was ordered : — 

That the wardens of the yomanry shall take for the use of their funerall clothe 
at e''vy funerall wherein it is used ij h vj' 1 And the bedell for his attendaunce xij' 1 provided 
notw"'standinge that if such deceased p°son shall owe unto the yomanry arrerages of 
quarterage that the wardens of the sayd yomanry shall not lend their said funerall cloth 
before such arrerages be first paid. 

10th August, 1609. It was ordered that the Yeomandry shall hold their great 
generall dinner albeit they made request to the Contrary. 

The next extracts record the last events in the chequered 
existence of the Yeomanry. 

17th November, 1635. According to a former order of Court the Wardeins of 
the yeomanrye did this daye deliver up unto the Maisters their Accompt and the xvij 1 ' V s 
viij d in money upon the foote of that Accompt Also they delivered up to this Court their 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


plate bookf and goodf with the Inventarye and that being delivered & donn Richard 
Lamb and Thomas Duppa twoe of the yeomanrye Wardeins thiewe downe their keyes on 
the table in a scornefull manner and badd y e M rs take all. 

3rd December, 1635. This daye upon mature deliberation had as alsoe upon 
just groundf and causes showed to this Court of the greate burthen of this Companie in 
the continuall charge of the keepeing of a yeomanrye And it being propounded to this 
Court whether the Wardeins and Assistants of the yeomanrye should continew the 
holding of the yeomanrye yea or noe It was by most voyces fully concluded and ordered 
that they shall continew noe longer their governem 1 And they the Wardeins & Assistant^ 
of the yeomanrye & their governem 1 are by this Court dissolved. 


HE office of Clerk of the Company is doubtless as 
ancient as the Company itself, although there is no 
mention of one prior to the year 1530 1 ; but as there 
were always registers to be kept, fees to receive, 
apprentices to bind, and the multifarious business of a 
Livery Guild to conduct and record, we conclude that 
the office has existed from the earliest period. 

The Clerk in Queen Mary's time seems to have combined 
the occupation of gardener with that of his office, and for this he 
had but a small fee in addition to his stipend. Later on the Clerks 
appear to have devised fees for every conceivable kind of business 
which could possibly be transacted at Barber-Surgeons' Hall, and 
in the 17th and 1 8th centuries the income derived from this source 
alone must have been very considerable. 

The Company has been served by good, bad and indifferent 
Clerks ; we prefer to dwell only on the former and record the names 

In the ordinances of Sir Thos. More. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 289 

among others, of Francis Rovvdon, Charles Bernard and John 
Paterson as being worthy to be held in goodly remembrance. The 
books of the Company abound in testimony to their ability as well 
as to the fidelity and zeal which they displayed in the execution 
of their office. 

1st October, 1555. The first Clerk of whom there is any 
record is Thomas Apulton (or Apleton), who, being Beadle, was 
promoted to that office. 

As will be seen elsewhere, the Company had a fair garden 
in Monkwell Street, and the following interesting minute connects 
it with the Clerk : — 

8th October, 1555. The Clercke of our Companye shall have for waxe pennes 
and ynke and for trymynge of the gardeyn yerelye vj s viij d - Yf the gardeyn be not 
well trymined and made clene weded and swept at all tymes when the M r and Governors 
of the clothing or any of Thassistaunce of the same shall see yt and thereupon fynde 
faulte then the saide Clercke shall paye a ffyne to the hall because the said gardein 
ys not made cleane swept and wedyd as the M r and Governors of the Clothinge and 
thassistaunce of the same shall think meete and convenyent. 

5th March, 1556. It was ordered that if — 

The Clercke of the Company doo evile mysuse any of the Clothinge or of the 
yomanry w" 1 unsemely words & dewe proofe therof had and proved he shalbe dismyssed 
clere from the having of the Office of clercke. 

27th August, 1557. John Johnson was elected and sworn Clerk 
" for so longe time as he shal behave hymsyllfe well and honestlye in 
the saide office." The salary was fixed at £\ per annum, with 6s. %>d. 
extra for paper, ink and keeping the garden, and " for wasshinge of the 
lynen of the howse iij s iiij d " 

It would appear that one Wilson had some time previously been 
Clerk, for arrangements were made by which Wilson's widow was not 

2 p 

H)o aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

to be put out of her house, and it was also settled that if Johnson died 
before his wife, his widow should in like manner have the house after 
his decease. The rent of this house, which was attached to the Hall 
was \os. per annum, and paid by the Clerk to the Renter Warden. 

Johnson probably continued Clerk till about 1570, as the books 
are kept in the same handwriting until then. 

Thomas Garter succeeded Johnson, but on 14th January, 1572, 
he was dismissed from his office for a "certain lewde facte by him 
committed," and William Field was elected and sworn in in his 
place. Field wrote an exceedingly neat and precise hand. 

20th March, 1572. It was ordered that in future the Clerk of 
the Company should always be chosen from among the freemen. 

15th March, 1575. William Eden elected Clerk vice Field. 

14th November, 1577. Eden was ordered to receive £6 per 
annum " benevolence" over and above his salary of £.\, in consideration 
of the " smalenes of his lyvinge." 

10th December, 1596. Eden was indebted to the Company 
£10, "yet in regard of the hardnes of the tyme and his greate charge 
he shalbe forborne this yere." At the same Court, gifts were made to 
the Beadle and Porter on account of the hardness of the times. 

1 6th June, 1597. Eden's troubles had not forsaken him for we 
read under this date — 

There was geven unto Willin Eden Clark of the Companie in regard of his 
greate charge and the scarsy.tie of the tyme the some of v" and for the x" w ch he oweth he 
ys to pay the same as god shall inable him. 

2nd November, 1597. Francis Rowdon elected Clerk vice 
Eden. Rowdon appears to have been a most methodical man and 

c/i minis of the Rnrber-Surgeons. 2^1 

kept the books with scrupulous neatness and care ; his writing is a 
very fine specimen of the Court hand of the period, and the best in the 
Company's books for many years. 

J 599- The Clerk's Salary was raised to £6 per annum. 

1600. To £8 per annum, and in 

1603 To .£10 per annum. 

26th November, 1607. This daye ffrancf Rowdon Clark to this Company 
p'sented his peticon to this Court by w d ' hee prayed ratificaeon of certen fees belonginge 
to his place and office in this Company as hereof doe insue. 

Ffirst hee prayed to have xl s - for the drawinge registringe of the M* accompt so 
that it be regestered \v"'in twoe moneths aft' the awdit. 

Also hee prayed to have x 5 ' for ev'y alienaeon of every lease of any of the 
Companyes landes or tenemtf for wrytinge thereof. 

Also to have for the drawinge & ingroseinge of every lease xx"' 

Also to have xij d - for ev'y othe ministered by any of the M rs to any of the 
yomanry of this Company. 

Also to have xij' 1, for ev°y one that is made free by service and sixe shilling^ & 
sixe pence of every man that is made free by redempcon or translacon. 

Also vj s viij 4 for enteringe of every Anathomy accompt. 

Also to have iiij 4 for every Acquittance that hee shall make for the wardens of 
the yomanry for the forme of theyre quarterage And xij''- of them for the Coppie of 
every order w ch concerneth the governem' of the yomanry. 

Also that hee may have of ev°y freeman for his letter of admittance or tolleracon 
under the seale of the house vj s - viiij''- And of ev'y forren for the lyke x s - And of ev°y 
alien xiij s - iiij d ' 

Also for pennes Inck & pap° and for the wardens bookes p° an. x s - 

Also for every bill of complaynt iiij 1 '' 

Also for enteringe of ev°ry order betwixt p''tie & p°tie for the endinge of any 
Controversie xij' 1 

Also for makeinge cleane the hall against ev°y feaste iiij 5 ' And such a dishc 
of meate as the M' s of ev'y such feast shall think fit. 

2 P 2 

2g2 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Also for ev n y searche for the name of ev 9 y freman or app'ntice iiij'' 

Also for ev°y p'son that is taken into the liv^y iij s iiij' 1 

Also for ev r 'y p'son that is taken into the Assistant^ iiij s - iiij' 1 - 

All w ch ordinancf and allowances were ratiefied & confirmed by this Court. 

6th July, 1609. Uppon the humble suite & peticon of ffrancf Rowdon Clarke 
to this Company It is this daye ordered by this Courte that w" , in one moneth next 
ensuinge hee shall nolat to the p°nt M rs a sufficient Clarke to whom hee is desyreous to 
surrender his place and office of Clark to this Company And his suite shalbe graunted 
unto him if such p son so to be p'Yited unto this Court shalbe lyked and allowed. 

26th July, 1609. Rowdon presented Richard Ratsdale, 
Scrivener, for the office of Clerk, about whose sufficiency and ability 
enquiries were ordered to be made, but they were not satisfactory, for, 
on the 10th August, William Syddon was elected Clerk vice Rowdon. 

The same day it was ordered that Rowdon was to continue 
in the Livery and to have the use of the Hall and his house until 
Michaelmas, also that Syddon was to be translated from the Cutlers' 

Syddon's records of the Company's business were very meagre 
and a great contrast to those of the former Clerk. 

7th October, 1625. Syddon surrendered his clerkship to 
Richard Turner (a son of Cressens Turner, Clerk in the Lord Mayor's 
Court), who was admitted and sworn. Turner died in 1643, an< ^ by 
his will left some property to the Company to be annually distributed 
in charity amongst freemen of the Barber-Surgeons, and this became 
the source of a protracted litigation between his widow and the 
Company. On the 17th November, 1643, sn e filed a bill against the 
Company, which they defended, and succeeded in retaining the greater 
portion of the bequest. The accounts appear to have been very 
intricate and involved, remaining unsettled for many years. The 

z/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 293 

Court, however, distributed the whole of the bequest in accordance 
with the will, as long as the estate (which was leasehold) held out. 

16th June, 1628. It is ordered by this Court and our M r gave order to the 
Clarke that he should henceforward have a stoole and sitt at the end of the table \v"' 
his bookes and register as the clarkes of other Companies doe. 

2nd October, 1643. Robert Rawlins elected Clerk vice Turner. 

30th June, 1648. The Court granted Rawlins ,£30 in considera- 
tion of his great pains about the Company's business, and ordered that 
his salary should be raised from ^10 to ,£30 per annum. 

23rd February, 1658. Richard Reynell elected Clerk vice 
Rawlins (resigned). 

2 1 st July, 1685. Joseph Masters elected Clerk. 

17th September, 1685. Charles Hargrave elected "Deputy 
Clerk." The business of the Company had of late years increased 
enormously in consequence of the examinations of and Certificates to 
Navy Surgeons, examinations held for superannuation of wounded or 
infirm soldiers and sailors, and other matters connected with the Navy 
office, all of which entailed vast labour on the Clerk. 

28th November, 1688. Charles Hargrave elected Clerk vice 

20th November, 1707. Charles Bernard elected Clerk vice 

Hargrave had kept the books in a slovenly manner, and appears 
to have been both a dishonest servant as well as an improvident man. 


aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

iith December, 1707. It was reported to the Court that 
Hargrave's Estate was indebted to the Company ^320 8s. 6d., moneys 
which he had received and not accounted for. 

8th July, 1708. Mrs. Sarah Hargrave (his Widow) presented 
a petition for relief, stating that she was in poor circumstances, with six 
children unprovided for, whereupon the Court, notwithstanding her late 
husband's delinquencies, very generously ordered her a gratuity of 
;£i2 10s. od. 

Charles Bernard was a relative of, and Executor to Charles 
Bernard, Serjeant-Surgeon to Queen Anne and Master in 1703. It is 
delightful to observe the methodical and careful manner in which 
Bernard began, and all through his life kept the books and accounts ; 
he wrote a large and elegant hand, though somewhat encumbered with 
flourishes, and his signature is a characteristic one. 

7th September, 1708. Hargrave's son was in the Compter, 
and the Clerk was directed to see and talk with him about the 
Company's papers in his custody, and if he would give them up the 
Clerk was to make him a present of three guineas. 

The Court frequently relieved Mrs. Hargrave, and in December, 
1709, gave her ^15. 

o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 295 

Among the official list of Clerk's fees at this period were 
the following : — 

For the use of the Hall for ffuneralls, Country ffeasts or weddings i o o 
ffor the ffunerall of every Liveryman, the best hood or - 070 

17th July, 1 7 18. The Court as a particular reward to Charles Bernard their 
Clerk for abstracting and peruseing the Companys title to the Estate in East Smithfield 
and for his care in passing the fine thereof whereby the Company saved a sume of money 
and for his extraordinary trouble in attending the Lords of the Admiralty and prosecuteing 
several persons for takeing the dead bodys from the place of Execucon Did and do 
hereby give him the sume of fourscore pounds who accepted the same as a most 
bountifull Instance of the kindness of this Court to him with a full resolueon on his part 
to acquitt himself by all imaginable and constant returns of duty and gratitude. 

Mr. Charles Bernard, who had been a most zealous Clerk 
and high in the esteem of the Court, died somewhere between the 
5th and 20th February, 1740. 

25th March, 1740. Joseph Wheeler, son of John Wheeler, 
Barber-Surgeon, elected Clerk, vice Bernard. Wheeler wrote a 
fine bold and flowing hand ; and the books were well kept, but he 
was evidently not so able a man as Mr. Bernard. 

4th July, 1740. Joseph Wheeler provided two sureties who 
entered into a bond for ,£3,000, to ensure his fidelity in the execution 
of his office. 

17th January, 1743. The Commissioners of the Navy having 
complained that sufficient regard had not been paid to former letters 
of theirs respecting Surgeons' Mates, and it appearing that the Clerk 
had withheld the said letters from the Court, it was ordered that he 
should be suspended forthwith, with which the Commissioners were 
acquainted and also that the Court had resolved not to take off such 
suspension but by the consent and desire of the Commissioners. 

2cj6 oA nn als of the Barber-Surgeons. 

31st January, 1743. The Commissioners of the Navy having 
signified their desire that the Clerk should be restored to his office, 
he was called into Court, severely reprimanded, reinstated in his 
position, and cautioned as to his future conduct. 

Mr. Wheeler continued Clerk until the separation of the 
Surgeons from the Barbers in 1 745, when neither body retained 
his services, and it appearing that moneys were due from him to 
the Company, application was made to his sureties. 

25th June, 1745. John Paterson was chosen Clerk to the 
Barbers' Company at the first Court held after the separation, and 
entered into a Bond with two sureties in a sum of ,£2,000. 

19th February, 1746. Mr. Paterson having brought in an 
account of his Costs in the matter of the separation of the Surgeons 
amounting to ,£167 13s. 2d., and also an account of voluntary con- 
tributions by members of the Company towards defraying the same 
amounting to £ 168 icw. 6c/., he begged the Court to accept of his 
past services as a return for the honour done him in his election, 
and the Court were pleased to accept of the compliment, but having 
a high sense of the services rendered by Mr. Paterson, they directed 
the sum of £§o to be laid out in plate and presented to him " to 
remain in his family as a memorial of his merit and of their gratitude." 

5th March, 1765. Mr. Paterson requested permission to resign 
his office, which the Court accepted with great reluctance, and passed 
a complimentary resolution in his favour. 

Richard Beale, who had been Mr. Paterson's clerk and was 
highly recommended by him, was elected Clerk. 

8th August, 1765. Mr. Paterson was unanimously elected 
an Assistant. 

o/Iunals of the Barber-Surgeons. igj 

Mr. Beale bequeathed .£500 to the Company in reversion on 
the death of Mrs. Ann Woodhouse. 

22nd April, 1766. James Marye elected Clerk vice Beale 

22nd April, 1766. John Paterson Esquire being withdrawn a Motion was made 
and the question being put That a piece of plate of the value of Fifty Pounds or there- 
abouts be presented to the said M r Paterson as a mark of the high esteem and value this 
Court entertains of his merit and abilities and to shew their gratitude to him for his long 
and faithful services during the course of twenty years and in return for his readiness 
on every occasion to assist this Court with his advice and council, the same was carried 
in the Affirmative, Nemine Contradicente. 

By the Accounts for this year it appears that a Silver Tureen, 
Dish and Ladle were purchased for ^"65 165. od., and this was no 
doubt the gift to Mr. Paterson. 

20th August, 1767. The Court being informed that Mr. 
Paterson intended to stand for the City at the next General 
Election, it was ordered that he should have the use of the 
Company's Hall for his meetings. 

An excellent mezzotint portrait of Mr. Paterson, with some 
eulogistic lines below, is preserved at Barbers' Hall. 

In 1754 Mr. Paterson presented to the Company the valuable 
portrait of the Duchess of Richmond, painted by Sir Peter Lely, 
and which still adorns the Court Room. 

Mr. Paterson was a member of the Common Council, and 
sometime Chairman of the Bridge House Estates Committee, he 
was also M.P. for Ludgershall, Wilts. He was ever faithful to this 
Company, serving it with distinguished ability, and seems to have 
been greatly respected and esteemed. 

2 q 


zAnnals of the- Barber-Surgeons. 

ist June, 1790. William Wood elected Clerk vice Marye. 

Mr. Wood presented the Company with a handsome Silver 
Tea Urn. 

13th August, 1795. Edward Grose Smith (Mr. Wood's partner) 

elected Clerk vice Wood, resigned. 

5th March, 1822. Henley Smith (son of E. G. Smith) elected 
Clerk vice Smith, resigned. 

5th February, 1861. Mr. Henley Smith resigned and was 
elected an Assistant (Master in 1864). 

7th May, 1 86 1. Henley Grose Smith (son of Henley Smith) 
elected Clerk vice Smith, resigned. Mr. Henley Grose Smith was 
elected an Assistant 1877. 


HERE is no certainty as to the first institution of 

this office, though it is probably not so old as 

that of the Clerk, who in ancient times, summoned 

the Livery, collected the quarterage and performed 

various duties which we afterwards find assigned to 

the Beadle, and we may conclude that in those days 

he was little more than a Caretaker or "Porter"; indeed, this is the 

more likely as the latter designation is frequently applied to the Under 

Beadle in the Records. 

As the business and numbers of the Company increased, 
several minor functions of the Clerk were delegated to the Porter 
or Beadle, who had distinctive duties assigned to him varying with 
the age in which he lived ; among these may be enumerated, sweeping 
the garden, collecting quarterage, cleaning the Hall, whipping naughty 
apprentices, summoning freemen, etc., bringing home dead bodies 
from Tyburn, keeping lists of journeymen, pressing Surgeons and 
Barbers for sea service, assisting the Masters on search days, 
hunting up and laying informations against non freemen practising 

2 Q 2 

J [ 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Barbery and Surgery, marshalling and heading processions, both 
at the Hall and in the City pageants, guarding the Parlour 
door, and other offices too numerous to particularise, though 
there were but few of them which did not yield a fee, and 
indeed our Beadle could hardly have lived without fees, for 
his official salary in Edward VI's time was but £\ per annum, 
which, notwithstanding the greater value of money then, could 
scarcely be considered a fat living. 

With one exception, the office has been (and properly so) held 
by freemen, and in the appointment of the Court. In 1626, however, 
the Lord Keeper sent a letter "recommending" (i.e., commanding) 
the Company to elect one Gorton, a servant of his, to the place, 
and Gorton was accordingly chosen. The interference of the 
King and his great officers in the patronage and appointments 
vested in the City guilds was carried to great lengths with some 
of the Companies, and there are amusing accounts extant of the 
astuteness with which this meddling was sometimes met (vide 
Herbert's Livery Companies). Our Company, with the solitary 
exception above referred to, appears to have been happily free from 
this species of intervention. 

Early in the 17th century there were two Beadles of the 

Clothing, the Under Beadle being often styled the Porter, but 

about the middle of the iSth century, and since then, one 
Beadle has sufficed. 

The Beadle has always had his " house " at the Hall, 
and used formerly to pay a small quit rent for it. On the 
dismission of a Beadle for misconduct, a difficulty was some- 
times experienced in regaining possession of this house, and 

oA 'finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 301 

various shifts were resorted to ; even the Beadles' Widows now 
and then refused to turn out, and the "benevolences" meted 
out to them were possibly sometimes in the nature of bribes 
to induce them to go. 

Besides the Beadles of the Clothing, there was a Beadle of the 
Yeomanry, whose duties were analogous to those of his more exalted 
brethren, and into whose office he frequently stepped when there was a 

The Beadles for many years had a most disagreeable duty to 
perform, namely, the procuring and bringing home from Tyburn the 
dead bodies of malefactors. By the Act 32 Hen. VIII, the Company 
were empowered to have yearly the bodies of four executed felons for 
"anatomies," and the practice was for the Beadles to attend at the 
gallows and select such bodies as they pleased. Their opponents were 
generally the hangman, who himself trafficked in these uncanny goods, 
the relatives of the criminal, and the populace who were incited by the 
relatives to resist the Beadles. Many were the unseemly fights which 
took place over these bodies, and oftentimes when the Beadles had 
secured a "subject" and were driving off with it in a coach, they were 
attacked and beaten, and the body rescued from them. The hangman 
appears to have been entitled to the dead man's clothes, for on more 
than one occasion the Company gave him compensation for them, they 
having been torn to pieces in the brutal struggle for possession. 
Moreover the Company had often to satisfy the Coachmen for 
personal injuries and for damages to their coaches, as well as to give 
special gratuities to their Beadles by way of solatium for the beatings 
which they underwent. Frequent prosecutions and convictions followed 
the interference with the Company's Officers at these times, and even 
the Sheriff's Officers were on one occasion dismissed by the City for 
having sided against the Beadles. 


eAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The hangman came to the Hall regularly for his Christmas 
Box and gave a receipt for the same, sometimes affixing the title 

"Executioner" after his 
signature. Many curious 
particulars relating to the 
above will be found else- 
where. ( Vide Wardens' 
Accounts, Surgery, etc.) 

The Beadle is elected 
annually by the Court, 
and resides at the Hall. 
The two Silver maces per- 
taining to his office are as 
handsome and massive as 
any in the City and are 
always carried before the 
Master on Court days. 

14th May, 1530. The 
earliest reference to the 
Beadle in our Records is to 
be found in the Ordinances 
signed by Sir Thomas 
More, where it is directed 

that the Members shall take their seniority "according to the trew 

entrance therof in the BedyllC Rolle." 

6th November, 1550. Richard Wilson was Beadle at this time. 

6th July, 1552. Thomas Appulton, Beadle, vice Wilson 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 303 

19th September, 1552. It was agreed that Appulton "shall 
have his messe of meate on the feaste dayes." 

4th May, 1574. Here was the Wardens of the yeomanry and brought 
Anthony Hall in to the Courte to be admytted Beadle of the yeomanrye and he was 
swome and admytted and fathe(r) Roger(s) put to his pencon and to geve attendaunce 
but as he is able. 

22nd July, 1577. Richard Rogers, the old Beadle of the 
Yeomanry, was ordered a gift of 20s. and a yearly pension of 20s. 

23rd July, 1582. Robert Norton, Yeomanry Beadle, was 
authorised to take 2d. of every freeman on his admission, and his 
yearly salary of Sjt. was raised to 265. 8d. 

14th August, 1587. Robert Norton was Livery Beadle. 

10th December, 1596. James Hewes (Hughes) was Livery 

1 6th June, 1597. John Smith, Livery Beadle. 

15th August, 1603. Edward Evans, Livery Beadle. 

15th August, 1603. Kellam Clifton appointed Porter or Under 

2 1st July, 1608. Edward Blayny, Beadle, was dismissed for 
behaving himself "very dishonestly." 

14th August, 161 7. Kellam Clifton elected Beadle and Edward 
Bresson, Porter. 

2nd December, 161 7. Clifton was suspended for misbehaviour, 
but subsequently reinstated. 

9th July, 1618. William Chapman elected Porter. 

304 o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

19th February, 1621. Clifton, again misbehaving himself, was 

14th June, 1621. Humphry Mum ford elected Beadle. 

3rd July, 162 1. Chapman, the Porter, dismissed for using "lewd 
speeches," but on his humble submission and craving pardon on his 
knees, he was reinstated, 10th July, 162 1. 

20th August, 1 62 1. The Company could not get Clifton out of 
his house, so they gave him 20^. and a pension of 405. per annum 
during good behaviour and the pleasure of the Court. Possibly the 
"pleasure of the Court" did not extend beyond one year. 

15th February, 1626. Edward Gorton (recommended by the 
Lord Keeper) elected Beadle in place of Mumford. 

10th July, 1628. This daye this Court takeing notice of an order made the 3 
of Julye, 162 1, by w ch order Chapman our Porter for his dissolute and deboist carriage 
was ipo facto then by that order dismissed of his said place and likewise of an order 
made in the beginning of oure M rs tyme for the dismissing of the said Chapman for his 
misbehavior and upon the generall complaint made unto this Court against the said 
Chapman for the most parte being drunck misbehaveing himselfe towardf the M rs and 
carrieing himselfe soe basely & quarrelsome to the brethren of this Companie and 
neglecting his duety to this house. It is thereupon ordered that he shall stand dismissed 
from his said place unlesse at the next Court of Assistant^ it doe appeare that he hath 
left his former carriage of being often drunck & deboistnes. 

3rd February, 1634. Gorton requested to be discharged of his 
office of Beadle in respect of his age and feebleness, and Nathaniel 
Foster was elected in his place. 

25th January, 1637. Chapman, "Under Beadle," resigned, and 
was assigned a pension of £4. per annum during pleasure. 

c/lniials of the Barber-Surgeons. 305 

25th January, 1637. Edmond Johnson "who writeth very- 
well" was elected Under Beadle. 

6th March, 1639. Foster, for his " sawcey carriage unto this 
Companie " and general neglect of duty, was dismissed. 

1659. Francis Johnson was Beadle with a salary of ,£10, and 
Peter Smith, Porter, with a salary of £%. 

1662. Peter Smith was Beadle, and Thomas Veere, Porter. 

23rd June, 1692. Ordered that William Cave be admitted to 
assist Peter Smith and Jonas Wills the Beadles. 

19th July, 1694. Peter Smith was dead; he had been a very 
zealous servant of the Company. On the first floor landing at the 
Hall is a pretty piece of heraldic glass in the window with his name 
and the date 167 1. Jonas Wills elected Beadle. 

1 6th August, 1694. William Cave elected Beadle vice Wills 

8th July, 1708. William Cave and Thomas Repton were 

6th July, 1 7 10. Repton's widow had £3 given her to bury 
her late husband. 

20th February, 171 1. Mr. Gratian Bale (son of Nathan Bale, 
Citizen and Grocer) who was apprenticed 22nd June, 1669 to Robert 
Andrewes (Surgeon), and afterwards became an Examiner in Surgery, 
and Master in 1 709, petitioned the Court to be relieved of the office 
of an Assistant on the ground that he had fallen into decayed 
circumstances and could not possibly support that dignity, and on 

2 R 

)ob oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

his resignation being accepted, the Court proceeded to the election 
of a Beadle in the room of Thomas Repton deceased, whereupon 
Mr. Bale was elected — 

And in regard that the s d M r Bale had been Ma r of This Company This Court 
doth hereby give him leave (asking the consent of the Governo rs for the time being) to 
depute some other person to walke before the Company in his stead with the Beadles 
staffe & gowne upon the Lord Mayors & Eleccon days. 

1 8th May, 17 14. Mr. Bale having become too infirm to execute 
his office, the Court, in consideration of his past services, appointed 
William Hardy, Barber, his assistant, at a salary of ,£10 per annum. 

31st July, 1 7 1 6. William Cave died of a "high fever." 

1 6th August, 1 716. William Watkins and William Hardy 
elected Beadles, on condition of paying Mr. Bale ^10 per annum, 
which the Court supplemented with another ^10. 

10th July, 1 71 7. Richard Collins elected Beadle vice Hardy, 

18th August, 1720. It was ordered that in future no man 
could be qualified to be put in nomination for the office of Beadle 
if above 40 years of age — 

in order that the business may from thenceforward be discharged and dispatched 
with prop'' vigour and dexterity and to the honour and profitt of the Company. 

13th April, 1721. Watkins being so indisposed as not to be 
able to perform his duties, Charles Window (who looked after the 
dead bodies at Tyburn) was ordered to officiate for him. Watkins 
shortly after lost his speech and got into Ludgate prison, where 
he had a weekly allowance from the Company — he seems to have 
remained in prison till his death, 3rd August, 1724. 

oAmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 307 

7th October, 1722. Henry Gretton elected Beadle vice Watkins. 

6th November, 1724. Matthew Morris elected Beadle vice 
Collins, resigned. 

30th October, 1732. William Littlebury elected Beadle vice 
Morris, deceased. 

5th June, 1764. John Wells elected Beadle vice Littlebury, 
resigned on pension. 

3rd April, 1787. William Smith elected Beadle vice Wells, 

4th March, 1788. Joseph Wells (son of John W'ells) elected 
Beadle vice Smith, deceased. 

6th February, 1798. Jacob Bonwick elected Beadle vice Wells, 

1 st March, 18 14. William Barnes elected Beadle vice Bonwick. 

1 ith August, 1 83 1. Samuel Borrett elected Beadle vice Barnes 
(who retired on a pension of ,£50 per annum). 

1 ith August, 1864. John Heaps (Master in 1855) elected 
Beadle vice Borrett (who retired on a pension of £50 per annum). 

1st July, 1879. Edward Lawless elected Beadle vice Heaps 
(who retired on a pension of ,£52 per annum). 

2 k 2 


1 551. 24Teirtorcm&iun the xxviij"' daye of Aprill in the v"' yere of the reigne 
of King Edwarde the sixte yt was condescended and agreed by M r Bancke and Edward 
Hewit before M r Geen with his Wardeins That John Chambr shall performe his bargayne 
w"' Willfh Drew for the healing of his mayde for the mony receyved of him aforehand 
which is xiij s iiij' 1 ' And further yt is agreed that james Wood shall repay to the said 
Drewe the mony receyved of him which is xiij s iiij d * Also the sayd John Chambr shall 
agre w"' the sayd James Wood for his labor and content him for his payne according 
to conscience. 

19th September, 1552. Alsoo it ys ordered and agreed that the servnts of 
Straungers that occupye Surgery shall paye x' 1 the quarter w ch is iij s iiij d by yere. 

5th March, 1555. Among the Articles ordained on this day are 
the following : — 

That there shalbe chosein viij examyners wherof iiij to be alwayes present to 
examyn all such as experte in Surgery, the M' and governors being present Wherupon the 
sayed examyners may sett their hands w" 1 the consent of the M r and gov°nors hearing the 
mater. And that the sayed examyners shall not examyn nor geve Lres of lycence 
but that the M r and govViors shalbe prevy therof. And that there maye be a booke made 
wherine every mans name that have Lycence to occupye Surgery being approved, 
to be enrolled and what ys the grace that ys to him or them appointed. And if they 
take upon them to doo otherwise than there grace ys geven them, the blame to redowne 
to him or them that so doo and not to the examyners nor to the m* and gov'nors, 
and that there maye be alwayes at every courte day twoo at the leaste of the sayed 
examyners during a moneth : and so afterward monethelye two of them to be there 
whose chaunce the monethe shall fall too yf there besynes be not the greater because the 

vAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. joy 

m' and gov'nors shoulde not be to seke if anye bodye shoulde be examyned there. And 
for defaulte of noen being there having no reasonnable excuse, to lose to the hall ij s if he 
doo not send worde or cofne himself being in the Cytie of London, or desyen a nother 
examyner to be there for him when his course ys at every Courte daye because we shoulde 
not be w'out them who can answer the matter towching Surgery. 

That they whiche be appointed for the Anathomye for the yere next following and 
must sarve the Docter and be about the bodye he shall se and provyde that there be 
every yere, a matte about the harthe in the hall that M r Docter made not to take colde 
upon his feate, nor other gentelmen that do come and marke the Anathomye to learne 
knowledge And further that there be ij fyne white rodds appointed for the Docter to 
touche the body where it shall please him and a waxe candell to loke into the bodye 
and that there be alwayes for the Docter two aprons to be from the sholder downewarde 
and two peyr of Sleaves for his hole arme w' tapes for chaunge for the sayed doctor 
and not to occupye one Aporne and one payer of Sieves every daye w ch ys unseamly. 
And the M rs of the Anathomye y' be about the bodye to have lyke aprons and sieves every 
daye bothe white and cleane. Yf y' the M r of the Anathomye y' be about the Docter doo 
not see theise things ordered and that their knyves probes and other instruments be 
fayer and cleane accordinglye w th Aprons and sieves, if they doo lacke any of the said 
things afore rehersed he shall forfayte for a fyne to the hall xl s - 

22nd July, 1556. It was ordained among other articles— 

An Article that 

ev'ye Barbor That from the feaste of Saint Michaell tharchaungell next comynge no 

occun'ine barbor Surgeon that dothe occupye the mystery of Surgery in the Clothinge 

Surgery shah or ou t f the Clothing shall take or have any prentys but that he can 

take no man' ^ 

of prentice but skyll of the Laten tonge and understand the same and can wryte and 

suche as hathe rea( j e su ffycientlye and yf they or any of them doo take any that can 
some know- j j j j j j 

ledge in the not doo the same they that offende shall paye to the hall for a ffyne xl s ' 
Latten tonge. 

An Article that 

all premizes Tnat pre ntisses that shalbe made ffree after michelmas next comynge 

that here after r 

shalbe made that doo occupy the mystery of Surgery and all other men that doo 

entend n Io l ° desyer to occupy the same and to be a brother w"' us, to be examyned 

occupye an d to passe according to the order of this house as a prefermet of a 

Surgery shalbe , 

examyned and grace to him geven as the order hereafter followeth as he shalbe 

ffirFteprefcr- demaunded and apposoe. 
met of grace. 

}io ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

An Article That after michelmas next comyng all p'ntyces when they are made ffree 

howe the 

sayedprentizes must (be) demaunded by the M' and gov'nors and the iiij examyners what 

shalbe ne ni t e ndeth to doo after he is made free, whether he will occupye the 


mystery of Surgery or no w'in the Cytie of London. Yf he saye ye Then 

to be examyned what he can doo towards yt, howe he knoweth what ys Surgery and also 

what an Anatomye ys and howe manye perts it ys, of what the iiij ' Elements and the 

xij signes be w ch ys the fyrste pert of examynacon for a prentyce & for other that wilbe 

brother with us as the examyners shall see cause, for having of their preferment of their 

first grace to them to be geven. 

An Article That when he hathe aunswered to the firste article preyving that he hathe 

that upon his 

examy on of some Learninge or practyse Then to have his firste preferment of grace to 

sSd^Drentis occupye Surgery by the space of so many yeres or tyme as the M r and 

shall have his gov°nors and the examyners shall thinke meete, and as his Industrye shall 
preferme't of , , , , , , . ..... ,, , . 

grace and if seme to receyve the grace of god and by his dilhgent travell to studye in 

he or they can tne same anc [ f or an homage thereof if he be learned or can wryte to bringe 
reade to bring ° ' 

in qr'terly an in an Epistell ev°y half yere and to reade it himselfe openly at the day of 

Lecture before the hole house that they may see his furtheraunce how he 

hathe profyted in his dilligen't Labor and studye, and the unlearned that can not wryte 

nor reade to be examyned half yerelye what they can doo in the practyse because they 

be unlettered by the m r and gov r; nors and the Examyners how they have taken payens in 

their studye to practyse because they be unlettered for the Savegarde of the kg and 

queenes mat 5 people. 

An Article 

desvrinefcT Tha.* any man occupyinge the mystery of Surgery being made free and 

havejiis pre- desiereth to have his firste preferment of grace shall paye to the Clercke 

fermet of grace 

shall paye to of the Companye for the wrytinge Inrolling fynding waxe to seale it and 

the Clarcke f t , nav j ng of the g eale v jjjd. 

tory e wryting ° J 

therof viij 1 '- 

An Article That no man of the Companye after the feaste of Saint Michell Tharchaungell 
that no man _, 

occup'ing n ext comyng shall call for the Busshopes seale which ys the confyrmacon 

Surgery shall Q f a g ur g eon untill suche tyme as he hathe passed his fyrste preferment of 

Busshopes grace & the Seconde admyssion to lie admitted to be a Surgeon and a 

be admitted a Maister of Anathomye, and to paye for the having of the Seconde 

i M ' i? f m^T admyssyon a spone of an ounce of Silver and his name to be wrytten upon 

gov'nors & the it to the hall, and the Clercke of the Company for the wryting and findinge 

mjExamyners. waxe an( j enro n m g f vt m t h e boke viij <L and if the p°son doo not this 

passe orderly he to paye for a ffyne to the hall xl 5. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


"pjfio ovbev of the ffyrste preferment of grace of the admissyon of 

practycyoners that have been prentizes and be made ffree what 
they shall have fyrste towards their preferment. 
The order of ^iforasmocfje as yt is expedyent that no man occupye the worthye Scyence 
prefermet of of Surgerye but suche as shalbe thoughte apte and industr to execute the 

grace of same truelye and accordinglye as well for the comodytie and proffyt of the 

practicions ' ° ' j <r j 

and prentices, comen welthe as also for the avoyding of the Inconveniences and Slaunder 
that otherwise mighte happen by the rasshenes. and unconning of suche lewde persons 
as taketh upon them to exercyse Surgery being neither expert nor of us admytted to the 
same. And forasmoche as it is not possyble that any shall attayne to the same w'out 
instructions firste learned of conninge and well exercysed men of that facultie : being 
broughte up therin as a practycyoner or otherwise under some well scylled M r for certayne 
yeres : in whiche tyme he mighte applye his mynde to learne perfectly the rules and 
speculatyve pert therof. The maister and gov°nors of the Barbors and Surgeons of 
London w* the foure Examyners and the rest of the hole assistaunce have thoughte it 
good after suche tyme and terme of yeres expired every suche prentis or otherwise 
Servaunt being made fire of the sayed Companye and ffellowship shall also have a tyme 
appointed by us and the reste of the Companye to practise and to put in use suche 
knowledge as he hathe that we in tyme afterwarde havinge intelligence of his connynge 
and well dooyngs may constitute him a maister of Surgery if his deserving so requier. 
Wherfore we the sayed Maisters and governors and the iiij" r examyners w" 1 the rest of 
the hole assistaunce here at this instante doo admitt A. B. as a practycyoner : who hath 
served as a prentis with R. G. maister aucthorisshed of this Company the space of 
yeares and now being a freeman of this Companye to practise Surgery in all plac°s 
according to his knowledge for the space of yeares as a tryall and a proofe of his 

knowledge may be had. In Witnesse wherof of the premisses we have caused this Lre to 
be sealed w' our seale of our hall touching the firste admissyon of his fyrste prefermet of 
grace the xxiiij" 1 day of Julye Anno dni 1556. 

"jEBe (Sr&er of the firste prefermet of their grace that be Lay bretherne 
that occupye the Scyence of Surgery w th us and also for them that 
be not a brother w"' us and dothe desyre to be (of) us for their 
fyrste admissyon of practycyoners. 

The order of ■< gjforctsmocfje as yt is moste expedyent that no man 
prefermet of occupie," etc., etc. This licence is similar to the last one 

grace for Laye * 

Bretherne. excepting that it provides that the person admitted being 

312 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

made a brother, though no free man, should have a time given to 
him in which to practise the art of Surgery on approval. 

'{SBe (5>r6er of the Admissyon of Maisters of Surgery and of the 
Anatamye to be confyrmed for ever before they have the Seale of 
the Busshop w dl maketh up the hole confyrmacon of a master 
of Surgery & of Anathomye. 

The order of "giUe Thomas Knot M r Thomas Gayle John Smythe and Thorn's ffishe 
of a M r of Governors Thomas Vycary George Hollande George Geen and Richard 
Surgerye. fferes M' s and examyners of the Company of Barbours and Surgeons 

of London w" 1 the rest of the whole assistaunce of the same Companye To all men to 
whorne this wryting shall come greting. ^§Se certifye youe by this Lre that whereas 
o r welbeloved in Christe T. A. ys not onely a man of honest fame and good behaveor but 
is also expert connynge and well exercysed in the arte of Surgery as his well defycell' 
cures and prosperous successe w ch can not be dooen w'out maturate judgement and 
Learninge dothe make thereof moste certayne trueth and be assure witnes. ffurther more 
we are assured by the experyence we have of the man that he is not onely substancyally 
well exercysed in the curing of infyrmities belonging to Surgery of the pts of mans bodye 
comonly called the Anathomye : Wherfore we aswell in the behalf equyte reason 
and conscyence as also for the prefennet of Learning knowledge and experyence doo 
thinke yt meete convenyent and reasonnable to constitute the same T. A. bothe A Maister 
of Surgery and also of the Anathomye and willeth him so to be taken for ever hereafter 
and to have auctorytie to exercyse & occupye as well the one as the other wheresoever 
he shall come w'in this Realme or ellswhere of the premisses §n Witnes wherof we 
have caused this Lre to be sealed w" the great comon seale of our Hall the xxiij th daye 
of July A dni 1556. 

27th August, 1557. The same daye It Wase ffurder ordered and agreed that all 
men of the saide Companye and fellowshypp usinge the mystere and crafte of Surgerye 
maye take unto hys or y r Apprentice anye person or persons althoweth 2 he or they be 
not lerned in the Latin Tonge, anye Acte here to fore made to the contrarye not with 

The same day it was ordered that the two Masters of Anatomy 
should have the keys and custody of the " Lyberary and of the 

t ' Difficult. '-' Although. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 313 

Instrments" therein, and that the Wardens of the Yeomanry were to 
keep the Instruments clean. 

Attendance by the members on the Surgical side was compulsory 
at the Anatomy lectures, and 27th August, 1557, is an order of Court 
that Robert Mudsley (Master in 1572 and 1580) "hath lycence to be 
absent from all lecture dayes w'''oute paymete any fyne for by cawse 
he hath gyven over the exercysynge of the arte of Surgery and doth 
occupy only a sylk shoppe and shave." 

A little later on, William Cawsey had licence to be absent from 
the lectures on payment of a yearly fine of 3^. ^d., and there are scores 
of similar exemptions in the books. 

1st March, 1558. Jasper the Cutter for the Stoane had Lycence by the M' and 
gov'nors that he shall worcke and set forth his sygne and he payde for hys fyne x b and yf 
that he do not go ov° in to his owne cuntrye before whytsontide nexte after folowyng he hath 
promysed that he wylbe a brother of this howse but as yet he ys not admytted a brother. 

25th October, 1558. There was before the Court one Leonardo 

Rodergo — 

Surgeon & deucheiiia whome p°sumptinglye & arogantly stood and bragged w 1 " a 
letter to be in the name of Kyng Phillippe lycencing hym to occupye surgery w'in all y e 
Kyngs & quenes domynions & when yt was seene y r to was nether seale nor the kyngs 
hande, but a sorte of Spanyards hands & names whome he sayde afterwards yt one of 
them was y e kyngs secretary & thother of his Councell. 

Dr. J. J. Howard had in his collection the following document, 
which, as he says, affords good evidence of the low condition of 
Surgical practice in the metropolis at the accession of Elizabeth. 

glijatn'tB by the grace of God Queen of England Fraunce and Irelonde 

Defender of the faith etc. To all Mayours Sheriffs Baylliffs 

Constables and all other our Offycers Mynisters and Subjects 

thees our Lettres hearinge or seinge and to every of them greetinge. 

^9c lett you wete that for certeyn consideracions us movinge we have by 

theise presents auctorised and lycensed our Trustie and Wellbeloved Servaunte 

^Borrms prxrctrn Sergeant of our Surgions and the Wardens of the Fellowshipp 

2 s 

314 o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of the said Surgions within our Cytie of London that now be or hereafter shalbe, that 
they by themselfs or their assigne bearer hereof shal and may from hensforth take 
and reteyne at our wages as well within the Cytie of London as elsewhere within any 
other Cytie Towne Boroughe or other place within this our Realme as well franchised 
and privileged as not franchised nor privileged suche and as many Surgions as they shall 
thinke mete and able from time to time to doe unto us servyce in the scyence of Surgerie 
at any season hereafter as well by sea as lande and further that the Sergeant and 
Wardeyns aforesaide shal or maye take of suche as be not able to serve suche instruments 
and other stuff of Surgerie as they shal thinke mete to sarve agreinge and payinge 
therfor to all suche of whom any suche instruments or stuff shal be taken. "gilfjexfove 
]l$e woll and comaunde you and evy of you that unto our saide Sergiant and the 
Wardeyns aforesaid and their assigne bearer hereof in the due execucion of this our 
aucthoritie and lycense ye be aydinge helpinge and assistinge as oft as the case shal 
require without any your dcnyall lett or contradycion as ye and evy of you tender our 
pleasure and woll avoide the contrary at your peril §n Witness whereof We have 
caused theis our Lettres of Commissyon to be sealed with our Create Seale. Wytness 
ourself at Westmynstre the day of December the seconde yere of our Reigne. 

1st October, 1566, is an entry of the translation from the 
Woodmongers' Company of William Slade, who was stated to be 
"a Surgeon & learned yt w' h Ric. Venar & John Hall at Maydstone." 
This John Hall was a famous Surgeon in his day and wrote " An 
Historiall Expostulation Against the beastlye Abusers, bothe of 
Chyrurgerie and Physyke," which has been reprinted with several 
valuable notes by the Percy Society (Vol. XI) accompanied with 
John Hall's portrait. 

14th January, 1567. M r Doctor Julyo made request y' he myghte have the 
work of the anathomy these iiij or or fyve yeres so y' the coledge of the phicysions sholde 
not put hym from us & also y' he myghte have p n vat anathomyes at his demaunde in 
this howse. 

16th January, 1567. It was agreed that Dr. Julius Borgarneins 
("Dr. Julyo") should "make and worke ow r anathomyes and 
skellytons " for the space of five years. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 315 

1 8th March, 1567. Thomas Wells, Merchant Taylor, com- 
plained against Nicholas Wyborde for " not curynge his mans hed 
y' he tooke in hande." 

The following order for the erection of raised seats for the 
members attending the Anatomy lectures, and for a screen to 
temporarily hide the body, indicates the growing interest taken by 
the Company in the furtherance of technical education ; and from 
the reference to the skeleton, for which a case was directed to be 
made, it is highly probable that this was the only specimen which 
the Company in those days possessed ! 

1st February, 1568. Also yt ys ordayned and agreed by this Courte That there 
shalbe buyldyngf don and made aboute the hall for Seates for the Companye that 
cometh unto every publyque anathomy, ffor by cavvse that every p^sone comyng to se the 
same maye have good p 9 spect over the same and that one sholde not cover the syght 
thereof one frome another as here to fore the Company have much coplayned on the 
same. And also foder more yt is agreed that the olde standyng w dl did s°ve for the 
company of the clothing at coronacions or any noble pere his coiiiyng throughe the cytie 
oute of any fforeyns Contrey or lande, for bycawse yt is broken and spoyled and olde 
shall all be put to the makyng of the saide seates or for sparyng of the charge for 
new Tymber. And also That whan yt shall happen any greate pere of any fforren Lande 
upon tryumphe to come as aforsaid and the Company beynge then comanded to theyre 
standyng for to receyve any noble man for the hono r of the prince kynge or quene of this 
Realme of England and the cytie of London, That then as now and now as then also the 
M r and gov'no' 5 for the tyme beyng shall buylde & make a new Substanciall and Comly 
fayer standyng To serve in lyke and ample maner. And also ther shalbe pyllers and 
Rodf of Iron made to beare and drawe Courteynes upon & aboute the frame where w"'in 
the Anathomy doth lye and is wrought upon, for bycawse that no p°sone or p°sones 
shall beholde the desections or incysyngf of the body, but that all maye be made cleane 
and covered w th fayer clothes untyll the Docter shall com and take his place to reade 
and declare upon the partes desected. And also yet forder more also, That there shalbe 
a case of weynscot made w th paynters worke y r upon as semely as maye be don ffor the 
skellyton to stande in and that for the Worshyp of the Company — and all these to 
be made wrought and don at the charges of the mistery and Covnon boxe of the hall. 

2 S 2 

316 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1 6th March, 1568. Here was Edward Park for y* he hath wretten upon his 
Surgeons signe the skoller of S' Thomas of Wallingforde and the said Edward Parke 
is comaunded by the aucthorytie of this worsshyphfull Courte That he the said Edward 
Parke shall w"' all expedicion put oute of his said Signe the said wrytinge & to sett 
his signe as other Surgeons do w'out any superscryption yt upon and not ells otherwyse as 
he wyll answere to the contrarye. 

13th July, 1568. In this Courte John ffrende is comytted to warde for a 
pacient dyeing under his hands and not presented. 

19th April, 1569. Here was the wyfe of Richard Selbye of London Ironmonger 
playntyf agaynst William Wyse for that he cured not her housbonds leg as he promysed 
he wolde have don, and yt is ordered that Wylliam Wyse shall repaye agayne of the 
money w ch he receyved in parte of the bargayne made be twene them and then was in the 
p^sents of this Courte payde unto Agnes the wyf of the above said Richard Selby 
vj s viij d and so William Wyse is clerely dyscharged of pacyent & all. 

1570. This year it was deemed advisable to increase the 
number of the Examiners in Surgery from five to seven, and these 
were Mr. Serjeant Balthrop, Mr. Alexander Mason, Mr. Thomas 
Baylie, Mr. Robert Mudesley, Mr. John Field, Mr. John Yates, 
and Mr. William Bovie. 

5th April, 1570. It was agreed that in consequence of the 
great charges with which the Company was always burdened in time 
of wars, in setting forth sufficient surgeons and their men with 
unguents, balms, etc., as also common soldiers, that a petition should 
be sent to the Queen for redress in the matter of providing soldiers. 

nth April, 1570. Here was one playntyf agaynst W" Heton for 

a bubo & W" Beton wyll heale hym yf he wylbe ruled by him. 

28th April, 1570. In this Courte W" Gyllam is charged to cure Elizabeth 
Hyns of carmebrontyasis & once a day Gyllam shall p°seve her untyll she be hole 
and then she shall paye the said Gillam in the p°sents of this Courte in redy money vj s viij' 1 - 

dAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 31 7 

nth November, 1572. Here was one Steven Robinson to complaine againste 
Edward Parke for arestinge hym for the curinge of hym for v yeres seence. ( Which 
means that Parke had sued Robinson for a surgeoris bill five years old, without leave 
of the Court.) 

1 2th February, 1573. Here was John ffrend and was comaunded to lay downe 
his fyne for not p°ntinge M' Watson of the Towre w dl dyed of Gangrena in his fote 
and he p d xv s - 

This non-presentation of patients in danger of death, was a 
common offence, and Mr. Frend had been previously convicted of it 
(13th July, 156S), on which occasion he was committed to prison. 

31st March, 1573. Here was Edwarde Saunders warned because he wold not 
paye the Anathomytf ther dutye and also that he had let one bloude at Blackwall and 
that he dyed, his arme fallynge to Gangrena and made no p'sentacon therof also that 
he w"'eld certeyne things of Whittingtons widdowe and he was willed to be here the 
next Courte daye. 

21st April, 1573. Here was one to complaine one' John Burges for not 
delinge well w"' hym in his cure concernynge a sore arme and he is to be warned the 
next court. 

28th April, 1573. Here was John Burgis and witnessed that the said pacient 
would not be ordered as was necessary and therefore he forsoke to deale w"' hym. 

21st May, 1573. Here was John Deane and appoynted to brynge in his fyne x' 1 
for havinge an Anathomye in his howse contrary to an order in that behalf between this 
and mydsomer next. 

2 1 st July, 1573. " Here was one Robert Grottell a straunger 
and cutter for the Stone, admitted a brother and paid iiij' 1 " and bound 
to pay the remainder of his fine for admission at the rate of 10s. per 

30th July, 1573. Here was one John Gardener a healer of the rupture and 
Stone and was exatnyned and had his Lre of Admyttaunce and paid. 

1 On, i.e., of. 

?i8 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

15th September, 1573. Here was one Alexander Capes a carpenter and required 
that he might have some helpe concernyng his griefs consyderinge that he had ben in 
thands of John ffrend Williri Wise & Richard Storye and had geven them mony for to be 
cured and was not, wherefor order was taken that they should deale further w lh him for his 

nth May, 1574. Here was James Marcadye and required to have Lycens of 
absens one' Lecture dayes and it was graunted hym savinge that he muste pay for his 
lycens \x A the quarter. 

Surgeons were continually being called before the Court for 
"evil dealing" with their patients, and for not performing cures for 
which they had received the money beforehand. The Court generally 
endeavoured to effect a friendly relationship between the parties, 
though in cases which were considered as clearly proved against the 
Surgeon, he was either fined or imprisoned, or else ordered to make 
suitable compensation to the patient. 

7th September, 1574. Here was John Griffen complayned uppon William 
Pownsabe for gevinge him a powder w d ' lossed all the teeth in his head, w ch John Griffen 
had the dissease \v ch we call Demorbo gallico. 

2nd February, 1575. Wm. Pownsabe was ordered to confess 
his fault for his " unskilfull dealinges" with John Griffen and to pay him 
$s. as compensation. 

13th March, 1576. Here was a complainte determyned upon w ch was made 
against Tho: Hodes and for that he was provde ignorant he is bounde in xl 1 ' never to 
medle in any matter of S°gery. 

3rd April, 1576. Here was a complainte against Willfn More by one Henry 
Dobbyns for that he did not cure his sonne but made the same worse. 

10th May, 1576. William More was ordered, on account of 
his ignorance, to meddle no more in Surgery. 

■ On. 

cAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. yg 

2nd October, 1576. Here was likewyse a complaint by one Tho: Adams against 
John P^adice' for that the saide John had receyved certen monie in hand and a gowne in 
pawne for a remainder to cure the daughter of the saide Tho: whiche daughter died and 
the pore man made request for the gowne agayne and so the M r and governo' 5 abovesaide 
awarded that the saide Jo: P°adice sholde redeliv 1 the gowne the next tuesdaie and that 
the saide Tho: Adams sholde geve unto the saide Jo: P'adyce towardf his bote hier spent 
in going to the made at Putney v s - 

8th October, 1577. Here was a complainte made by one M' s - Riche against 
Robt. Bewsy for that he had her husbonde to cure who died and the said Bewsye said 
and reported that she was an evell liver and that he died of a botch called Bubo veneria 
and taken of her, w ch he denied, but beinge proved she put the matter wholie to this 
wo°shipfull howse who did award that he sholde in the p°sence of her nighbors who were 
here present in the p°lor upon his knees aske her forgevenes, w dl he did and so the matter 
was finally ended. 

7th February, 1578. Here was a complainte against Willm Knightly for 
Cuttinge of the yearde of his pacient but yt was p\ed by one M r Grene that the member 
was mortefied and so there was little to be saide against him. 

24th February, 1578. Here was a Complaint against Willm Clowes- by Richard 
Carrington for that the saide Willm Clowes as he saide had abused him in wordes in the 
hall and here they did shake handes and were made frends, for that the said Clowes had 
been sent to ward before by the saide Richard Carrington being one of the wardens of the 

1 8th March, 1578. At this Co°te Hewe Placket was rebuked for takeing upon 
him to heale a pacient who ys deade and comaundement geven that he shall medle no 
more in surgerie. 

20th March, 1578. It was ordered : — 

That yf any man of this misterie shall at any tyme hereafter make any booke or 
bookes of Surgerie the same shall not be published utiles the same booke or bookes be 
first presented unto the masters governors and examenors of this Companie for the tyme 
beinge upon payne of x' 1 - 

' Paradice. -An eminent Surgeon and Warden in 1594. 

)2 o e/lnmils of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The following order was doubtless directed against a prevalent 
mania for relics of notorious criminals. 

17th July, 1578. That no p r 'son or p°sons of this Companie do presume at anie 
tyme or tymes hereafter of Anathomies to take and carrie awaie or cause to be taken or 
carried awaie any p°te of the skynn of anie bodie whiche shall at anie tyme hereafter 
happen to be wrought upon w"'in the hall of the misterie and the same tann or cause to 
be tanned like lether upon the payne of v 1 '- 

7th December, 1581. It ys agreed that there shalbe a Bill put into the p°liament 
house for easinge the Companie of the charge of sendinge souldiers to the wars and also 
for suppressinge of lewd dealers in surgerye. 

1 8th July, 1583. The Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen 
having recommended that persons using Barbery should not practise 
Surgery, the Master and Governors went to Guildhall, and there 
promised the Court of Aldermen that they would compel all their free 
Barbers to enter into bonds not to " medle or deale w th any sick of the 
plauge or infected cum morbo gallico," and accordingly the Barbers 
entered into bonds to that effect. 

In Stow's Annales, ed. 1592, p. 1261, is the following remarkable 
account of a " subject " coming to life again at our hall. 

1587. The 20 of Februarie, a strange thing happened a man hanged for felonie 
at Saint Thomas Wateringes, being begged by the Chirurgions of London, to have made 
of him an Anatomie, after hee was dead to all mens thinking, cut downe, stripped of his 
apparel], laide naked in a chest, throwne into a carre, and so brought from the place of 
execution through the Borough of Southwarke over the bridge, and through the Citie of 
London to the Chirurgions Hall nere unto Cripelgate : The chest being there opened, and 
the weather extreeme cold hee was found to be alive, and lived till the three and twentie 
of Februarie, and then died. 

It was doubtless the above circumstance, to which reference is 
made in the next minute ; it would seem that the body had been 
begged by some surgeons and taken to the hall to be dissected there, 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 321 

it being unlawful to dissect elsewhere, and that on the resuscitation of 
the unhappy man, the Company had been put to some expenses where- 
upon they made an order to provide for any similar case in the future. 
This body would be what is often referred to in the Books as a 
"private anatomy," in opposition to the four "public" bodies of felons 
to which the Company were annually entitled. 

13th July, 1587. T'tm yt ys agreed That yf any hodie w ch shall at anie tyme 
hereafter happen to be brought to o r Hall for the intent to be wrought uppon by 
Thanatomistes of o r Companie shall revyve or come to lyfe agayne as of late hathe ben 
seene The charges aboute the same bodie so revivinge shalbe borne levied and susteyned 
by such p°son or p r 'sons who shall so happen to bringe home the Bodie. And further 
shall abide suche order or ffyne as this Howse shall Awarde. 

7th December, 1598. This daye commaundm' cam from the lordes of her ma ts 
most ho : privie councell for to presse a sufficient Surgeon for her ma" s°vice in Ireland 
under the conduct of Captayne YVinsor. 

1 2th December, 1598. John Cumberland was pressed for the 
above service and delivered into his Captain's charge, and four or five 
other Surgeons were also pressed and handed over nolens volens. One 
of these, Dominick Lomeline (or Lumley, Master in 1629), is recorded 
on the 16th January following as having "confessed voluntarelye before 
the Masters that to be dischardged of his presse for Ireland it stud him 
in Twenty Nobles of which the Captayne had in monye three poundes." 

6th February, 1599. This daie one Richard Hallydaie marriner made his 
complainte of Raphe Rowley for settinge forthe an insufficient man not approved to 
serve as a surgeon at sea in the Sheepe called the Costely of London by whose unskyl- 
fullnes hee was dismembred of his arme and is in greate dainger of liefe. 

Ralph Rowley had been pressed for a Sea Surgeon, and this 
complaint would be against him for the incompetency of some 
substitute, whom he had no doubt paid to take his place. 


c/Jmni/s of the Barber-Surgeons. 

27th March, 1599. It is ordered that an Informaeon be exhibited againste the 
Sexton of White Chappell for Surgerye. 

6th August, 1599. This daie the Maister of the Company made his peticon to 
the lorde Bishopp of London that noe person shoulde be admitted to practize Surgerie 
but suche person as shoulde have the seale of this house to testefie his examination 
before the Maisters &c. which was graunted And order sett downe for the same. 

23rd October, 1599. Pascall Lane hath Thursdaie comme a moneth to be 
examined and in the meane tyme not to hange out banners and not to cutt unles he 
acquainte the m" therewithal!. 

27th November, 1599. This daie Richard Cadwalder hath undertaken that 
Roberte Thompson nowe shewed' in the Exchequer for useinge surgerie withoute a signe' 
shall uppon his retorne be examined concerninge his skille in Surgerye and shall paie 
suche chardges as shalbe due to this howse. 

10th June, 1600. This daye Oliv Peacock brought in his fine for not 
p°sentinge his Cure 3 being nowe dead and it was mittigated to five shillinges And it is 
farther ordered that he practize surgery no more. 

3rd July, 1600. This daye Andrew Mathew Edward Peck Robert Steward 
and Owine Jones free brothers of this mistery were at their sev°all instances examined 
& approved concerninge their skill in the arte of Surgery and had their severall letters 
of grace und r the seale of the sayd mistery by Richard Wood Willm Martin Thomas 
Thorney & John Peck examiners appoynted in the p°sence of the M rs of this Company. 

8th July, 1600. This daye warrant came to the M re for the p°singe 4 of a 
Surgeon for Captayne Thomas Minn bearinge date the sixth daye of this instant moneth. 

15th July, 1600. This daye Raphe Barrett & Robert Thompson forren Surgeons 5 
made theyr request to the M rs that they might be examyned on thursdaye next 
Whereuppon it was ordered that the Examyners should be warned to be at the hall 
at the sayd tyme. 

29th July, 1600. This daye it is ordered that John Mowle shalbe warned to 
be before the M rs the next Court for usinge Surgery beinge but a barber. 

1 Suerl. '-' Outside his house. 'i.e., His patient. ' Pressing. 

' i.e., Surgeons not free of the Company. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 323 

8th September, 1600. i§ciax>o die Septembris Anno diii 1600 Annoque Elizabeth 
Quadragesimo secundo. 

^Jifici'cas at a Courte holden the Maisters or Governors and Assistants of this 
Companye the Nynteenth daie of Maye laste paste It was amongest other thinges 
ordered condiscended and agreed by consente of a full courte of the said Assistance 
That the request and mocon of ffrancis Rowdon Clarke to this Companye shoulde 
be referred to the Consideracon of the Auditors of the Maisters Accompts And what 
they shall doe in the premisses should be lawfull and effectuall to all intentes and 
purposes 'gSee Thomas Byrd John Leycocke Lewis Atmer Robert Johnson Richard 
Mapes Thomas Goodale Thomas Martyn and Joseph ffenton beinge chosen Auditors 
for the Maisters accomptes for the yeare paste havinge taken due consideracon of the 
premisses and findinge that the accomplisheinge of the said requeste maye muche 
proffitt the bodye of this Companye in the banisheinge of lewde and unskylfull practiconers 
in the arte of Surgerie poc therefore by the Aucthority to us geeven order in manner 
and forme hereafter ensuinge viz' ffirste wee order that there be presentlie paide unto the 
saide Clarke the somme of xx' 1 - of lawfull money of England out of the stocke of this 
howse the same to be repaide to this howse by v" p'' Ann. Alsoe wee doe further order 
that uppon payment of the said xx 1 ' to the said Clarke aforesaid the said Clarke shall 
termelie prosecute a competent number of the said practiconers in Surgerie and shall 
not delaie any suite he shall undertake but shall prosecute the same with effecte unles 
there be any misprison in the same And if there be any misprison then to acquainte the 
Maisters for the tyme beinge with the same misprison. Alsoe wee doe order that the 
said Clarke shall porsecute such p°sons as the Maisters of this Companye shall from 
tyme to tyme geeve order for. Alsoe wee doe further order that the said Clarke shall not 
compounde or agree with any he shall have to doe by waie of informacon before he 
hath acquainted the Maisters therewithall and hath obtayned their consents thereunto 
And whatsoever he shall receave uppon any Composition over and besides such Costes 
and chardges as he shall expend in and aboute suche suite he shall well and trulye 
contente and paie unto the said Maisters or Governors for the tyme beinge. Provided 
alwaies that he ffirste acquainte the Maisters or Governors of this Company for the tyme 
beinge therewith And deliver unto them a reasonable and true bill of his Costes and 
Chardges disbursed as aforesaid And that he scale and deliver as his deed one wrytinge 
obligatorie wherein he shall become bounden to the Maisters or Governors of this 
Companye with Condicon theruppon indorced contayninge the Articles above specified 
In Witnes whereof wee the said Auditors hereunto put o r severall handes. Yoven the 
daie and yeare ffirste above written. 

2 T 2 


124 oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

2 2 nd October, 1600. Robert Swayne was this daye examined by M r Thorney 
M r Willfii Martin M r Wood & M r Atmer and not founde sufficient but is nevertheles 
tolerated to come to o r Lectures & Annathomies And is to paye for the same xx s yerely by 
5 s quarterly till hee be founde more sufficient. 

5th May, 1601. This daie a complainte was made againste Martyn Pelham by a 
patient he had in cure of his arme for not fynisheinge the said cure w ch cure was accom- 
plished by Thomas Watson whereuppon it is ordered that the said Pelham be warned to 
appeare uppon the next courte daye. 

6th August, 1601. This daye Will'" Pilkinton uppon his examinacon was 
tolerated to practize Surgery for five yeres next ensuinge Provided that hee paie quarterly 
to this howse ij s vj d and that hee the said Pilkinton doe joyne w ,h him in ev^y cure he shall 
have in dang' of death or mayne some expert surgeon of this Company. 

10th November, 1601. This daye John Russell of Canterbury Surgeon was 
examined and was admitted & approved. 

24th November, 1601. ^XtBerccts James Van Otten and Nycholas Bowlden are 
this daye become humble suiters to this Company to be tollerated & p°mitted to practize 
as Surgeons w ,h in this Cytie of London for and durynge the space of Three moneths next 
ensuinge onely for the couchinge of the catarack cuttinge for the rupture stone and 
wenne It is uppon consideraccon of their sev'all suites ordered by consent of this Courte 
That hee the said James Vanotten shalbe p r 'mitted to practize for the couchinge of the 
catarack cuttinge for the rupture stone and wenne for the space of three monethes next 
ensuinge w"'out contradiccon or denyall of the M rs or Governors of this Company And 
that hee the said Nycholas Bowlden shalbe assistant unto the said James Vanotten in 
such cures as hee shalbe as aforesaid possessed of duringe the tyme & space aforesaid. 
Provided allwayes an^l it is nevertheles p°mised & undertaken by the said James & 
Nycholas that hee the said Nycholas shall paye unto the M rs or Governors of this 
Company to the use of the poore of the same every moneth monethly duringe the said 
space of three moneths the somme of ij s vj' 1 And that the said James Vanotten shall 
paye to the said M' s or Governors to the use of the poore of the said Company for every 
moneth monethly of the said three monethes in w ch the said James shall practize or 
continue in London or the libertyes suburbes or one myle compase of the said Cyty after 
the fower & twentyth daye of decemb' next ensuinge xx^ of lawful money of England. 
And provided that neyth' they nor eyth r of them shall p°sume to hange oute any banners 
or signe of Surgery in any place oth r then where they shall lye and make theyre abode 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 325 

\v"'in the tyme aforesaid or practize in any oth r poynte of Surgery then before is speCd 

w"'out furth' lycence of the M rs or Governors of this Company for the tyme beinge first 

had & obteyned. ffor p'formance whereof they the said James & Nycholas by bond 

are become bounden to M 1 Warden ffrederick in the somme of x 1 ' of lawful money of 

England. In Witnes whereof they have hereunto put their sev°all names. Yoven the 

daye & yere above wrytten 

Jacobus van Otten 

Nicholas Boden. 

2nd March, 1602. Havard is to paye to Nicholas Kellawaye v s - the nexte 
Courte daye for a launset w"' silver scales w ch he borrowed of the said Nicholas 

20th April, 1602. This daye one Kdward Stutfeyld a practiconer in bone 
settinge appeared before the M rs of this Company uppon warninge to him geven by 
the beadell of this Company And at his humble suite he was lycenced to practize in 
bone settinge onely Provided hee paye to the M rs of this Company to the use of the poore 
of the same X s for every quarter of yere that hee shall practize as aforesaid. 

20th April, 1602. This daye one John fibster a poore and unskylfull man of 
this Company made his appearance before the M rs of this Company and was examined 
concerninge his skyll in the arte of Surgery and was found altogeth' unskilfull in all the 
partes therefore Whereuppon it is ordered that M* Wilbraham Coroner to this Cytie be 
warned to be here w" 1 the Coroners Inquest on Thursdaye next by tenne of the clock in 
the forenoone to be satisfied by their owne hereinge of the unskilfullness of the said ffoster. 

22nd June, 1602. This daye Garrett Key a Strang' appeared before the M rs of 
this Company and in respect hee hath undertaken the cure of his patient one ffeake a 
Gowldesmythe beinge in danger of death w"'out makinge p°sentacon thereof to the M re of 
this Company Did voluntaryly geve to the said M re to the use of the poore of the 
same Company iij' 1 And thereuppon they have acquited him all former offences done 
to this Company. 

nth October, 1602. This daye Gabriell Hunt Practiconer in Surgery was 
Committed to the Compter for practizeinge of Surgery beinge not approved nor admitted 
accordinge to the Statute. 

3rd April, 1604. Under this date is an award made by the 
Court in an action remitted to the Masters by the Lord Mayor, wherein 

326 erf minis of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Walter Barton Barber-Surgeon, was plaintiff, and Thomas Sheeres 
Imbroiderer, Defendant. It appeared that Barton had cured Sheeres 
and his servant, Eustace Skelton, and had been at great charges in 
prosecuting Sheeres for his fees. The Court ordered the Defendant 
to pay Barton £4. within 14 days. 

5th June, 1604. This daye M r ffenton p'sented to this Courte 500 bookes of 
Horatius Morus tables translated into Englishe and deliv'ed them to the M rs of this 
Company in the name & behalf of M r Deputie Caldwell' who freely gave them to this 
Company to be distributed amongest the p°fessors of Chirurgery freemen of this Company. 

28th February, 1605. This daye it is ordered that there shalbe a letter p'ntly 
drawne by the advice of the M" of this Company and sent to the Colledge of Phisicons 
by the Clark of this Company wherein there shalbe desyred if they please a Conferrence 
betwixt some of theire College and some of the auncientf of this Company in some 
indifferent place of meetinge to conferre concerninge theire greevancf. 

1 8th March, 1605. This daye uppon the request of M' Serjeant Prymerose & 
M r Neste Smyth the kynges Surgeons by their Letter It was ordered that Cezar Scultinge 
Duchman theyre servant should be examyned and approved concerninge his skill in 
Surgery on thursdaye next And beinge found skilfull that hee mighte have letters of 
admittance from this Company gratis. 

21st March, 1605. " Zeger Schultynchs," the Dutchman above 
mentioned, was examined and had his diploma gratis, but was ordered 
to pay 2s. quarterage and 2s. for absence from lectures. 

30th April, 1605. This daye M r ffenton complayned of Robert Morrey for 
supplantinge him of div s cures And for slanderinge him in his pTession And also for 
his evell practize And was for his said abuses fyned at v 1 ' w th hee is to bringe in at the 
next Court orels to be committed to the Compter. 

7th May, 1605. Morrey being contumacious, was by the Court 
committed to prison. 

1 For a very interesting account of Morus' Tables and of Mr. Deputy Caldwell see Mr. D'Arcy Power's 

Memorials, p. 1S4. 

c/Jima/s of the Barber-Surgeons. 327 

28th May, 1605. This daye WilliYi Corbet appeared before the M rs of this 
Company and was dismissed from the exercyze of Surgery for his evill practize. 

This daye Willm Corbet was bounde to the M rs in x 1 ' not to practize Surgery or 
\v"'in one myles compasse w"'out the IVP lycence. 

25th June, 1605. This daye Abraham Renex is fined at x s for his absens from 
lectures And is to pay x F p° an. for his lycence of absens hereaff' 

3rd September, 1605. This day Pascall Lane a practicioner in the art of 
Surgery was by our M rs order comittcd to the Compter for cuttinge of one Thorns 
Thorntons child for the stone who dyed pn'tlie under his handf by his neckligence & 
ignoraunce where he is to continue till he hath payed the fine of xl b for not makeinge 
p°ntacon' to the M rs of the cure accordinge to the orders of the Company. 

1 2th September, 1605. In the controv'sie betwixt Thomas Thornton and 
Pascall Lane als~ Lyne It is ordered by consent of both pities That the said Pascall Lane 
shall p^ntlie pay to the said Thornton xx s which he p^ntlie did And he hath deliv'ed a 
ring to o r M rs w"' condicon to pay to the said Thornton xx s more this night And all 
controv°sies betwixt them are to cease and determine from henceforth. 

26th November, 1605. This day Henry Goodwyn a Sorcerer was by the M rs 
forbidden to practize any more in the arte of Surgery. 

1st July, 1606. This day Stephen Abraham a Barbor was fined for not makeing 
p°sentacon of his cure in daunger of death and it was forgeven him. 

14th July, 1606. The funds of the Company were, at this period, 
very low, Mr. Pecke offering to lend ,£50 and Mr. Fenton ^100, 
v/ithout interest, and the following entry would indicate that the 
expenses attendant upon the Anatomy demonstrations were a burden. 

This day for the avoydinge of charges it is ordered by this Courte that no 
publique Anothomy shalbe holden in the Comon hall of this mistery for the space of 
theis three yeares now next ensuinge. Yett notw"'standinge it is ordered by this Courte 
y' the M rs & Stewardf of the Anothomy for the yeare next ensuinge shall continue M re 
& Stewardf the said space And shall once in ev'ie yeare at such tymes as the M rs of 
this Company shall thinck fitt dissect a private Anothomy in the Comon hall of the 
said mistery for their better experience and cunninge. 

' Presentation. - Alias. 


j 28 cAnnate of the Barber-Surgeons. 

14th July, 1606. TlCso it is further ordered & decreed by this Courte fforasmuch 
as dive" p°sons ffremen of this Company who have very litle or no skill at all in the 
Arte of Surgery doe neverthelesse make a publique p°fession of the said Arte And 
thereby comitt many erro re to the great dispa°gm' of the worthie and experienced professo" 
thereof and to the hurte of div' s of his Ma'f lovinge subjectf That from henceforth 
no man be admitted to have his name entered downe for a Surgeon into the lecture 
bill except by the consent of the m rs or governours of the said mistery & Coililtie for 
the tyme beinge And that it shalbe lawful for the p°nte IVPor governours to dismisse out 
of the lecture bill the names of such p°sones as they shall thincke fitt to be put out, which 
p^sons so dismissed and put out shall live out of the protexion of this Company for & in 
respect of their practize in the Arte of Surgery untill they shall by them be thought fitt 
to practice in that Arte & admitted into such bill uppon their humble suite. But if any 
disobedient obstinate or stubborne p°son shall notw"\standinge his such dismission practice 
in the said arte Then it is further ordred by this Courte that suite in law shalbe 
p''secuted against such obstinate p°sons at the charge of this Company for such their 
unlawful! practice in Surgery. 

7th October, 1606. This daie Wilh'ri ffoster was fyned at xx s for his evell 
practize upon his patient being a servaunt of my Lord grace of Cant, and is to bring 
in the same fyne at the next Court. 

This daie it is ordered that Richard Holden be warned to the next Court 
for not reeding his lecture. 

24th October, 1606. This daie Clement White appeared before this Court 
upon Complaynt for settinge his servaunte to sea before he was examyned & his chest 
vewed by the M rs And for that he knew not the orders of this Company he is forgyven 
his offence for this tyme. 

2nd December, 1606. This daie John Anslow was comitted to the Compter 
for defraudinge of Willm ffoster of his patient And is to pay ffoster for his paynes 
in that cure. 

9th July, 1607. This daye Roger Jenkins' heretofore examined & app°ved 
in the Arte of Surgery was p^sented before the Deane of Pawles. And his letters 
of Admittance from the said Deane. 

Also Abraham Allen* was lykewyse admitted by the said Deane. 

1 Warden in 1608. - Warden in 161 1. 

a/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 120 

20th July, 1607. Mr. Thomas Thorney (Master 1602), Mr. 
Richard Mapes (M. 1612), Mr. Richard Wood (M. 1591), Mr. Serjeant 
Gudderus (M. 1594), Mr. Wiliili Gayle (M. 1595), Mr. George Baker 
(M. 1597 and Serjeant Surgeon), Mr. John Peck (M. 1605), Mr. 
Christopher Frederick (M. 1609 and Serjeant Surgeon), Mr. John 
Gerrard (the celebrated Herbalist, M. 1607), an d Mr. Joseph Fenton 
(M. 1624), were appointed Examiners of Surgeons, and amongst other 
articles it was ordained : — 

That none of the said examiners shall p°sent any p°son useinge surgery to the 
Bishop of London or to the Deane of Pawles to the intent to get or p°cure such Surgeon 
Lycence or admission to practize Surgery unlesse such Surgeon at such tyme shall have 
his letter of admittance from this Company under the Common seale of the same 
testifieinge his admission to practize surgery. 

7th July, 1 60S. This daye Mathias Jenkinson was examyned concerninge his 
skyll in the arte of Surgery And was lycenced to cut for the hernia or Rupture to 
couch the Catrac to cut for the wry neck & the hare lip Provided that hee call the 
p^sent M" of this Company to every such Cure or such of the Assistant^ as are examined 
& approved as the said M re in such case shall appoynt And is to enter into bond in xl H 
for p°formance hereof And paid to the p°sent M rs xl s And is to paye xl s more at 
midsomer next. 

20th June, 1609. This daye Mathias Jenkinson is dischardged from his practize 
in Surgery for that hee hath not observed the articles of his Tolleracon and for his evell 
& unskilfull practize. 

27th February, 1610. Whereas one William Wright was a suiter to this Courte 
that he might be examined & admitted to practice Surgery. Now forasmuch as it 
appeareth he is one of a contentious & troublesome speritt & of a bad & scandalous 
disposition who hath not onlie heretofore dive rs tymes byn fined for usinge slanderous & 
evill speeches against dive rs that have byn M rs & governours of this Company but also 
sundrie tymes heretofore & now daylie useth slaunderous wordf & speeches w" 1 many 
wicked cursingf & revilingf against M r Mapes in the hearinge of dive' s of the neighbour 
of the said Wright where he dwelleth, which beinge by this Court dulie examined is found 
that the same slaunde" & revilingf doe proceed out of his wicked mynd w"'out any just 
cause given Wherefore it is by this Courte ordered and fullie decreed That the said 

2 U 

? jo c/Jnmils of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Wright shall not at any tyme hereafter be examined or approved for his skill of Surgerie 
untill he shall & doe before 4 or 5 of the neighbou" of the said Wrighte to whom he hath 
thus abused M r Mapes and in his & their presence openlie confesse & acknowledge that 
he the said Wrighte hath wronged and abused the said M r Mapes And shall then and 
there before them submitt himself & be sorrie for all such wrongf & wicked Cursingf as 
he hath reported or spoken with promise hereafter never by wordf or deedf to wronge 
him or any other of this Courte or any other of the Assistant? of this Company. 

27th February, 1610. At this Courte was John Cotton of Radcliffe a professor 
of Surgery comited to the Compter for not makinge presentation of his Cure w ch dyed 
under his hand & also for his evill practice w ch he used to his Cure as it did appeare 
beinge examined thereuppon And further he is forbidden to practice Surgery any more 
untill that he be examined. 

2nd October, 1610. At this Court it is ordered that Richard Baynes and 
Xpofer Browne shalbe comitted to the Compter for that they did not come and make 
answer to this Court of the Complayntf w d ' are made against them by their sev'all 
patient? they being therefore warned at sev'all Court dayes. 

9th October, 1610. At this Court was one wyddowe Bryers comitted to the 
Compter for practising Surgery contrary to the Statut? of this Realme. 

About this period are several instances of Surgeons being fined 
for going to sea without licence, and for not having their sea chests 
examined, e.g. : 

6th November, 1610. Att this Court Gyles fflemmynge did promyse that on 
Tewsdaye come ffortnight he woulde bring in his ffyne of x 1 ' for going to Sea w"'out lycence 
of this howse, whereupon the Court was contented to proceed noe further against him in 
respect of such abuses as he hath offred. 

22nd January, 161 1. James Blackborne applied to be admitted 
a brother to practise Surgery and promising to pay £10 for his 
admission and to make the examiners a dinner, a day was appointed 
for his examination. 

31st January, 161 1. This daie James Blackborne was examined touchinge his 
skill in the generatyve pt? of women ; and bringinge of women to bedd in their 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


dangerous and difficult Labors : And he the said Blackborne was found fitt and allowed 
to practize (in that Chirurgicall p°te of Surgery touching the generatyve ptf of women & 
bringinge them to bedd in their dangerous & difficult Labours) by letters under the seale 
of the howse beinge the date above wrytten And was att this Court sworne and admitted 
a fforayne brother ; and in consideracon thereof he paid to the p°nte M rs att this 
Court x 11 ' 

The Barber-Surgeons had claimed the exclusive right of 
embalming dead bodies, but how they fared in their contention with 
the Wax Chandlers (referred to in the next extract) does not appear. 

26th October, 1612. This daie it is ordered that at the chardgf of the howse 
the p'nte Masters w"' the Clark shall seeke in the Rowles for the charter of the wax 
chaundlers and to tak a coppie of that p°te of the charter touchinge the libertie gyven 
unto them for the imbaulmynge of dead bodyes And as they shall finde the same soe to 
take the advice of my lord cheife Justice about the same at the chardgf of the howse. 

3rd November, 1612. This daie the Company receavinge a letter from the lordf 
of his Ma'f most hon°able privye Councell wherein they intreated the Company to give 
leave unto one Bartholomew Vanderlatch a stranger to take in hand one Melser Gisberd 
whoe had an ympedym' in his eye, whereupon this Court was pleased that the said 
Vanderlatch should take in hand to cure the said Gisberd w"'out disturbance of this howse. 

17th November, 161 2. Att this Court Richard flynche dwelling at Pyckle 
herring is forbidden to practise bonesetting or any other matter touching surgery at any 
time hereafter 

7th December, 161 3. This daie John Antonio an Italian being an Imposter 
practizing in surgery is forbidden by this Court to deale any more in Surgery. 

3rd March, 16 14. This daie M r Robert Allott docto r in Phissick & one of the 
fellowes of S' Johnes Colledge in Cambridge was admitted a brother of this Company 
and hade the letters of this howse under the seale thereof graunted unto him. 

15th March, 1614. This daie it is ordered that Thomas Gillam shall at the next 
court of assistauntf bring in his fyne of v" for discecting of an Anothomy out of this hall. 

1 2th April, 1614. This daie it is ordered that Thomas Collyns shall bring in 
his fyne of 10" for going to sea not having his Chest vewed. 

2 U 2 

33 2 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons, 

27th May, 1616. At this Court is gyven unto M r Docter Crooke the some of 5" 
for that lie did dedicate a booke unto this Companie & gave one of them unto this 

15th August, 1616. John Walgrave came before the Court 

upon Summons, and being questioned — 

if he practized Surgery he peremptorily replied he did & gott his lyveinge by 
the same and was an auntienter Surgeon then themselves Then he was demaunded by 
what authoritie he did practice Surgery to w ch he aunswered he had sufficient authoritie 
for he was allowed by the Archbusshop of Canterburie and the Busshop of London Then 
M r ffenton demaundinge of him in what busshops tymes he was so admitted, after manie 
insolent & menasinge speches & unsemely behaviors he aunswered he was admitted by 
Busshop Whiteguift. Then was demaunded of him by what Busshop of London he was 
admitted to w '' he very insolent replied that he scorned to tell them or to be examined 
by anie of them all, vauntinge further that he was a better gentleman than anie of them 
all To w"' M' ffenton aunswered that if he did so he did it unlawfully & he aunswered 
that he cared not, for he had practized these 30 yeares & wold still practice the same. And 
M r ffenton told him that though he had practized so long yet that made it not lawful] 
except he had byn examined iv approved according unto the lawes of the land To w c " 
Walgrave beinge in great passion w"' menaceinge & threatninge behavio' replied unto M' 
ffenton & the rest, you lye & I tell you agayne you lye And so w l " proud menacinge & 
insolent behavio' w ; " many insolent unsemely & irreverent speches to all that salt at that 
tyme in the Court he most unmanerly & w"'out regard of anie that sat their dep°ted. 

In all probability it was ascertained that Walgrave had the 
Bishop's licence or else some powerful friends, as no further notice 
seems to have been taken of his contempt, though the records 
abundantly show that the Court was never slow to visit condign 
punishment on far lesser offenders than this man. 

15th July, 1624. Whereas informacon is given to this Court that of late Docto r 
Grints servingman John Eethell lett a maide blood, her arme mortified and the maid 
thereupon died, it is ordered by this Court that there shalbe counsell taken thereon, and 
a suite comenced ag°t him at the Costs of this house. 

7th December, 1624. This daye John Baptista Succa a mountibancke and an 
Italian borne had order to forbeare his practise here in London. 

o/limals of the Barber-Surgeons. 333 

6th November, 1627. This daye was presented to tin's Courte by Humfrey 
Bromley a letter from the Lord Maio r of this Cittie of London the teno r whereof is as 

'■JSo the M r and Wardeins of the Companie of Barbar Surgions ^SBeveas S' 

Henry Herbert Knight M r of the Revells hath authorised the bearer hereof Humfrey 

Bromley to shew a Child presented to be naturallie borne haveing Twoe heades ffower 

Amies and three leggf w cl ' I suppose not to be borne of any woeman or to be the perfect 

substance of a child in respect whereof I forbeare to p°mitt the said Humfrey Bromely to 

make shewe thereof within the liberies of this Cittye untill such tyme as I maye be truely 

satisfied from you whether the same child be of the substance as is pretended Therefore 

I desire you that upon advised view of the said Child you truly certifie mee in writing 

under yo r handf whether the same be really a child as is presented to thend I maye not 

unadvisedly suffer his Ma'f subject^ to be deceyved thereby. This second of November 

Anno Dni. 1627. 

Hugh Hamkrsley Maw''- 

Whereupon the vew of the supposed body as aforesaid it is ordered that this 
answere be returned to the Lord Maio r as followeth viz : 

■jHiijltt Hono 1,10 According unto yo r Lops reference unto us directed dated the 
second of November 1627 WK'e have taken a deliberate vewe of the supposed monstrous 
birth presented unto us to be vewed as from your hono' by one Humfrey Bromley And 
although wee cannot possitively affirme it proceeded not from a woeman Yet under favor, 
wee conceive and soe deliver our opinions that the said suppo>ed monstrous shape hath 
beene, either by Arte soe composed and put together from unnaturall and untimely 
birthes of Children or from other Animalls, as Apes, Munckeys or the like w d ' have a 
greate resemblance of Manns bodye, in many of their partes and soe by the cunninge 
subtiletye of the composer made into a monster, thereby to delude the worlde and 
haveing a Bodye of Antiquitie cannot safely receive a flatt and manifest contradiction : 
And wee are induced the rather to suspect it for that the producer thereof hath noe 
testimonye from any learned or judicious men ; neither from any Magistrates of the^partes 
where it is pretended to have bene borne, w ch such offendors use aboundantly to be 
furnished withall. And in conclusion compareing his printed demonstration of his 
monster, with the Author he siteth, and others that have written of such and the like 
monsters, Wee finde a greate deale of Addition and a manifest disagreem' w dl is a playne 
badge of fixion and falsehoods All w ch our opinions wee humbly submitt to yo r hono"- 
grave wisdome to be further considered of. 

^4 c/Innals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


20th November, 1627. Item this daye M Warden Woodnll M r Peter Thorney 
M' George Perrine and M r Thomas Gilham are appointed by our M." command^ to goe 
to Portsmouth for the cureing of the wounded souldiers that come from the Isle of Rea 
in ffrance which are nowe remayneing wounded and sicke at Portsmouth upon the letter 
of the Lord Conwaye signifieing his Ma'f pleasuer therefore. 

8th July, 1628. This daye M r Peter Thorney is by this Court desired to goe 
Surgion generall for the Armye that goes by Land. 

23rd January, 1629. Mr. Peter Thorney having died in the 
King's Service on the coast of FVance, John Heydon was chosen an 
Assistant in his place. Peter Thorney is mentioned on the monument 
to his Uncle, Thomas Thorney (Master, 1602, 1606), in St. Andrew's, 
Holborn. (See Biographical Notices.) 

19th April, 1630. This daye the Examiners mett here in Court upon the 
recomendaeon of the lordf of the privey Councell signified by S' John Cooke secretary 
of state for the approveing of one Dupont a french man to practise for the cure of 
the pox. Whereupon the said Dupont being examined was found altogether insufficient. 

20th April, 1630. This daye Edward ffleete paid in xx s for his fine for not 
reading lecture according to his turne. 

20th October, 1631. This Court takeing notice of the lack of a Private 
dissection Roome for anatomicall imployementf and that hitherto those bodies have 
beene a greate annoyance to the tables dresser boardes and utensills in o r upper Kitchin 
by reason of the blood filth and entrailes of those Anathomyes and for the better 
accomodateing of those anatomicall affaires and preserveing the Kitchin to its owne 
prop use, Doe nowe order that there shalbe a faire convenient roome built over the 
greate staire case next the back yard to be imployed onely for discection of private 
Anathomyes to the value of xl 1 '- 

28th December, 1632. On the death of Dr. Gwyn, in 
December, 1627, it had been arranged that in future the Surgeons 
of the Company should read the Anatomical lectures in turn, weekly; 
but great difficulty having been experienced in carrying out this 

c/Imm/s of the Barber-Surgeons. 335 

regulation, the Court now reverted to the former practice of 
employing a Professor, and appointed Dr. Alexander Reade at a 
salary of ^20 per annum. 

23rd March, 1635. Alsoe this Court takeing notice that in theis latter yeares 
there hath bene a generall remissnes in the greater p°t of the Surgians of this Companie 
in their not appearance and personall attendance in their Seates on the Scaffoldings at the 
Six lecture tymes at the publique Anatomye, and the disorderlynes of those Surgians y' 
doe appeare for wanting their outward ornament commixing themselves confusedly 
amongst the Comon people then p°nte, whereby the hono r and worthynes of this 
Companie on the Surgians p^te hath bene much eclipsed, ffor redresse of w ch enormious 
exorbitance and for the better grace and Wor°p of this Companie. It is now decreed 
that for ever hereafter at the tymes of publiqe Lecture readings on the Sceletons or 
Anatomies in this Comon Hall this ensueing order for the greater decencye & more 
Wor'p of this Companie shall from tyme to tyme hereafter yearely be observed and 
put in due execution, viz 1 ■ That every Surgian either of the Assistants or of the Liverye 
shall appeare in his gowne in the forenone and afternoone of one daye at the least of the 
3 dayes lectures at every publiqe discection And that every Surgian of the Wardeins and 
of the Assistants of the yeomanrye shall likewise appeare in his gowne in the forenone and 
afternoone of one daye at the least of the three dayes lectures at every publiqe 
Anatomye, and everye one of those Surgians dureing the tyme of such lecture shall 
sitt decently in such place in the Scaffoldings as is appropriated to every of them in their 
degrees and Rancks as aunciently hath bene accustomed upon payne that every Surgian 
that shall not accordingly appeare shall forfeite and paye to the use of the Companie the 
some of Twoe shillings and Six pence, or appeareing shall not weare his gowne all the 
tyme of such readeing for one daye at the least the ^oine of Twelve pence, And that 
every p^son of the Coialtie or fforreine brothers professeing Surgerye shall likewise 
appeare in the forenone and afternone of one daye at the least of the 3 dayes lectures 
at the publiqe Anatomye and not appeareing shall forfeite Twelve pence without 
redempcon of all or any p n te of any of the fines aforesaid. 

24th September, 1635. Alsoe for that Nicholas Downeing not being an 
approved Surgian according to Lawe did twoe opaeons' in Surgery contrary to the Lawes 
of this Kingdome & the Customes & ordinances of this Companie and being forbid by 
the M rs & Governo rs to forbeare those opaeons did notwithstanding that prohibition make 

1 Operations. 


■} ■) 6 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

opacons and both patients died, Was fined at iiij 11, viz' ■ xl 5 a peece for each of those twoe 
opaciins because he made not two presentations according to the ordinance of this 
Companie in that behalfe, And he to be prosecuted at Lawe for the Childs miscarriage. 

Alsoe this daye the said Nicholas Downeing was fined by this Court at vj s viij* 
for his uncivill behavio' to M r John.Woodall an auncient M r of this Companie. 

6th October, 1635. Alsoe Nicholas Downeing being here in Court was required 
to paye his three fines according to his promise the last Thursdaye, denied to paye them, 
is by this Court comitted to the Compter in Wood Streete in my lord Maio r of Londons 

The following entry is not complimentary to Dr. William 
Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, the marginal 
note in the minute book being " Doctor Harveys ill practise." 

17th November, 1635. This daye W m Kellett being called here in Court for 
not makeing presentaeon of one M r Kinnersleys maide that died in his charge, he saied 
here in Court that M r Doctor Harvye being called to the patient did upon his vew of the 
patient saie, that by the meanes of a boulster the tumor on the temporall muskle would 
be discussed and his opinion was, that there was noe fracture but the vomiteing came by- 
reason of the foulenesse of the Stomacke, and to that purpose plscribed physick by 
Briscoe the Apothecarye, soe the patient died by ill practise, the fracture being neglected 
& the Companie not called to the vew. 

The next entry illustrates the peremptory method of dealing 
with a quack : — 

22nd October, 1635. One Christopher Hatton whoe saied he waighteth on 
gr \ym B e if ore h; s Ma'f Lieutenant of The Tower came to this Court to knowe the 
reason of the Companies takeing downe of Law Raylens banner or mountabanck table 
of bladders & stones being a stranger borne & then were hung upon Tower hill execution 
place, this Courts answere was that by the Lawes & Charters of this Companie they 
tooke & demolished them. 

Also the said Lawrence Ruylen a mountabanck was called here in Court and 
ordered to paye his fine of v" for hanging his signes tables bladders and stones upon 
the publique postf in streetes & on the Traitors scaffold on Tower hill in an exorbitant 
manner being contrary to the Lawes and Charters of this Companie confirmed according 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. ? ?7 

to Lawe And this Court doth order that those signes and bladders shalbe demolished 
and he is forbidden from further practiseing any p°t of Surgerye hereafter within London 
or 7 miles Compasse of this Cittye. 

1637. For several years prior to and about this period 
numerous entries occur of Surgeons being fined £5 for going to 
sea without license or without having their sea chests examined, 
also for sending their apprentices to sea as surgeons' mates without 

29th March, 1638. It is ordered that Edward Arris' and Hen: Boone 5 shall 
have libertie to sett up in o r Theater a Sceleton by them wrought on when they were 
Masters Anatomysts on the body of Canbury besse 3 to be placed on the Corbell stone of 
the Signe Libra alsoe they have leave to paint that peere of bricks up to the Cornish & 
to depict the planett Venus governeing those twoe signes underneath Libra & Taurus with 
twoe shadowed neeces 4 for two Sceletons & to sett up their names or mottoe under 
Libra they payeing the charge for the same & such p°son or p^sons as shall sett up a 
sceleton on the other signe Taurus shall paye the moietye of the charge they are now at 
in painting. 

3rd July, 1638. Upon the complaint ag' ffran: Soare for discecting a bodye in 
his owne house contrary to the ordinance It is ordered he shalbe sumoned ag l the 
next Court. 

22nd October, 1638. Tho. Bowden being called to this Court for not makeing 
p°ntac6n of his patient Godfrey Lee whoe died under his handf is fined at xl s - 

Alsoe the said Thomas Bowden being not an approved Surgian for that he tooke 
upon him the cure & charge of y e said Godfrey being daungerouslie wounded & did not 
joyne an able & approved surgian with him in that cure is fined at v' 1 - 

Alsoe it is ordered that for his the said Thomas Bowdens evill practise in 
Surgerye he shalbe Comitted to the Compter in Wood Streete. 

Alderman, Master 1651. '' Master 1655. 

1 Canonbury Bessie, a malefactor. ' Niches. 

2 X 

? ?<V oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Mr. Bowden subsequently mended his ways as he was elected 
Third Warden. in 1654 and Upper Warden in 1660. 

22nd October, 1638. It is ordered that the M r & Wardens & as many 
of the Assistants Surgians with Counsell shall attend the right hono' ,lc y c Lordf 
of his Ma'f most hono bIe privye Councell about the new Patent for distilling 
strong Waters. 

6th March, 1639. Mrs. Susan Gwinn, widow of Dr. Gwinn, 
the Reader of Anatomy, presented the Doctor's MSS. to the 

1638-9. About this period the war with Scotland con- 
sequent upon Charles I interfering in Scotch Church matters, broke 
out, and a large army being collected in the North the 
Barber-Surgeons were directed to "press" and forward twenty-three 
Surgeons to Newcastle. 

The Minute relating to this is as follows, — 

20th April, 1639. Upon reading the warr 1 sent to this house from Yorke signed 
by the Lord Generall concerneing the want of Surgians in the Armye It is concluded by 
the Governo" & Assistants here p°nte that M r Warden Dunn & M r Collins shall goe on, 
& goe aboard some Newcastle shipp and agree with a shipper for y e conveighance of y c 
Surgians & their Chests & provisions & their mates, & likewise give them conduct money, 
& that for the present that charge to be borne out of the stock of this house untill it cann 
be reobteyned from the Threr of y e Armye. 

This appears to have cost the Company ^44 14..?., whereof 
they received but ,£23, the balance never having been paid. The 
details of the expenditure are subjoined, and in reading them we 
cannot but commiserate the unhappy men who were barged to 
Gravesend and thence "transported" to Newcastle. 

c/J finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 339 

dlsl!ursem t f for impresting and sh1ppinue of the surgians in the years 
Imploym t for the Kings Service. 

Laid out by Edmund Johnson for ymprestinge of 

Surgeons for the Kingf service- - v 1 ' 

Delivered to M r Collins for the like- x s 

Spent in goeinge to Lymehouse Ratclifife & wappinge 

to presse - - - - xviij' 1 

Paid to xxiij Surgions who were transported by sea 

from London to Newcastle xxiij" of \v dl rec d by 

M r Serjant Clowes xvij 1 ' x s & my selfe xx s so that 

there doth remayne unsatisfied - 
Paid unto Tho: Wells the M r of the shipp to transport 

them ------ - - 

Paid for a barge to carry us & them to Gravesend 
Spent at Gravesend at dynner 
Spent at Supper - 

Paid Jo : Mules w ch he disburced for Warfage literage 
caremenn & other like Charges as p r) bill 

Sum is - 

In accordance with their Charters the ancient practice of the 
Company had been to elect annually two Surgeons and two Barbers 
for Master and Wardens ; this fell into electing two Surgeons and two 
others who were often neither Barbers nor Surgeons, and latterly, 
even the qualification of Surgery came to be disregarded, whereupon 
(29th March, 1639) a mandate, signed by Charles I and directed to the 
Company, was read in Court (see Appendix, G) in which the King 
set forth that divers persons as "hosiers dyers & other tradesmen 
unskilfull in Chirurgery or Barbarye" had been chosen for Masters 
and Wardens contrary to the Charters and Acts of Parliament, and 
further " wee takeing into consideracon of what dangerous consequence 
it maye be to suffer a Companye wherein the lives and safetie of o r 
people are soe much concerned and for w ch o r progenitors have soe 
carefully provided to be governed by such unskilfull p sons," the 


nij x 

viij 1 ' 

XXX s 

ix s 



xxvj s 

xxj 1 ' xiiij s 

340 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

King straitly commanded the Company to elect the Governors 
in the future as they ought to do, viz. : two Barbers and two 
Surgeons each year. 

This order of the King appears for some little time to have 
been obeyed, and then the Company relapsed into their old practice 
of choosing at their pleasure, whereupon another mandate came from 
the King, for we find that : — 

17th January, 1644. The Court took notice of the King's 
mandate, and a very long and elaborate minute is entered to the 
effect that the practice of choosing two Barbers and two Surgeons for 
Governors was fraught with much inconvenience and had led to great 
dissensions, and the Court referring to the Statute of Henry VII, 
where it is allowed that any person free of the Company following any 
other profession than that of a Barber or Surgeon should be reputed 
and taken as a Barber, ordered that for the future, any Member of 
the Assistants, other than a Barber or Surgeon, might be put in 
nomination, and that he should be accounted a Barber. The Court 
were very careful to express their loyalty to the King whilst they 
ignored his mandate, trusting no doubt, that should they afterwards 
be called to account by the King, their dutiful expressions towards 
him would serve in a measure as an excuse for disobeying his 
express commands. 

2nd July, 1639. Anthony Mould called to this Court and questioned concerneing 
his practise in Surgerye, confessed that he deales onely in swellings and Kernills & hath 
Mould for y c a licence from the Kinge to practise the same, he hath lately taken into his 
Kings Evill. Q me one George Ravenscroft for scrophilous tumo rs in the neck, this Court 
at the said Moulds request, hath given libertye to Mould to cure him by Michaelmas 
next, & he hath promised then to present the said Geo : whole & well to this Court. 

Some nine years afterwards Mould was again before the Court 
in a case of King's evil. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 34 1 

21st March, 1648. Henry Ivatt complayned against Anthony Mold for his evill 
practice On the Wife of the said Ivatt who being afflicted with the Kings Evill Whereof 
he undertooke to cure her And for that purpose did receive of the said Ivatt nxx s in hand 
and was to have 40 s more when she was cured Both partyes refeered themselves to this 
Court Whereupon this Court doth Order That the said Mold doth restore xx s back againe 
to the said Ivatt Which he promised to pay accordingly And soe all differences betweene 
the said parties by theire owne consent to cease and determine. 

6th February, 1646. It is this day ordered That our M r and M r Warden 
Browne' with the other Assistants Surgeons present doe move the Sheriffs That at the 
time of Execucbn a Body be quietly delivered to this Companye's officer for an Anatomy. 

9th March, 1646. This day M r Warden Browne acquainted this Court 
that whereas he about 6 yeares sithence had a child of M r Hamonds to his 
Patient with whome he upon his first calling thither found M r Thomas Bowden 3 with 
others Who after presentacon made by the Motion of M r Warden Browne dyed, that 
he hath bin reported by the ffather of the child to have murthered the child And that 
M r Thomas Bowden had justifyed and would justify the same of w ch scandall M* Warden 
complayneing to this Co" M' Bowden prayed to be excused from giveing any answer 
thereunto ffor that there was a Suite at Law now depending betweene M r Hamond 
and M r Warden Browne concerning that matter. 

23rd April, 1646. Mr. Martin Browne requested and had a 
Committee of Examiners to enquire into the case of Hamond's child, 
and to report to the Court. 

14th May, 1646. The Committee brought up their Report, 
finding that on the 28th January, 1639, Mr. Browne was called to 
Mr. Hamond's child in Bow Lane, the child having fallen out of a 
window and seriously injured its head. That Mr. Browne consulted 
with Dr. Spicer and Mr. Thomas Bowden (whom he found there) and 
as they all conceived the child to be in danger, presentation was duly 
made to the Wardens of the Barber-Surgeons, that thereupon by 
general consent, the child was let blood and had a glister, and the next 

1 Martin Browne, an eminent Surgeon, Master in 1653, gave the Company a Silver loving cup and cover. 

- Warden, 1654. 


142 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

day his head was shaved and a cataplasm applied, that these remedies 
were continued for about eight days and that then it was deemed 
advisable to open the head, which was done by Mr. Browne with a 
Trapan in the presence and with the advice and approbation of 
Mr. Serjeant Clowes (then Master), Mr. George Dunn 1 (Warden), 
Mr. William Kings, 2 Mr. Eaton and the said Mr. Bowden, and that 
the child died on the 15th day, that proper remedies had been duly 
applied and that everything had been done with great care according 
to art. 

23rd October, 1646. This Court doth order That all the approved Chirurgeons 
according to Law shall appeare at all publique Anatomyes for the time to come in a fflatt 
Capp upon the penalty of 3 s 4'' and all the rest of the Livery in a Hatt. 

1646. iEBe Chauces of the Anathomyes betweene Michas and 

Christmas last. 

Paid for Carryeing the Cophin to Newgate 

ffor horsehire to the place of execucon - 

ffor the ffees at the place of execucon 

ffor expences at S ! Gyles xij d to the carman xij' 1 and 
for washing the bodye xij d - - - - 

ffor Perfumes xij' 1 wax candles ij d and soape j' 1 - 

ffor lynnen for the Bodye - 

To the Beadles Assistant in taking the Bodye - 

Paid the Parsons dutye for the buriall ij d for y e 
grave xij' 1 for the Clerke & Sexton xxij' 1 - 

To the Bearers ij s & expended at the buriall ij s vj d - 

ffor a Cophin to burye the bodye in - - - 

To Doctor Godard for reading six lectures 

To M r Nicholas Brothers and M' William Watson 

whoe desected the bodye xl s appeece - - 04 00 00 

Paid for 3 dynners for the M' s or Governo" Assist- 
ants Reader & desectors - - - - - 10 00 00 

ffor Candles for 3 mornings - - 00 1 1 1 1 

1 Master, 1646. -' Master, 1650. 


































c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 343 

To the twoe Beadles their ffee for three dayes 

attendance - - oo 10 oo 

1647-8. Paid and disbursed in Charges in sending Chyrur- 
gians to the seige at Colchester by Ire from the 
Com 15 of the Armye & for their maintenance 
& medicines - 17 13 06 

26th January, 1647. William Watson haveing his Letters of admittance and not 
sealed the Bond according to the ordinance in that behalfe did amongst other uncivill 
behaviour and words to our M r and the Court say That he would not be whip°d by 
a Bond and that he would give his answer at his owne convenience. And when our M r 
told him That he must seale the Bond he answered That must was for the King, But 
this Court gave him a fortnight to give his answer peremptorily. 

1655. The following is a Copy of a Surgeon's Certificate to 
practise : — 

Certificate in the "j L §fo aCC peopfe to whom this present writeing shall come 
behalf of a • John Fredericke Esq k Alderman of the Cittie of London 

Thomas Allen Abraham Clerke and Thomas Bowden Mas rb 
or GovYio rs of the Mistery and cominalty of Barbers and Chirurgeons of London 
send Greeting in our Lord God everlasting. 

"gj&fjeveasi Wee have had experience & sufficient Tryall as well of the good 
behaviour & honest conversacon of Samuell Holditch a Freeman of the said mistery and 
Cominaltie & one of the Cloathing of our said Corporacon as alsoe of his skill expience 
& knowledge in the Arte or Science of Chirurgery. Now know yee that wee the said 
Masters or GovW s (att the humble suite and entreatie of the said Samuell Holditch & 
for his further apphacon of his skill) Have on the day of the date of these presents 
caused him to be deliberately examined & tryed before us concerning his sufficiency & 
knowledge in the same arte by William Kings' Edward Arris 2 Henry Boone 3 Robert 
Bullacke 4 Charles Stamford 5 & Lawrence Loe 6 Masters in Chirurgery being six of the 
examiners appointed and autfiized according to Lawe for the examination and appfiacon of 
Chirurgeons And findeing him the said Samuell Holditch a fitt and able p°son to practice 
use & exercise the said Arte of Chirurgery Wee doe by these psents as much as in us is 
admitt appve of & allowe him to practice use and exercise the said Arte or science of 

1 Master 1650. - M. 1651. 3 M. 1655. ' M. 1657. ' M. 1659. 6 M. 1667. 

144 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Chirurgcry & all and every the parts thereof according to the force forme & effect of the 

statutes in that behalf made & pvided. 

In Witnesse whereof we the said Masters or Gov°no rs have hereunto subscribed 

our names & caused the Comon seale of y c said Corporacon to be fixed this seaventh day 

of May in the yeare of our Lord God according to the accompt kept in England One 

thousand six hundred fifty & five. 

John Frederick 

Tho: Allen 

Abra: Clerke 

Tho: Bowden. 

1690. The following is a copy of a Press warrant issued by 

the Masters and Governors to their Beadles, Smith and Wills : — 

jJ3()creas by certeine Letters pattents of our Late Sovereigne Lord King 
Charles the first dated the ffifteenth day of August in the first yeare of his reigne As alsoe 
by order of our Sovereigne Lord the King in Councill beareing date the twenty eight day 
of December last ~g&ee the Masters or Governo" of the Mistery & Coialty of Barbers 
& Chirurgions of London are Authorized and required forthwith to cause to be impressed 
or taken up for their Maj ti,;s service in Ireland ffortey Chirurgeons Mates & to returne 
their Names to the Councill Board that care may be taken for their subsistance, In 
pursuance of the said Authorities & in discharge of the trust in us reposed Wee doe 
hereby require & cornand you Peter Smith & Jonas Wills being our officers joyntley & 
severally to imprest for their Maj lies Service fortey Able Chirurgeons Mates delivering 
every person by you imprest one shilling impresse money chargeing him upon his 
Allegiance forthwith to p^pare himselfe for the said Service & to make his personall 
appearance before us at our Comon Hall upon further Summons there to receive 
such orders & direccon for his speedy repaire to such Service as he shall be assigned 
unto, and for better execucSn hereof his Maj" eb Deputy leiftennants Sherrs Mayors 
Bayliffs & Constables & others whom it may concerne are to be aiding & assisting unto 
you. Given under our Comon Seale this 17"' day of January in the first yeare of the 
Reigne of our Sovereigne Lord & Ladie King William & Queene Mary 1689.' 

2nd July, 1690. It was ordered that any of the Assistants or 
Livery being Surgeons and not appearing at the Public Anatomy were 
to forfeit 3s. \d. each. 

1 i.e., 1690. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 345 

1 2th December, 1690. Whereas there hath been an abuse offered to M r ffenton 
Bynns by Doct r Goodall for giveing internall medicines in a case of Surgery, Ordered that 
if the College of Phisitians doe arrest M r Bynns that he shall bee defended at the cost of 
the Company for the fact now meneoned in Court. 

20 July, 1693. Considering some late ill practises in this Company relating 
to Anatomy &: to prevent the same for the future it is ordered by this Court that noe 
p^son what soever (except the Reader, Masters & Stewards of Anatomy for the time being) 
shall use a knife &c to disect any humaine body at any time hereafter brought to this 
Hall for an Anatomy upon the forfiture of xl s for every fact soe coinitted. 

The Court would seem to have had the power of nominating 
the Surgeons and Surgeons' Mates to the ships of the Royal Navy. 
There are hundreds of instances in the books of these appointments, 
but the following will suffice as examples : — 

nth August, 1693. Ordered that M r John Bamber bee warranted Chirurgeon 
of the YVaymouth at Portsmouth. 

Ordered that Larkham bee continued on board the Bristoll. 

Ordered that M r Harding have the first fowerth rate that shall bee ordered out. 

13th February, 1694. Ordered that M r Nicholson bee continued Chirurgeon of 
the Oxford & that the Captaine bee acquainted with the same. 

27th February, 1694. John Jenkin this day relinquished all title & clame to 
the S' Paull ffire shipp, ordered that Richard Woolett bee warranted in his rome at 
the request of Captaine Mitchell. 

22nd June, 1698. Ordered that the whole body of the p°son desected bee 
entirely buried some time tomorrow & that Cave the Beadle take care & see it done. 

20th July, 1698. M r Woodward p°sented five Books of M r Arris Surgery to 
the Company. 

There is no notice at the British Museum, of any Surgical 
book written by Edward Arris ; these were probably some books 
which had belonged to him. 

29th July, 1 70 1. Dr. Tyson having made some proposals as 
to the regulation of the Library, a Committee was this day appointed 

2 Y 

34b cAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

and drew up a great many rules, which are set out in the minutes 
with much prolixity. 

3rd December, 1709. It was ordered that no Examiner in 
Surgery should in future accept any gratuity from, or be treated or 
entertained in any manner by, any Sea Surgeon or Surgeon's Mate, 
either before or after examination, under the penalty of being removed 
from his offices of Examiner and Assistant. 

1st June, 1 7 10. The Archbishop of Canterbury 1 having licensed 
several persons to practise as Surgeons without due examination, the 
following memorial was ordered to be sent to his Grace. 

To The most Reverend ffather in God Thomas by Divine Providence 

Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The humble petition of the Masters or Govemo rs Assistants Livery & 

ffreemen of the Mystery & Comonalty of Rarbers & Surgeons 

of London. 

Sheweth : 

That severall Surgeons unlearned & unskilfull in that Art have set up & 
practised within Seven miles of the City of London under Colour of a Licence from 
yo r Grace & without the examination & approbation of such Surgeons as the Law hath 
appointed for that purpose ffor which reason wee beg leave to lay before yo r Grace the 
following representation, viz' : 

That the Company of Barbers & Surgeons were incorporated by the Charter of 
King Edward the Second w ch was confirmed by the Charter of Edward the fourth with 
this Addiconal Clause That the Governo' 5 of the Company should examine approve & 
authorise all such as should practise in that ffaculty. 5 

That the said Charter of Edward 4"' not having provided by sufficient penaltys 
against that great & growing mischeife which sprung from the unskillfullness of several 

1 Thomas Tenison, ob. 14th December, 1715. 
- This statement as to a Charter by Edward II is a fiction, as also that it was confirmed by 
Edward IV, with an additional clause. The first Charter was granted by Edward IV, 24th February, 1462. 
The remainder of the facts stated in this letter to the Archbishop are, however, correct. 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 347 

vain pretenders in this art, It was provided by the Statute of the 3 H. 8, cap. n That 
no person within London or seven miles of it should exercise Surgery except they were 
first examined approved & admitted by the Bishop of London or Dean of Paul's calling 
to him four expert persons in that faculty under forfeiture of five pounds p n month And 
out of the City & precints seven miles, unless exaied & approved by the Bishop of the 
Diocess or his Vicar Generall in like maner, upon which Statute yo r petitioners beg leave 
to observe That it was wholly introductive of a new law & creates a power in the Bishop 
that was before vested in the Company by the Charter, so doth it take care to confine 
that power meerly to the Diocesan under the limitation of a regular examination in his 
presence by four persons that had already passed their examinations. 

The Bishop of each Diocess being therefore by their Law invested with a 
Temporall power perfectly forreign to their Ecclesiasticall Jurisdiction & Spirituall care 
We do humbly hope yo r Grace will not exercise this authority which was never by this 
law placed in the Metropolitane but was only to be exercised by the Diocesan under a 
regular Examination by persons admitted into our Company. And yo r Grace will find 
this the more reasonable upon Consideration of this Act for the law makes it a part of 
the Ecclesiasticall concernment upon a supposition that severall persons pretending to 
Surgery had practised Sorcery & Witchcraft which yo r Grace will pardon us if we beg 
leave to say was an artificiall notion set up by the popish Clergy in those times to draw 
within their own Verge the Inspection & approbation of all such persons as attended 
the beds of dying men. 

But however that law was obtained, our Company which consisted of all such 
persons as exercised Surgery within London or seven miles being afterwards incorporated 
by the Statute of 32 H. 8, C. 42, no man could practise within London or seven Miles 
Compass of the City without an examination by four of the faculty thus incorporated & 
without being solemnly admitted into the Company. 

And accordingly the Bishop of London has from time to time been pleased to 
do us that Justice that we humbly presume yo r Grace will not deny us, viz' not to license 
any person within his Diocess who hath not first obtained a Testimoniall under the 
Seale of our Company certifying the examination of such person & his skill & ability 
for the exercise of that art. 

But if this restraint of yo r Graces Licences were not to be asked as a matter of 
Justice We should not doubt to obtain it as a favour, when yo r Grace considers how this 
maner of entring into the faculty opens a way to the Ignorant & unskillfull to the great 
prejudice both of the Company & of the publick, for yo r Grace cannot be so much 
at leisure from yo r pastorall care to enquire into the abilitys of such as pretend to sign 

2 Y 2 

34$ c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

their Testimonialls nor is any person that comes in by this method subject to the 
regulation of our Company's By-Laws which are all signed under the hands of the two 
Cheife Justices & the present Lord ChanceUour & contrived with the greatest exactness 
to regulate the practise of this art, besides that every person admitted is obliged to 
give bond to the Company that he will diligently attend such cures as he shall be called 
unto & that he will never wilfully administer any hurtfull medecine, And in all cases 
of danger call in one of our ten Examiners to his assistance who are always ready to 
afford their assistance when asked. 

Lastly we think we may add that the Companys services of the publick may 
reasonably deserve some consideration from all lovers of the publick for that ten of the 
principall persons of the faculty meet once a week at their Hall to examine & approve all 
Surgeons & Surgeons Mates that are in her Majesties Service which amount to five 
hundred in a year & to inspect all Sea Surgeons Chests of medicines & instruments & to 
peruse the Journalls of their practice & to view all Sea officers who are wounded in fight 
& this without the least reward nor are any admitted into the Sea Service without their 
Testimoniall & approbation to the very great preservation of the Seamen And tis 
presumed that a Regulation that has been found so necessary at Sea will appear at Land 
to be equally beneficiall. 

Wherefore yo r petitioners humbly begg that yo r Grace will not for the future 
be pleased to give Lycences to any persons to practise Surgery within London or 
seven miles compass thereof untill such persons skill & ability for the exercise of that art 
appears by a Testimoniall under our Companys Scale to have been tried & approved 
of by the ten Examiners of our Company appointed for that purpose. 

There is no note of any reply to this letter having been 
received from the Archbishop. 

6th February 171 1. The Court petitioned the Queen that 
they might have the Examination and certifying of all Army Surgeons 
(who were then examined by the Surgeon-General) in the same way 
that they examined and passed the Navy Surgeons. 

20th February, 171 1. Letters similar in effect to the one 
addressed to the Archbishop on 1st June, 1710, though slightly 
differing to meet some altered circumstances not necessary to be here 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 349 

set forth in full, were ordered to be sent to the Bishops of London, 
Winchester and Rochester, and to the Dean of St. Paul's. 

6th March, 171 1. It is ordered that William Cave one of the Beadles of this 
Company do make Inquiry who the persons were that carryed away the last body 
from Tyburne & that such persons be Indicted for the same. 

16th August, 171 1. Mr. Daniell Turner intending to become 
a "Collegiate Physician" applied for his discharge from the Freedom 
and Livery of the Company, which was granted to him for ,£50, and 
that sum he at once paid down. 

9th October, 171 1. Richard Russell one of the persons who stands Indicted 
for carrying away the last publick body applying himself to this Court & offering to be 
evidence against the rest of the persons concerned It it ordered that the Clerk do apply 
himself to Her Majesty's Attorney Generall for a Noli p°sequi as to the said Russell in 
order to make him an evidence upon the s d Indictment & particularly ag st one Samuell 
Waters whom the Court did likewise order to be indicted for the said fact. 

It was no uncommon circumstance for candidates under 
examination to be rejected, the reason being often rather tersely 
given, e.g. : 

13th February, 1712. W" Ogilby Rejected & said very Saucily it should be the 
last time. 

Alex' Keith Rejected because an Apothecary's boy. 

Edward Brown Rejected because a Barber. 

James Erwin ffor a Mate and rejected for Sauciness to M r Blundell & the Court. 

1st April, 171 2. Two Barbers were ordered to be prosecuted 
for practising Surgery contrary to the By-Laws. 

6th May, 1712. Ordered that M r Watts be summoned to appear before the 
Governo' 5 att the next Court to answer a Complaint ag' him for practiceing Surgery & 
Instructing Barbers for 2 Guineas a peice. 

Ordered that M' Small be likewise summoned to appeare before the Governo rs 
att the next Court to answer a Complaint ag' him for amputateing a Breast without calling 
an examiner to be present. 

3$o c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

27th May, 1 7 12. John Wooding having been convicted at the 
Old Bailey for taking away the body of John Addison from the place 
of execution, the Court prayed the Lord Chief Justice to allow the 
sentence upon him to be inserted in the Gazette, and afterwards to 
consent in the Company's name to the remission of his fine and 

19th June, 1 71 2. Mr. Bartlett, a truss maker, having been 
summoned for practising Surgery, he was ordered " to take from his 
sign board that he cures Ruptures." 

7th May, 1 7 13. The Court having complained to the Bishop 
of London of the inconvenience arising from his licensing persons to 
practise Surgery, and the Bishop having informed the Company that 
he would not issue any more such licenses without a certificate of 
fitness from the Company, it was thereupon ordered that 5 guineas 
should be paid yearly to his Lordship's Registrar as Caveat money. 

28th May, 1 7 13. Ordered that the Clark go to the Secretary at War for a 
Guard in order to gett the next Body [from Tyburn]. 

13th August, 1 7 13. Upon hearing a complaint aijst M r Godman & M r Pinsent 
for p'tending that one Vincents thigh was broke when it was not & then they had sett 
it contrary to truth & proficiency in Surgery & the Patient & other Witnesses being 
examined & proving y c fact agst him, the Court fined M r Godman five pounds for his 
unskillfull & wilfull practice & to be sued upon the by law or his bond as shall be 
thought most convenient. 

19th November, 17 14. Att this Court John Spurling a Barber at Highgate was 
ordered to be prosecuted upon the Company's Charter for practising Surgery upon 
John Holmes Barber. 

2 1 st April, 1 71 5. The Court being informed that the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty proposed to place the viewing of Sea 
Surgeons' chests with Dr. Oliver and Mr. Rider, Physician and 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 351 

Surgeon of Greenwich Hospital, to the exclusion of the Company's 
rights and contrary to the Charter of Charles I ; it was ordered that 
a memorial should be presented to the first Lord against such a 

4th June, 1 7 1 5. The Lords of the Admiralty having requested 
the Court to undertake, with Dr. Oliver, the examination of such 
Warrant Officers in the Navy as should apply for superannuation 
pensions on the ground of age, wounds or infirmities, the Court 
directed the Clerk to reply stating that the Company would perform 
that office, and hold Courts for the purpose, on the first Friday in each 
month. Pursuant to the above, Courts were held and certificates 
granted from time to time. 

5th June, 1 7 16. It is ordered That Nathaniel Charles be prosecuted He 
owning that he had lett blood severall times for one shilling and six pence, As allso his 
Master Joseph Roe. Twas observed that M r Roe could not write his name haveing set 
his mark only to the Indenture. 

3rd July, 1 7 16. Ordered that the Clerk do permitt Mr. Beckett' to Inspect the 
Company's Registers of ffremen and apprentices and The Table of Governors Names to 
enable him to publish his book now in hand relateing to the lives and writings of eminent 

6th July, 1 7 16. Att this Court M' Langley who lives in Shoreditch being 
suspected to be a Quack Doctor was exaied touching his skill in Surgery but not being 
able to answer a question was rejected. 

1st July, 1720. Ordered That the Porter in Southwark and a Bone setter in 
Cheapside be prosecuted for Bone seting. 

Sth August, 1720. James King the Surgeon who deposited £7 13s. od. in order 
to be exaied againe as a fforreigne Brother was now Examined againe but not being fittly 
qualifyed he was rejected and ordered his money back And ordered to be prosecuted in 
case he shall ever practice Surgery for the future. 

1 At the British Museum there is " A collection of Surgical Tracts," by William Beckett, F.R.S., London, 
1740, and in the preface thereto it is stated that the collection formed by Mr. Beckett relating to eminent 

Surgeons had not been published. 

35 2 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons, 

23rd June, 1 72 1. The Master represented to the Court that 
"great trouble and inconveniency " had arisen in consequence of such 
Surgeons as had of late offered themselves for examination not having 
presented the Governors and Examiners "with Gloves of such sort 
and goodness as had been customarily and antiently given to the 
Governors and Examiners upon such examinacon and by buying the 
gloves of tradesemen who were not proper dealers in such sort of 
goods." Whereupon it was ordered that in future every Candidate 
before Examination should deposit with the Clerk as much money as 
would be sufficient to pay each of the Governors and Examiners who 
should be present six shillings, for them to lay out in the purchase of 
such gloves as they should see fit. On the 10th December, 1725, the 
glove money was raised from 6s. to \os. 6d. 

The real secret of the above order, no doubt was, that there 
were such a great number of surgeons coming up for examination from 
time to time, that the Governors and Examiners got less money and 
more gloves than they wanted. 

26th April, 1723. It is ordered that M r John Douglass Surgeon and a fforeigne 
brother of this Company shall be admitted into the freedom and I.ivery of this Company 
and be discharged and acquitted from holding or paying any fine for his freedom or 
Livery, or for all or any offices to the Parlour door as a Compliment to him for 
introducing the new method of Cutting for the Stone and to express the sense this Court 
hath of the usefullness therof. 

4th September, 1724. William Turner Barber who was sumoned at the last 
Court for letting blood appeared at this Court and owning his practiceing Surgery and 
insisting on his right and sufficiency so to do This Court doth order that the Clark do sue 
the said Turner for letting blood and practiceing Surgery contrary to the Statute of 32. 
Hen: 8: Cap. 42. 

2nd October, 1724. At this Court Thomas Cooke was examined for a fforreigne 
Brother But being found insufficient he was rejected. Note he lives in Duck Lane 
Publishes Bills as a Quack pretending to the cure of the Venereall disease, but he being 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 353 

examined touching the cure of that distemper in particular and being found to know little 
or nothing of it, the Court directed him to take down his Surgeon's sign and not to 
practice for the future on pain of being sued upon the Act of Parliament and Company's 

1725. The following seems somewhat inappropriately placed 
amongst the dinner accounts for this year. 

%$* Charges to be Paid by the Masters and Stewards of Anatomy for 
Procuring a Body besides the Dinner at ye Viscera Lecture. 

s. ti. 

Horsehire - 2 6 

For a Coach - 6 o 

For expenses in fetching the Body 2 6 

To the Sheriff's officers 1 3 4 

To the Beadles assistant - 1 o 

For Washing the Body 1 o 

For a Coffin 5 o 

To Parson Ground Clark and Sexton 5 10 

To the Bearers 2 o 

Funeral expenses - 2 6 

For a certificate - o 6 

The Clark's fees - 100 

The 2 Beadle's ffees 10 o 

For a Link - - o 3 

To the Chairwoman 5 o 

.£3 7 5 

14th October, 1726. At this Court Peter North Boatswain of His Majesty's 
ship Cornwall was viewed for superannuation and pretended to be afflicted with deafness 
& the Gout. But the Court being of opinion that his deafness (if any) was occasion' 1 by 
wax in his ear only, which might be cured by syringing, and not being satisfy' 1 that he had 
the gout, The Court did not think fit but that he was capable of further service at Sea. 

At this Court one Chambers surgeon in Duck Lane was examined touching his 
Skill in Surgery in order to be made a /foreign brother, but appearing to be a stupid 
ffellow & a sort of a Quack who gave out Bills, and not being able to answer a question 
the Court rejected him. 

2 Z 

354 zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

17th February, 1727. The Navy Board having, on the 1 6th 
inst., written to the Master and Wardens enclosing a copy of an 
anonymous letter which had been received, charging the Examiners 
in Surgery with partiality, and with qualifying incompetent persons as 
Navy Surgeons, the Court seem to have taken the matter up in a high 
spirited manner, and returned a long letter setting forth their practice 
in conducting the Examinations, referring in detail to the particular 
case alleged against them, and indeed made a most excellent and 
satisfactory defence. The correspondence is very lengthy and full of 
detail, much reference being made to the work carried on by the 
Company for the public service without fee or reward. 

7th March, 1727. It is ordered That for y e future when any apprentices are to 
be bound to Surgeons they shall be called in & be examined by themselves touching 
their skil in y e Latin tongue. 

7th April, 1727. James Ripoult a Frenchman was called in but not speaking 
English nor being naturalized the Court did not think it proper to examine him. 

5th October, 1727. John Jacob Sax being a Prussian by birth & not naturalized 
nor understanding English The Court did not think it proper to examine him. 

William Miles recomended by Lord Torrington & examined but seeming to 
know nothing of Surgery was rejected. 

i6th January, 1729. A Petition was drawn up by the Court 
for presentation to the King, setting forth the Company's right to four 
dead bodies of felons yearly to be obtained at Tyburn, and that of 
late divers riotous persons had wrested the bodies from the Company's 
Beadles at the place of execution. The Court declared that these 
proceedings were greatly to the detriment of the study of Surgery, 
and also set forth the services which the Company rendered to the 
State, by examining Surgeons and their Mates for the Royal Navy, 
viewing their medicine chests and instruments, viewing all such 

c/liuials of the Barber-Surgeons. 355 

officers as are wounded in fight at Sea and for superannuation, 
and they conclude — 

Your petitioners do therefore humbly pray that your Majesty will be graciously 
pleased to permitt and direct That a ffyle or Two of y r Majesty's ffoot Guards shall upon 
application to the Commanding Officer attend the publick executions from time to time 
to guard and assist your Peticoners Beadles in the taking away so many dead bodys 
yearly as are granted unto your Peticoners by the said Act of Parliament or otherwise to 
releive your Peticoners in such manner as your Majesty in your Majesty's most gracious 
wisdom and condescension shall think fitt. 

The Company seem also to have applied to the Court of 
Aldermen again for assistance in this matter, for, on the 7th March 
following, it was ordered that 2,000 copies of two orders of the Lord 
Mayor and Court of Aldermen, dated respectively 4th February and 4th 
March, should be printed, and copies fixed up at Newgate and other 
public places on the road to Tyburn, some time before any execution, 
and also that the said orders should be inserted in the London Gazette 
and other papers. 

4th April, 1729. Peregrine Compton Rejected being fuddled & not answering 
a question. 

1st February, 1732. It was ordered that any extraordinary 
cases of Surgery appearing in the journals of the Sea Surgeons should 
be copied out into a book, as well as any others which might be 
reported to the Governors, and the same be laid before the Court of 
Examiners, from time to time, for their direction as to whether the 
same should be published. This book, if it ever existed, is not now 
in the Company's possession. 

15th August, 1734. It is ordered that from henceforward a Silver Medal not 
exceeding the value of a Guinea with a proper device upon each side of it to be made 
and presented at the end of the year to each of the Demonstrators now chosen and 
to the Demonstrators for the time being as an acknowledgment for their trouble in 
performing such Demonstrations. 

2 Z 2 

3 56 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

These medals by a subsequent order, were to have a represen- 
tation of Holbein's picture on one side and of Inigo Jones' Theatre on 
the other, but they do not appear to have ever been struck. 

It was customary at the Demonstrations of Anatomy to provide 
specimens of parts of animals, presumably for comparison, as appears 
by some of the expenses incurred, e.g., in 1732 : — 

To a sheeps hart & kidney 006 

A sheeps hart and lights - 004 

2 Bullocks eyes - - - o o 4 

and the following is the Beadle's Bill at the dissection of a female 
malefactor in 1735 : — 

For a board to lay her head upon 


For a board to shew her liver upon - 


For two bullocks eyes 


For four sheeps eyes- 


For a quarter of soap 


For hogs brissels - - 


For a new spunge - 


For Borrowing a Hone to set the Instruments - 


For Sticking up the Bills - 



For nine days attendance at 2 s 6 11 p r Day - 







4th February, 1735. Under this date is an entry of a long 
letter from the Commissioners of the Navy, complaining of the want 
of skill in a Surgeon, whereby great mortality had ensued on the ship 
Newcastle ; the Court examined the Surgeon and his Journal and 
considered that there was nothing to find fault with as regarded his 
proficiency in Surgery, and that the sickness among the ship's crew 
required skill in Physic rather than in Surgery, moreover they declared 
that the Physician at Greenwich examined the Navy Surgeons as to 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. ^j 

their skill in Physic and not the Barber-Surgeons' Company. The 
Clerk was directed to write to the Commissioners to this effect, and 
to state that the Company did not consider themselves answerable 
for any man's want of skill in Physic. 

A long letter dated 5th February was accordingly written 
and is set out in the Minute Book. The Surgeon complained of 
was Thomas Middleton, son of Mr. Henry Middleton (the oldest 
Member of the Court) and it appears that he had been fully 
examined and qualified. 

29th September, 1735. The following order touching the 
vexed question of dead bodies was issued by the Sheriffs : — 

cJEonoon to Witt 

In Pursuance of an Act of Parliament made in the Thirty second 
year of King Henry the Eighth and of an order of Sessions hearing date the eighth day 
of July in the Fifteenth year of our late Sovereign Lord King Charles the First Sir 
Maurice Abbott Mayor. ~g$cc do order and command our Officers who are entrusted 
with or attend the execution of such Malefactors as shall be to dye at any time hereafter 
during our Sheriffalty to deliver to Henry Gretton and William Littlebury Beadles of the 
Company of Barbers and Surgeons of London or such other Officer or Officers as the 
Company shall appoint, One of the Bodys of the said Malefactors from time to time for 
a publick Dissection and to assist them with the said body to their Hall according to an 
Order of the Court of Aldermen of the Thirteenth of February 1675' Sir William Hooker 
Mayor and to two other subsequent Orders of the Court of Aldermen one bearing date 
the fourth day of February the other the fourth day of March 1728 2 Sir Robert Baylis 
Knight Lord Mayor. 

Given under our hands this 29 th day of September 1735. 

Jn° Barnard 
ro t godschall. 

' 1676 N.S. - 1729 N.S. 

35 8 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ist June, 1736. It is ordered that the Constables of the Holborn Division shall 
be allowed Three Guineas and a halfe above the Guinea already paid them in regard to 
their expences at the last execution, when the Body was taken from the Beadles and 
retaken by the Constables and the Clerk is ordered to repay the same But the Clerk is 
not to pay the officers of the Compter the Two guineas usually received by them at 
every execution. 

24th September, 1741. John Thrift the Executioner this day attended on a 
complaint made against him by the Beadles for obstructing the Bodys being brought 
from Tyburne to the Hall for dissection and threatning to prevent the Company's 
measures for obtaining the same, when after he had been reproved, was Dismissed, 
But the Court then agreed (in order to prevent his intended proceedings) to 
attend the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen that they may on complaint made 
be releived therein. 

1 8th December, 1 741. Ordered that the High Constable of Holburne be 
allowed Ten shillings and sixpence as his ffee for every Body that shall be brought from 
Tyburne and delivered at this Company's Hall and for his aiding and assisting the 
Company's Beadles therein and not otherwise. 

10th February, 1742. The Court either forgetting or ignoring 
their order of 7th May, 17 13, now ordered that Mr. William Skelton, 
a proctor in Doctors' Commons, who had for many years past received 
five guineas annually as Caveat money (being Registrar of the Bishop 
of London) and "pretended to be allowed him by this Company on 
account of his Lordship's Grant for the Prohibiting of Surgeons to 
practice within his Diocese be no longer entitled to such fee untill 
such time as this Court shall be better informed of the nature of his 
right of demanding the same." 

23rd November, 1740. Great consternation prevailed at the 
Hall in consequence of a malefactor who had been hung at Tyburn 
having revived when brought here for dissection. The account of 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 359 

this remarkable occurrence is recorded by the Clerk, Mr. Joseph 
Wheeler, on the last page of the rough Minute Book 1 738-1 742, and 
is very interesting. From the record of his trial at the Old Bailey 
(see Sessions Papers) Duell appears to have been ana outrageous young 
scoundrel. A popular impression prevails, and frequent currency has 
been given to it, that Duell subsequently made a fortune abroad and 
out of gratitude to the Barber-Surgeons for saving his life, presented 
them with the handsome leather folding screen now in the Court 
Room, the best answer to which is, that the screen in question is 
referred to in the Company's Inventory some thirty years previously to 
Mr. Duell's visit to Tyburn. 

Mr. Wheeler's account is as follows — 

November the 23 d ' 1740. 

This day W" 1 - Duell (who had been indicted at the Old Bayley for a Rape and 
had received sentence of Death for the same) was carryed to Tyburne in order to be 
executed where having hung some time was cutt down and brought to this Company's 
Hall in order to be dissected where he had not been five minutes before Life appeared in 
him & being let blood and other means used for his recovery in less than two hours he 
sat upright drank some warm wine and looked often round him and before he was carryed 
back to Newgate which was about Twelve o'the Clock at Night he severall times 
pronounced distinctly the word Dont when anybody touched him though was thought to 
be mostly insensible of anything but paine which in a great measure he endured by his 
most violent screamings & was often in strong convulsions in his bowells which he then 
exprest by applying his hands to those parts. 

The Sheriffs having ordered him back to Newgate he was carryed out in a 
blankett putt into a Coach & was seemingly much composed & quiet not making any 
manner of noise wherein 3 or 4 days time he recovered sufficient to converse & eat & 
drink very freely but never could give any reasonable account of what had passed. He 
afterwards obtained a reprieve in order to be transported for life which he was accordingly 
in the 16th year of his age. ( Vide his Tryall in the Sessions paper of that time.) 



oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The Wardens' accounts give the following particulars relative to 

this case : — 

£ s. •'■ 
Paid the Beadles their expences in bringing the last Body from Tyburne 2 19 o 

Paid the Officers of the Two Compters 220 

Paid Joseph Wheeler the Company's Clerk his Coach hire and ex- 
pences in attending the Sheriffs when the Body came to life - - o 10 o 
Paid the Chairwoman for her trouble and expences about the Body -050 

A somewhat similar account of the foregoing circumstance will 
be found in Maitland's London (ed. 1756), Vol. I, p. 613, and also in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. X, p. 570. 


HERE are many references 

throughout the books to the 
Lectures and Demonstrations 
of Anatomy at our Hall, as 
well as indications that from 
the period of Incorporation 
(1462), if not earlier, the Com- 
pany took care to provide for 
the professional education of its 
members and apprentices, and 
to increase their proficiency in 
Surgical science. 

In addition to the Examiners in Surgery (who though not 
necessarily members of the Court of Assistants were often consulted 
by the Masters or Governors) there were chosen " Masters and 
Stewards of the Anatomy," generally two Masters and two Stewards, 

The initial letter T is reduced from one in the Audit Book, 1612-13. 

362 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

on whom devolved the duty of conducting the Demonstrations, and 
arrano-ine- for the Dinners which invariably followed. The exact 
duties of these officials are not at all times clearly defined, though 
elsewhere will be found allusions to, and orders concerning their 
offices and functions, but it may be generally taken that the Stewards 
dissected and prepared the body, the Masters reading the Lectures 
thereon to the assembled Surgeons and their apprentices. 

These Demonstrations usually took place four times in the year, 
and were termed " Public Anatomies," from the fact that the subject 
was generally a public body, i.e., a malefactor, and the attendance of 
the free Surgeons was compulsory on these occasions ; besides these 
Public Anatomies, there were also an indefinite number of " Private 
Anatomies" held at the Hall, and at these the attendance was by 
invitation. It was illegal for any one to dissect a "humane bodye" 
within the limits of the Company's jurisdiction without the permission 
of the Masters or Governors, and whenever a Surgeon was desirous 
to anatomatize some specially interesting subject, it was termed a 
"Private Anatomy," and generally performed at the Hall by per- 
mission, the Surgeon inviting his own friends and pupils, and the 
Court inviting whom they chose. (See the curious entry as to a 
Private Anatomy, page 321.) 

Besides the Demonstrations of Anatomy, public and private, 
there were several other lectures delivered (oftentimes once a week) by 
members of the College of Physicians and members of the Company ; 
two of these, which were trusts, the Arrisian Lecture and Gale's 
Anatomy still survive I believe, at the Royal College of Surgeons ; 
the others were provided by the Company out of their corporate funds. 

Among some loose papers at the Hall, I found a MS. relating 
to the lectures, which I lent to Mr. D'Arcy Power, who incorporated it 


*•!-/•* ytt-Omf bcx^gjrnryn-6 P^ 

>-we£ ?w<vf<- tftn 

' ' ir . 


- r — I ■'if ' ' 




y,^afSy^*--te~y-~ -^-rtvdH j?6*£ '^"y t'J^-'yf ^y ^£^*" <"* fStt^y *f>~*'fo "' 
- u't !<*■*% £?*+ijr **-l *^t— vVif-M'c/j* «s^ / ^ 1 b^c^i- ••■^fciij S»i»- 


MC-S1MIL1 P»l i "l MINI il ■ .6T» |MI1 L»V, I5S; | 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 363 

in his work, as "Appendix M." I have since compared this document 
with the original minutes, and finding it .somewhat incorrect and im- 
perfect, have prepared the following more accurate account. 

Previous to 1566 Dr. William Cunningham was Reader at 
the Hall. He was author of the " Cosmographical Glasse containing 
the pleasant principles of Cosmographie Geographie Hydrographie or 
Navigation," London, 1599. fo. Dr. Cunningham resided at Norwich 
1556-9, whence he removed to London. He wrote a letter pre- 
facing John Hall's book against the " beastlye abusers" of Surgery, 
which is dated at Coleman Street, 18th April, 1565, and he also wrote 
a recommendatory letter in Thomas Gale's " Certeine workes of 
Chirurgerie," London, 1586. 4'°- 

14th January, 1567. Here was m r doctor Julyo & he made request y l he myghte 
have the worke of the anathomy these iiij or or fyve yeres so y' the coledge of the 
phicysions sholde not put hym frome us & also y' he myghte have p°vat anathomyes at 
his demaund in this howse. 

16th January, 1567. <&o}u tf>at doctor Julius borgarneyns shall make ow r 

JUso fox bcx move §f i)s ovbaqtieb. That M r Julius borgamiens doctor in 
physyck w lh in the Cytie of London unto his request accordyngly Is graunted That for and 
by the space of fyve yeres shall make and worke o\v r anathomyes and skellytons 
Condycionally That at any Tyme and tymes w th in in the for saide terme of fyve yeres y' 
yf yt happen the above named m' doctor Julius borgarneins to be sycke or oute of Towne 
or by any other manner his Lawfull absence That then yt shalbe Lawfull to and for the 
m r and gov°no rs and y r successors To take any other doctor and make ow r anathomyes 
and skellytons and not ellf other wyse as by a paire of Indentures and Covenant^ 
bearynge date frome the xiij th daye of August in an" dn ! 1566 and in the viij" 1 yere of 
ow r Sov'aigne lady Quene Elyzabeth as by the same Indentures more at large yt doth 
testefye the one beyng sealed w'" the Seale of the mystery and the m' and govW s for 
the tyme then beinge have subscrybed y r names & markes and unto the oth r Indenture 
the saide doctor Julius burgarniens hath subscrybed his name & have put y r unto his seale. 

3 A 2 

364 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

$soxv> tljaf the anathomystf shall Leave of theyre Excessyve and 
extraordenary charges in y r expencf 

Jlfso vt is {&vbai?neb. That John morland shall abyde and stande M r of 
the Anathomye accordynge unto an ordenaiice in that behalf pvyded and Ordayned, and 
he also shall beare his portion of the Charges of the same accordingly as hertofore yt 
bathe bene usually acostomed and yt is fully condesended and agreed that the saide 
John morelande shall in and for good consideracio of his silvered yeres, set and Requyer 
any one of this saide Copany To make Sexcions \v ,h the doctor as hymsylf and in his 
behalf upon the saide Corps or bodye and yf he wyll Jln6 ctfso forder more yt is 
ordayned by thaucthorytie aforesaide That hereafter the saide m r and stewardf of the 
anathomyes shall not brynge in theyre accomptes any moiiy by them or any of them 
spente or layed forthe at the Tavernes or ellf where at theire sondry metingff but the 
mere and only exspencf defrayed and paide oute for the Cates and other necessarys 
at the hall p°pared for the same tyme and not ellf othenvyse And also the saide 
anathomistf shall frome hence forwardf put of and laye aparte theire Sooppars' and 
all others y r wastefull and excessyve charges and exspencef by the w ch theire accomptf 
amounteth unto the greter Somes. And also John Staple upon his humble request 
made is lycenced not to be stewarde in this yere, and m' bovy is chosen and admytted 
to be stewarde of the saide anathomy and shall also p''cede to m r of the nexte 2 unto 
order accordyngly. 

17th January, 1575. It was agreed by this whole howse that m r docto' Smythe 
sholde wo'k upon Thannatomye for the space of thies iiij yeres next coming and yf he be 
sick or oute of the Towne to take there choyse where they will. 

20th December, 1577. M r Thomas Hall to desect the Anatomies. 

Thomas Hall (see pp. 183, 187) was a Member of the Court 
of Assistants, and a brother of the John Hall referred to on p. 314. 

1st July, 1596. M r Docto r Paddy ys chosen to be the desecto r of o r Anathomies 
yf yt shall pleas him to accept of the same And also xx^ ys geven yerelie to the 
Anathomistf more then they were accustomed to have in regard that suche Doctor 5 
of Phisick as shall associate the said M r Docto' shalbe invited to dyner at the good 
liking of the masters or governo' 5 from tyme to tyme. 

1 Suppers. '- i.e. , proceed to be Master of the Anatomy next year. 

oAnnals of the- Barber-Surgeons. ^63 

23rd November, 1609. Att this Court upon the motion made by S r William 
Paddy Knighte and at his earnest request and suite made to this Courte and uppon the 
surrenderinge up of his place which he held for the redinge of the Anathomyes lectures 
for discection thereof It is by a generall consent of the whole Courte agreed That 
M r Doctor Gwyn doctor in Phisicke shall from henceforth possesse his place in the Hall 
for readinge of the discection of the Anathomy Att such tymes and when as any such 
shall happen or be. 

28th March, 1610. This day wee had the bodie of one to 

descect for an Anotomy & M r Docter Gwyn did reede upon the same. 

17th September, 1612. This daye itt is ordered (upon a motion by the M r 
propounded touchinge that one of the Colledge shold read in this howse the weeklie 
lectures of Surgery on Tewsdaies) That the M" shall conferr with M" President of the 
Phisitions Colledge to see whether they will give Consent that M r Docto' Davis or some 
other sufficient phisition whome the company shall please shall read the weeklie lectures 
in o r howse And yf the president & Colledge shall not consent thereto then this howse 
is to deale & compound with some other of our owne company to read their lecture in 
this howse whereof ye M rs are to make certificatt unto the said M' President And to take 
such order that the howse maye not in anywise be charged towards y° same Lecture. 

6th October, 161 2. This daie upon the motion made of M r Doctor Gwyne to 
be lecturer Itt is by this Court ordered that the said M r Docto r Gwyne shalbe reader of 
the weekelie lectures of surgery w ch the said M r Doctor accepted of In Consideracon 
whereof the M rs have allowed unto the said M' Doctor Gwyne an yerelie paym' of x 1 ' to 
contynew soe long as he shall be reder of the lecture. 

19th September, 1616. M r Doctor Gwyne is by this Court ordered & entreated 
that he wold proceed in his reading of o' lectures out of Gwydoes Surgery. 

13th December, 1627. Alsoe this daye o r M' propounding to this Courte that 
where as M r Docto r Gwin our lecturer is lately dead by reason whereof wee are destitute of 
a lecturer it is very expedient either to choose a Doctor to Reade our lectures on 
tuesdayes or every Surgion in his turne according to his antiquitye to reade his lecture as 
formerly the Surgions of this house hath bene used, whereupon deliberacSn being had it 
is by this Court fully concluded and agreed that our weekely lectures shalbe reade 
according to the auncient custome of the Companie by the Surgions of our Companie 
approved according to lawe and that it shall begin with the auncientest Maister M" 
Richard Mapes and soe after every Surgion in his antiquitye and degree in the Companie. 

}66 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Alsoe it is further ordered that dureing the tyme of reading of such lecture none 
of the audience shall interrupt or question the reader till the hower be runn out, and the 
lecture ended, at which tyme it shalbe lawfull for the M rs and Wardeins and the examiners 
then present (if any error have bene comitted by such lecturer) to question such reader 
and to make manifest wherein he hath erred. 

23rd October, 1628. Alsoe this daye M r Doctor Andrewes is freely and loveingly 
chosen to be our reader at the next publique Anathomye to be holden in this Hall. 

9th April, 1632. Alsoe this Court takeing into their considerations the greate 
care and paines of M r Doctor Andrewes in his agitaccins and yearely readinge of our 
lectures in tyme of the discections of the publique Anathomyes for this fowcr yeares past 
doe nowe order that there shalbe given him xiij 1 ' yj* viij d as of the free guift of this house 
for his paines therefore. 

i6lh June, 1632. And as concerning the order for reading of lectures in 
Surgerye by an approved surgion of this Companie, this Court did againe deliberate upon 
the same and every one of the Assistants declared his opinion therein and the pluralitie 
of voyces was to have lectures read by the approved Surgians of this house according to 
our ordinances and not by a Doctor of phisick. 

20th December, 1632. Alsoe o r Soveraigne Lord Kinge Charles his Letter 
directed to this Court was here openly reade and thereupon this Court in all obedient 
duetye and loyaltie to o r soveraigne Lord the Kings pleasure signified in that letter doe 
make moon of M r Docto' Andrewes to be the weekely lecturer in surgerye for o r Companie 
upon such Court dayes as wee are accustomed to keepe. 

28th December, 1632. This daye was reade in Court the letter directed to 
o r M r from M r Richard Andrews Docto' in Phisick whereby he doth desire to be excused 
from reading o r weekely lectures in Surgerye, & thereupon this Court did goe to a new 
election, takeing notice of M r Alex: Reade Docto' in Phisick approved by the Colledge 
of Phisitians London whoe was bredd a Chirurgian in ffraunce and hath bene a long time 
free of o r Companie did make choice of the said Docto r Reade to be o r Lecturer in 
Surgerye at such dayes and tymes as by order of Court is formerly ordered by this Court. 
And this Court doth further order that ev°y Surgian in the Lecture bill shall yearely 
paye towards the reading of such Lecture a certeyne some p^ticulerly, and that all those 
moneys gathered being cast up to a totall some shall out of the stock of this house be 
yearely made up xx" compleately for the said Docto rs Readeing. 

tiAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 367 

Among a collection of old books on Surgery, in my possession, 
is a small quarto by Dr. Read (dedicated to Thomas, Lord Windsor, 
who was free of the Barber-Surgeons) and entitled : — 

The Chirurgicall Lectures of Tumors and Ulcers delivered on Tuesdayes 
appointed for these exercises, and keeping of their Courts in the Chirurgeans Hall 
these three yeeres last past, viz. 1632, 1633 and 1634. By Alexander Read Doctor of 
Physick, and one of the Fellowes of the Physitians College of London. London 1635. 

28th December, 1637. Upon the riseing of the Court of Assistants it was 
concluded & agreed by the Examiners and Assistants Surgians that M r Docto r Meverell 
an auncient Phisitian of the Colledge shalbe Reader of o' Anatomicall lectures at the 
next publique discection to be held in the new erected Theater. 

8th November, 1638. It is this daye ordered by the M' s or Governo" Surgians 
and the Examiners and Assistant Surgians here present y s afternoone that there shalbe 
p n nted as the guift of this Companie to M r Doct. Meverell a peece of plate w ,h the 
Companies Scutchion ingraven thereon for his paynes in readeing at o r last publiqe 
Anatomye in the new Theater before the Lords of his Ma liM most hono No privye Councell 
& others Spectato rs in the time of those 3 dayes readeings. 

And in regard the said Docto' Meverell doth desire to be spared from reading 
any more the said M rs or Governo'" Surgians & the Examiners & Assistant Surgians do 
make choice of M r Doct. Prujeon to be their reader in M r Doct. Meverells roome. 

19th August, 1 64 1. It is ordered that henceforward the Tuesday Lectures 
shalbe delivered by the Surgeons of this Company themselves and not by a Doctor 
and that the Examiners shall meete and consider of the manner. 

23rd September, 1641. The Tenn Examiners are desired to meete & consider 
concerneing Lectures on Thursday next and in regard of the present sicknes this Court 
doth order that noe Tuesday Courts or Lectures be held till after the fortnight within 
the next terme. 

30th September, 1641. This day M r Lawrence Cotton, Warden, M r Serjeant 
Clowes M r Richard Wateson M r Woodall M r John Heydon M r Heath M r George Dunn, 
Examiners of Surgeons takeing into theire Consideracons the manner of the reading of 
Lectures in Surgery have thought it fitt and ordered That the Surgery Lectures should 
be read by approved Surgeans only and the Lecture to begin by the first Surgeon that 


68 z/lnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

is approved next to the Examiners and soe every one by his turne to read the Tuesdayes 
Lecture and every one to have a preceeding moneths time of warneing or notice to 
prepare himselfe for such Lecture as he shall read. 

Alsoe It is thought fitt the publique Anatomy 6 Lectures shall this yeare he 
read by Doctor Prudjeon. 

5th May, 1642. It is ordered that Doctor Chamblent shall have a silver 
tankard of vj" price with Armes of the company ingraven in it as the Guift of this 
Court for his paynes the last publique Anatomy. 

17th January, 1644. It is ordered That in respect of the greate troubles and 
distractions of these times there shalbe noe publique Anatomy this yeare discected. 

27th October, 1645. This day M r Edward Arris acquainting this Court that 
a person a friend of his (who desired his name to be as yet concealed)' through his 
greater desire of the increase of the knowledge of Chirurgery did by him freely offer to 
give unto this Corporacon for ever the sum of 250 11 to the end and upon Condicon that 
a humane Body be once in every yeare hereafter publiquely dissected and six Lectures 
thereupon read in this Hall if it may be had with Conveniency and the Charges to be 
borne by this Company And if noe humane Body may be had nor conveniently dissected 
in one yeare then the Company to destribute One halfe of the Sum of the usuall Charges 
of a publique Anatomy to our owne poore and the other halfe to the poore of S' 
Sepulchers, the said worthy Overture is thankefully accepted by this Court And it is 
Ordered a Draught be drawne by our Clerke against the next Court of Assistants for the 
performance thereof And to that purpose a Rent charge of xx 1 ' p° annum be granted 
out of our Lands at Holborne Bridge. 

24th November, 1645. ^' 1 ' s Court taking into Consideration in what manner 
the publique Bodyes hereafter shalbe dissected and by whome that Anatomy which is 
now newly about to be established shalbe performed Doth thinke fitt and soe Order 
That the present M rs of Anatomy or such others as shalbe appointed by the two M rs 
Surgeons for the time being and the more part of the Examiners shall performe the same 
and that the manner of dissections of every publique Anatomy shalbe such as they the 
said Two M rs or Governo' 5 for the time being and Examiners on the more part of them 
shall direct. 

' It was the worthy Alderman Arris himself. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 369 

30th January, 1646. The draft deed of settlement fur the 
Arrisian Lectures was brought into Court and (6th February, 1646) 
approved ; but it appearing at the next Court that there was some 
technical difficulty as to the names of the feoffees it was remitted to 
the donor's counsel. 

20th February, 1646. This Court doth agree That the Deed of an Annuity 
formerly granted to the use of the new publique Anatomy be made for 24'' upon the 
Consideracon of 300 1 ' And it is promised by M r Arris on the behalfe of the Donor That 
if the 300'' shalbe restored within 12 yeares he or his Heires shall grant unto this 
Company for the same use the like sum of 24 1 ' p. Annum out of some of his Lands or 
Tenements And doe nominate and appoint for ffeeoffees M r Dunn M r Collins M' Kings 
M r Pinder M r ffleete M r Arris M r Boone and M r Bennett. 

24th March, 1646. This daye M r Edward Arris payd the sum of 300 1 ' to the 
use of this Company and is the purchase money for the Annuity of 24'' p° annii for the 
use of the new publique Anatomy Whereupon the Deed of Grant of the said Annuity 
and for establishing the said new Anatomy was sealed with the Coirion Scale and 
1 >clivered to the Donor and the scvcrall ffeoffees intrusted in that matter. 

In consequence of our later Minutes being lost, it is not possible 
to say precisely how this trust came to be varied and increased, though 
from the House of Commons Journals (see p. 160) it can be con- 
jectured almost to a certainty to have been as follows : — Within twelve 
years from the date of the original grant (say in 1658) the Company 
returned the ,£300 to Alderman Arris, and he thereupon settled upon 
them a rent charge, not of ,£24 as he had promised to do, but of ^30 
per annum payable out of some of his houses. He seems however, 
subsequently, to have had good reason to believe that his only son 
and heir, Dr. Thomas Arris, M.P., would give the Company trouble 
in the matter of the settlement, and so, on the 29th February, 1676, 
he requested that his deed of grant might be given up to him cancelled, 
and that he should in return give the Company ^510 absolutely and 
free from any trtist, save only an honorable understanding that the 

)-/o cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Anatomy Lectures should be continued. This was done, and after his 
death (which happened 28th May, 1676) the Company were involved 
in a Chancery suit with Dr. Thomas Arris who endeavoured, though 
unsuccessfully, to recover possession of the ,£510. 

17th July, 1646. Whereas 300'' hath bin worthily given to this House for the 
Discharge of all expences to be layd out in and about a publique Anathomy to be hence- 
forth had yearely for ever Betweene the ffeaste of Michaelmas and Christmas in every 
yeare "And for that Doctor Prudjon who formerly read the Anatomicall Lectures hath 
desired to be excused from reading the Lectures on the next Anathomyes to be dissected 
betweene Michaelmas and Christmas next This Court doth think fitt That Doctor Wright 
be desired to performe the same And that the M rb of the Anatomy for the time being 
When the said Anatomy shalbe dissected do alwayes in theire severall & respective times 
of M rs of Anatomy dissect the said Anatomy And this Court doth thinke fitt That the 
dissection of the said Anatomy be of the Muscles of the Body But that the manner 
thereof be left to the Judgement of the Reader and the Dissectors. 

2 1 st September, 1646. Our M r acquainting the Court that Doctor Prudjon and 
divers other learned Physitions have recomended Doctor [John] Goddard as a Man 
well qualifyed and very able to reade the Anatomicall Lectures This Court doth Order 
That Doctor Prudjon be requested to performe the Lectures On the next publique 
Anatomy himselfe But if he shall Deny it That then Doctor Goddard Or such other as 
Doctor Prudjon shall thinke more fitt be desired to read the Lectures. 

23rd October, 1646. This Court doth Order That all the approved Chirurgeons 
according to Law shall appeare at all publique Anatomyes for the time to come in a fflatt 
Capp upon the penalty of 3 s 4 d and all the rest of the Livery in a Hatt. 

24th December, 1646. This Court doth thinke fitt and soe Order That the M rs 
or Governours and Assistants nor any of them Nor any of the M rs or Stewards of 
Anathomy doe invite or enterteyne any Guest at any of the Three Dinners to be had 
within this Hall at the next publique Anatomy Or at any other publique Anathomy 
betweene Michaelmas and Christmas in any yeare hereafter But doth consent & Order 
That Doctor Prudjon be invited to the said Dinners Anything aforesaid to the contrary 

c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. jji 

7th January, 1647. Whereas this Court is well satisfyed That Doctor Prudjon 
is desireous to be excused from reading the next Anatomicall Lectures This Court doth 
Order That Doctor Goddard be desired to performe the same. 

15th February, 1647. This Court doth thinke fitt and soe Order That the 
Tuesday Lectures be againe revived and read by Chirurgeons ffreemen of this Company 
in their turnes according to theire authority' in the Livery. The eldest Assistant 
Chirurgeon to read the first Lecture and that to be On the first Tuesday in May next 
and the other to be from thence monethly and noe oftner viz 1 The ftirst Tuesday in ev y 
moneth Provided Nevertheles That when as any such Tuesday shall not be within the 
time lymitted in and by an Order of a Court of Assistants of ix" 1 August 1632 in that 
behalfe Or shall happen to be on any the dayes thereby excepted That then every such 
Tuesday be noe Lecture day. 

The order of the 9th August, 1632, above referred to, was as 
follows — 

Alsoe this daye this Court for removeing of uncerteinties & setling of one certeyne 
course and forme for Courts to be kept on y r Tuesdayes in every yeare doe now upon 
deliberacon had, order that from henceforth for ever hereafter there shalbe Lectures reade 
& Courts held in the Comon Hall of this Companie at such dayes and times in every 
yeare annually as hereafter followeth viz' on every Tuesdaye w dI shalbe betwixt Michaelmas 
daye and the Tenth daye of December, On every Tuesdaye betwixt the ffeast of Epiphanie 
and Palme Sondaye, on every Tuesdaye betwixt Easter holydayes and Rogactin weeke, 
on every Tuesdaye betwixt Whitesonday holydayes and the last daye of Julye. Provided 
alwayes that if it shall happen any of the aforesaid Tuesdayes to fall out to be either on a 
holydaye or one a holydayes Eve That then every such Tuesdaye to be noe Court or Lecture 
daye Provided alsoe that the Tuesdaye in the weeke next before the Lord Maio rs daye 
and the Tuesdaye in the weeke next before the Publiqe discection of Anatomye and alsoe 
Shrove tuesdaye to be noe Court dayes. 

29th March, 1647. This Court doth explaine the Order of the last Court of 
Assistants (15th February 1647) concerneing the Tuesday Lectures That it is the 
meaneing of this Court and this Court doth accordingly Order That the said Lectures 
be read aswell by the ancient M ri Chirurgeons and Examiners in theire course as by 
any others. 

1 A clerical mistake for " antiquity," i.e., precedence. 

3 j 2 aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

23rd September, 1647. This Court takeing notice that Doctor Prudjon desireth 
to be excused from reading the next Anatomicall Lectures to be had betweene Michaelmas 
and Christmas next But wilbe ready hereafter to serve the Company in that kind Doth 
therefore freely chuse Doctor Nurse for the reading these Lectures and Doth order That 
our Clerke doth attend him and desire his answer therein And this Court doth further 
Order That the present Masters of Anathomy may dissect the first publique Anathomy 
and in the meane time may have a private Body. 

nth January, 1648. This Court at the Suite and request of M r Daniell Worrall 
M r William Molins M r Thomas Woodall and M r Thorpe Chirurgeons of the Cloathing of 
this Company Doth grant That they or any of them joyneing the M" & Stewards of 
Anathomy privately desect in the Coirion Hall of this Company and not elsewhere a 
humane Body executed as a Malefactour that they or any of them may procure ffor the 
bettering theire Judgement and Skill in Anatomy, Provided That they at theire owne 
proper Costs doe defray and disburse All the Necessary & accustomed Charges ffees & 
Duties belonging to a private Anathomy. 

14th January, 1648. This Court doth Order That there be a publique Anathomy 
this yeare and doth chuse and desire Doctor Nurse to read these Lectures and inasmuch 
as Doctor Prudeon doth desire to be excused ffrom reading hereafter this Court doth 
Choose Doctor Nurse to be the constant Anatomicall Reader to this Company. 

8th October, 1649. This Court taking into consideracon severall worthy 
Physicians of whome one might be elected Reader of the Anatomicall Lectures at 
the publique dissections of this Company Doe thinke fitt That Doctor Scarborough 
be elected thereunto Who being desired to come to this Court appeared during the 
sitting thereof and declared himselfe very willing to performe the same and rendered 
thanks to this Court for their good opinions of him. 

We have at the Hall a fine portrait of Dr. Sir Charles 
Scarborough with Alderman Arris engaged upon an Anatomy. 

Dr. Scarborough was elected Anatomical Reader on the 12th 
October, 1649. 


23rd October, 1649. The periodical lectures by the Surgeons 
of the Company, which had again fallen through of late, were ordered 
to be revived, and there is a long minute on the subject at this date. 

z/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 373 

27th February, 1663. Samuel Pepys records, under this date: — 

About 1 1 o'clock Commissioner Pet and I walked to Chyrurgeon's Hall, we 
being all invited thither, and promised to dine there, where we were led into the Theatre ; 
and by and by comes the reader, D r Tearne,' with the Master and Company, in a very 
handsome manner : and all being settled, he begun his lecture ; and his discourse being 
ended, we had a fine dinner and good learned company, many Doctors of Phisique, 
and we used with Extraordinary great respect. 

30th June, 1698. Ord rd that there bee an Anatomy Lecture called Gales 
Anatomy. D r [Clopton] Havers & D r Hands being put in nominacon for reading of 
the same D r Havers was choosen for three yeares & to read on the second Tuesday 
Wednesday and Thursday in July next by three of the clock in the afternoone & to have 
thirty shillings for his paines & the remainder to bee disposed of by the Comitte. 

14th December, 1699. Ord ul the two D' s - Readers to this Society for the future 
shall bee elected for noe longer terme then fower yeares onely at one time Ord" 1 by the 
Court that D r [E.] Tyson have liberty to lay downe [his office]. 

D r Hans & D r Havers were put in nominacon for Reader of the Ventera 
Lecture in the roome of D r Tyson, D r Hans was chosen for fower yeares. 

22nd April, 1708. Dr. Colebrooke and Dr. Thomas Wadsworth 
put in nomination for Reader of the Osteology Lecture (Gale's founda- 
tion), when Dr. Wadsworth was elected for four years. 

1 6th August, 1 71 1. Then the Court proceeded to the Eleccon of Readers for 
the Muscular Ventor & Osteology lectures & I) r [Richard] Mead D r ffreind & D r 
^Yadsworth the present Readers were unanimously chosen Readers of the said severall 
Lectures for the four ensuing years. 

17th July, 1712. D r John ffreind was unanimously Chosen Reader of the 
Muscular Lecture. And D r Comer [? H. Colmer] was Chosen Reader of the Venter 
Lecture for the next 4 yeares ensueing. 

1 Christopher Terne, of Leyden, M.D., originally of Cambridge, and Fellow of the College of Physicians. 

Ob. 1673. 

374 nAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ist October, 1712. Dr. Henry Plumtree and Dr. Douglas 
put in nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture (Arris's 
foundation) in the room of Dr. Meade, when Dr. Plumtree was elected 
for four years. 

Dr. J. Douglas and Dr. Wadsworth put in nomination for 
Reader of the Osteology Lecture, when Dr. Wadsworth was elected 
for four years. 

15th December, 1715. Dr. Douglas and Dr. Marmaduke Giles 
put in nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture, when Dr. 
Douglas was elected for four years. 

Dr. William Wagstaffe and Dr. Hezekias Jones put in 
nomination for Reader of the Viscera Lecture, when Dr. Wagstaffe 
was elected for four years. 

13th March, 1 7 1 7. Dr. W. Barrowby and Dr. Stewart put 
in nomination for Reader of the Ostelogy Lecture, when Dr. Barrowby 
was elected for four years. 

6th November, 17 17. Dr. Douglas resigned the Readership 
of the Muscular Lecture, on account of a difference with the Masters 
of Anatomy, and Dr. Plumtree was chosen in his place. 

1 8th August, 1720. Dr. Wagstaffe and Dr. Barrowby put in 
nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture, when Dr. Wagstaffe 
was elected for four years. 

Dr. Barrowby and Dr. Thomas Jewrin put in nomination for 
Reader of the Viscera Lecture, when Dr. Barrowby was elected 
for four years. 

Dr. Jewrin and Dr. W. Rutty put in nomination for Reader of 
the Osteology Lecture, when Dr. Jewrin was elected for four years. 

c/Innals of the Barber-Surgeons. ?7^ 

30th October, 1721. Dr. Jewrin and Dr. Charles Bale put in 
nomination for Reader of the Viscera Lecture {vice Dr. Barrowby 
resigned), when Dr. Jewrin was elected. 

Dr. C. Bale and Dr. W. Rutty put in nomination for Reader 
of the Osteology Lecture (vice Jewrin), when Dr. Bale was elected. 

29th March, 1722. Dr. Bale being in France, and unable to 
return for five months, Dr. Rutty and Dr. Sisterton were put in 
nomination for Reader of the Osteology Lecture, when Dr. Rutty was 

20th August, 1724. Dr. Jewrin and Dr. Rutty put in nomina- 
tion for Reader of the Muscular Lecture in place of Dr. Wagstaffe, 
when Dr. Jewrin was elected for four years. 

Dr. Rutty and Dr. Robert Nesbitt put in nomination for Reader 
of the Viscera Lecture (vice Jewrin), when Dr. Rutty was elected for 
four years. 

Dr. Nesbitt and Dr. John Deodate put in nomination for Reader 
of the Osteology Lecture (vice Rutty), when Dr. Deodate was elected 
for four years. 

6th June, 1727. Dr. E Wilmott and Dr. Goldsmith put in 
nomination for Reader of the Osteology Lecture (vice Deodate deceased), 
when Dr. Willmott was elected. 

15th August, 1728. Dr. Rutty and Dr. Wilmott put in 
nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture (vice Jewrin), when 
Dr. Rutty was elected. 

Dr. Wilmott and Dr. Lawrence Martell put in nomination for 
Reader of the Viscera Lecture (vice Rutty), when Dr. Wilmott was 

Dr. Martell and Dr. Goldsmith put in nomination for Reader 
of the Osteology Lecture (vice Wilmott), when Dr. Martell was elected. 

)j6 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

7th April, 1730. Dr. Goldsmith and Dr. Watts put in 
nomination for Reader of the Osteology Lecture (vice Martell 
resigned), when Dr. Goldsmith was elected. 

13th August, 1730. Dr. Goldsmith and Dr. Francis Nicholls 
put in nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture {vice Rutty 
deceased), when Dr. Goldsmith was elected. 

Dr. Nicholls and Dr. Nesbitt put in nomination for Reader of 
of the Viscera Lecture (vice Wilmott resigned), when Dr. Nicholls 
was elected. 

Dr. Nesbitt and Dr. Watts put in nomination for Reader of 
the Osteology Lecture (vice Goldsmith), when Dr. Nesbitt was elected. 

Mr. Joshua Symmonds was chosen Demonstrator or Teacher 
of Anatomy for three years. 

5th March, 1 73 1 . Mr. Symmonds resigned through ill-health, 
and Mr. Edward Nourse and Mr. John Belchier being put in nomination, 
Mr. Nourse was elected. 

17th August, 1732. Dr. Nesbitt and Dr. Guy Ruffiniac put 
in nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture (vice Goldsmith 
deceased), when Dr. Nesbitt was elected. 

Dr. Ruffiniac was elected Reader of the Osteology Lecture 
(vice Nesbitt). 

5th March, 1734. Mr. Nourse resigned the place of Demon- 
strator of Anatomy. 

15th August, 1734. Mr. Abraham Chovett and Mr. Peter 
Maccullock were chosen Demonstrators of Anatomy. 

17th September, 1734. A lengthy set of regulations for the 
conduct of the Demonstrations of Anatomy is entered on the minutes 
of this date. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. )j-j 

17th July, 1735. Dr. Nicholls and Dr. Owen put in nomination 
for Reader of the Osteology Lecture (vice Ruffiniac resigned) when 
Dr. Nicholls was elected. 

19th August, 1736. Mr. Abraham Chovett resigned his place 
as Demonstrator of Anatomy, and Mr. Peter Maccullock and Mr. 
Ccesar Hawkins were elected Demonstrators. 

Dr. Nicholls and Dr. Nesbitt put in nomination for Reader of 
the Muscular Lecture, when Dr. Nicholls was elected. 

Dr. Nicholls was also elected Reader of the Osteology Lecture. 

7th December, 1738. Dr. R. Banks was elected Reader of the 
Viscera Lecture. 

1 6th August, 1739. Mr. Peter Maccullock elected Demonstra- 
tor of Anatomy, which office he held until his death. 

10th July, 1744. Mr. W. Bromfield elected Demonstrator of 
Anatomy (vice Maccullock, deceased). 

The following Will of Charles Whyte (Warden in 1535 and 
1542) is interesting, as it furnishes a partial list of the books and 
belongings of a Barber-Surgeon in Henry VI I Is time. 

The Will is dated 3rd July, 1544, and by it testator desires to 
be buried in St. Paul's Church Yard. He gives 20 d ' to St. Martin s 
Ludgate, where he dwelt, for tithes forgotten — 

Also I bequeathe to the Masters Wardens and felowsshipp of the barho' 
surgons for theyr payne to com to my buryeng vj s - viij d - To Thomas Wanlon poticary 
my beste Gowne furryd wyth black bugge. Also I bequeathe to Nicholas Archepolle 
the Surgion twoo books of surgery thone ys borded and coverd wyth yelowe lether and 

1 Probably, Nicholas Archenbold (Warden 1564, &c). 

3 c 


^Annuls of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ys named John of Ardren being wryten hande wyth Divers pictures And thother book 
being coveryd wyth black lether having on thone syde the armes of England wyth a 
rose paynted and one thother syde the armes of England and spayne being wryten hand. 
Also I bequeathe to John Colman that was my prentyce my great black boke borded 
and coveryd wyth black lether wher in is the boke of the harball and the shepardes 
kalender wyth divers other bookf Also I bequeathe to M' John AYoodwarde my best 
gowne furryd with foynes and to Mres Margaret Woodwarde his wif a gold ring with a 
turkes 1 that was Wyllyam Taylours or els fourty shilling^ in money. Also I bequeathe to 
Robert Clerk my kynsman six barbours basins of latyn Item a kettyl wyth a cock 
in yt to wasshe heddes wyth, 2 a great pott of latyn. It. a nother great pott of pan 
mettell wyth a cock in the botom, three barbours chayres, a lowe chest wyth holes in 
the cofer .... Also I bequeathe to Robert Clerk and Wyllyam his brother all 
my bokes of surgery and physyck equally to be devided betwene them yf so be they wyll 
study the science of surgery. Also ... all my instruments being made of Iron, 
style, 3 coper, and brasse which belongethe to the science of surgery. 

Query " turquoise.' 

A primitive appliance for shampooing. 





HE Great Book of Wardens' Accounts has unfortunately 
been kept in a clamp place, and the earlier portion of 
it is severely damaged. The cover still indicates the 
elaboration of the bookbinder's art, being stamped in 
patterns with the portcullis ileur de lys and Tudor 
rose ; opposite what is left of the first page is a 

magnificently painted achievement of the Company's arms on vellum, 

but this unhappily, is damaged. 

The first page has rotted almost entirely away, leaving only the 
upper left hand corner, on which there is an initial letter T illuminated 
in the highest style of art, though this is also seriously damaged. 

The accounts commence with those for the year 1603, the first 
few pages are worn away, pages 7 to 36 are but slightly damaged, 
whilst the remainder of this huge book is quite perfect and abounds 
with quaint and artistic initial letters. 

c 2 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The following is the reduced initial letter for the year 1610-1 1. 


1 603. The Wardens account for quarterage received by them 
amounting to ^"4 175. 6d., this quarterage was 2s. for each freeman, 
though some did not pay, and others had only paid 6d. or is. 

£5 was received for the admission of six foreign brethren. 

Twenty-five freemen were admitted, who paid $ s - \d. each on 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 381 

Eighty-nine apprentices were bound, each paying 2s. 6d. 

The receipts for the rents from the Company's tenants 
follow, viz. : — 

£ s. d. 

Holborn Bridge (14 tenements) 29 4 o 

Conyhope Lane (Grocers' Hall Court) - 800 

Walbrook (2 tenants) - 1500 

Tower Street - - 500 

Mugwell Street (4 tenants) - 11 13 4 

East Smithfield (13 tenants) - 28 14 o 

Swanne Alley (5 tenants) 17 6 8 

Old Bailey - - 100 

^115 18 o 

The following is a verbatim copy of the remainder of this year's 
accounts, and will serve as a fair specimen for the other years. 

1603. — The said Accomptants doe aske allowance for moneys by them defrayed 
w ,h in the tyme of this p°sent accompt by the handes of M' Edward Rodes Second Governor 
afores' 1 for ordenary as [well as] extraordinary Expences as hereafter ensueth viz'- — 

(Sr&mctrie expenses. 

gnprtwis payd for the Awdit dinner - - vj M 

Itm paid to the Butler for his fee then - - - iij s iiij fl 

Itm paid to the Cock for dressinge of nyne messe of meate then - ix s 

Itm paid to the Laundres then - v b 

Itm paid to the Porter for his attendance - xij 1 ' 

Itm paid for the view dinner - xl s 

Itm paid to the Carpinter & Bricklayer then' - - iij s 

Itm paid to the Stewardf of the Maior's feast - ... v j" 

Itm paid to the Cock for dressinge of 14 messes of meate then • xviij 5 viij d 

Itm paid to the Butler then - - - v s 

1 The Company's Carpenter and Bricklayer always accompanied the Masters on view days, to advise as to 

the state of repair of the property. 


cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Itm paid to the Laundresse then 

Itm paid for the hyre of o' Bardge - 

Itm paid to the Clark & Sexton of the Churche of Garlick Hythe 

when the Company toke barge 
I tin paid for rushes & small cord 
Itm paid to the Croner' for his fee - 
Itm geven to the Bardgemen in reward 
Itm paid for the Companyes seats in Powles 1 
1 1 111 paid to the Lo: Maiors officer for his fee 
Itm paid to ffrancf Rowdon 3 for his fee p° Ann 
Itm paid to the Porter for his fee p° Ann - 
Itm paid him more in augmentation of his fee 
Itm paid to John a Lee for his yerely pencon 
Itm paid to the p°son 4 of S' Olaves p° Ann- 

Itm paid to the Clarke of that Churche - ... 

Itm paid to the Scaveng' per ann 
Itm paid to o r Clarke for lanthorne Lyghte 5 
Itm paid to the Stewards of the Anathomy 
Itm paid to the Clarke for white brushes & broomes 
Itm paid for a Loade of greate Coales 
Itm for a thowsand of Bttlettf 
It in paid for small coles - 
Itm paid for an hundreth of ffagottf 
Itm spent uppon o r tenant^ in potacon 6 - 
Itm distributed in Almes accordinge to the last will & testament of 

M r fferebras 

Itm more distributed in augmentation of the same almes - 

Itm allowed to the M rs for the distributinge thereof - 

Itm allowed to the M re for gatheringe of the rentf 

Itm paid to the Clark for pennes Inke & pap° - 

Itm layd oute for herbes & flowers on the Election daye 

Itin paid to the Bedell for his yerely fee 

Itm geven to the Porter for his Attendance on the Election daye 



Xlj u 

vj s viij d 

ij 5 

vj d 

V s 

X s 

xxvj s 

viij d 


lxij s 


viij d 

xvj d 

iiij s 

ij s 

ij s 

XXV s 

XV s 

xij d 



VJ 5 V11J 

xiij iiij 

vj s 

viij' 1 

\iiij s 

iiij" 1 

vj s 

viij' 1 

iij s 

xl s 

xij d 


1 Coroner. " St. Paul's. 3 The Company's Clerk. 

The Clerk provided the Lantern over the Entrance in Monkwell Street, in accordance with the ancient 

City custom of lighting the streets. 

"Potation, i.e., drinking. 

a/1 una Is of the Barber-Surgeons. 383 

Itm paid to M r Hilles' for his yerely fee - - xl 

Itm paid to the Collectors for subsidye - - lij s 
Itiii paid to M r Stov/er for p n vision of come 2 - v" 

Itm paid to the poore of St. Olaves - xvij s iiij' 1 

Itiii paid to the preach' for his sermon on the daye of Election - - x s 
Itiii distributed in money bred & byfe 3 accordinge to M' Bankes last 

Will & testament - - ..... m\ 

Itm for washinge of some linnen w ch was used on the daye of Election xviij' 1 

Itm paid to the Clark for registringe of this Accompt - - - xx s 

Some totafC of the ) T .„ .... 
Ordenary expenct; is I 

f&xtvaovbxnavxe ExpencC 

gnpriwis paid for the use of sixe garnishe and twoe dozen of pewter 

at the Awdit Dinner 
Itiii paid for makinge cleane of the Hall then 
Itiii geven by Consent to Erasmus Haunce a poore Strang' 
Itiii paid to the Paynter for the Coockf apron 4 
Itiii paid to the Clark for Drawinge & engroseinge of the Indentures 

of Covenaunt betwixt the Carpnt' & o' M rc concerninge o' Buyldinge 

in Easte Smith feild - 
Itiii paid to M' Justice Wooddes Clark for the Recognizance ec for o' 

lycence to buyld .... 

Itiii paid M' Wood for his Advice then - - - - 

Itiii spent at the hartes home uppon some of the committees when o' 

M' & they toke advise concerninge M r ffyneingf conveyance 
Itiii paid to M' Hilles for his advise then - ... 

Itiii geven to the Lord Maior's officer for his Attendance at the Awdit- 
1 1 111 geven to Symon Parkinson in benevolence by consent - 
Itiii geven in benevolence to Mark Criffeyld 
Itiii paid for the wiflers staves 5 - 
Itm paid for cakes at the Maiors feaste 
Itm paid for Clarret wyne then - 

1 The Company's standing Counsel. 

"The Company compounded with Mr. Slower at ,£5 per annum to provide the corn required by the City. 
3 Beef. ' The Cook's apron was probably embellished with the Company's arms or crest. 

3 The wands or staffs carried by the whifflers who headed the processions on pageant days, etc. 


viij J 


V s 

xiij s 

iiij 1 ' 



X s 


viij' 1 

X s 


iiij' 1 




xvj d 


1111 s 


384 a/hinals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Itfii paid for a Gallond of Muskadell- - iiij 5 

Itfii paid for half a dozen of Rolles vj 

Itm paid for 2" of suger & for Cloves then ij s 

Itfii geven to the musicons in reward then - - ij s 

Itm geven to M r Petersons folkcs then - ij s 

Itm geven to the Bardgemen in reward - ij s 

Itm geven to good wief Lee in benevolence - iij s 

Itm geven to twelve torcheberers when the Maior went to meete the 

Queene's Ma* - - xiij s 

Itm paid for 3 dozen of torches then and a greate Lynke - - xxxvij 5 iiij d 

Itm paid to a poore man that helped to carry the staffe torches - - xij d 

Itm geven to the beadell for his paynes - - xij' 1 

Itin spent on a supper uppon those that went to meete her Ma" e 

beinge of o r Assistant^ - - ... xlviij 5 vj d 

Itm geven to the maydes that dressed o r supper then &: to a poore man ij s 

Itm paid M r Hill 9 for his oppinion and paine taken aboute o r ordinance x.\ s 

I tin spent on some of the Assistance then that went w"' the M" - ij s 

Itm geven to Harbert 1 in benevolence - ... x ij d 

Itm geven to Jo Smyth in benevolence then xij d 

Itm geven them in benevolence at anoth' tyme - - ij s 

Itm geven to Tho. Tholmwood in benevolence by ord 1 ' ... x s 

Itin spent uppon the Committees when they mett about the ordinance vj s ix' 1 

Itm spent the same nyghte at the bores head at supper when wee 

deliv'ed o r peticon to the queene .... x s iiij' 1 

Itm spent the 13"' of Decemb' at the bell at Westm' at dinn' when 

the M' s went to deliv' the peticon to the queene - - xvj s vj' 1 

Itm geven in benevolence to wydowe Barbor - xviij d 

Itm to wydowe Norton - xij d 

Itm to widowe Grew - - xij' 1 

Itm to wydowe Powell - - - xij' 1 

Itm to good wief Harris - - - xij' 1 

Itm to John a Lee - .... x ij d 

Itm to Markes Cristofeyld - - xij d 

Itfii to John Smythe - - xij d 

Itin to Robert Harberte - - xviij' 1 

Itin to Markf Cristefeyld - vj' 1 

1 The Beadle. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


Itiii to him at anoth' tyme- 

Itiii to wydow Barbor 

Itm geven to oth r poore at the hall - 

Itm geven more to wydow Barbo' 

Itm geven more to wydow Norton - - - - 

Itm geven more to John Smyth and Harbert by consent before Easter 

Itm geven more to wydowe Norton at anoth' tyme - 

Itm geven more to Markf Christofeyld 

Itm geven to wydowe Smythe - .... 

Itm geven more in benevolence to John a Lee - 

Itm geven to Robert Harbert in benevolence 

I tin geven to goodwyfe Norton in benevolence - 

Itm geven to wydowe Barber in benevolence 

Itm geven to John a Lees wief in benevolence - 

Itm geven more to Markes Crisfeyld in benevolence - 

Itm more geven to him at anoth' tyme - - 

Itm more to him at anoth' tyme 

Itm more geven to John a Lee in benevolence 

Itiii geven to John Smyth in his sicknes & towards his funerall - 

Itm geven Harbert in his sicknes & towardf his funerall - 

Itm geven to Harbertf wyef in her sicknes & towardf her funerall' - 

Itm geven to Harbertf Children in the tyme of their sicknes 

Itm geven to a poore man at the Hall in benevolence 

Itm geven to M r Johnson for fayre wrytinge of the peticon to the 

Queene - - 

Itm spent when the M' s went to Courte aboute the Companyes busines 

the xviij th of November - - - ... 

Itin geven then to a poore man 

Itm paid for o' Seates in Powles churchyard on the queenes daye 
Itin geven to the keeper of the Exchange for pullinge downe of 

Mountebankf billes- - .... 

Itm to M" Wilbraham M r of the Requestes for settinge downe the 

Queenes answere to o' peticon - 
Itiii geven in gratificacon to his Clark 
Itiii geven to M' Hilles for his advise uppon the same peticon - 

v 5 



xiiij' 1 
xij' 1 

viij' 1 

xij 11 

xij' 1 
xij' 1 
xij' 1 


XX s 

X s 


X s 



V s 

ij s vj d 


x b 


1 There was a great plague in the City this year — Harbert was the Company's Beadle. 
'-' Quack doctor's advertisements. 

3 D 

jS6 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Itffi spent uppon some of the Company that went w"' the M rs then 
Itm spent uppon M r Peck M r ffenton and oth' 5 w cl ' went to acquaint the 

Lo : Keper w"' her Ma tics answere to the said peticon - 
Itm paid to the Collect' 5 of the fiftenes 
Itm paid for ingroseinge of the breviat for the Lords - 
Itm paid to the Counsellors man for his paines 
I tin paid towardf the Butlers fee for the Anathomy - 
Itm paid for 2 bottelles of sack that the M rs sent for on the Maiors daye 
I tin paid to the Collectors for 4'" fifteenes for cleansinge of the towne 

Itm paid to the Collecto' 5 of the kinges subsidie 
Itm spent by consent uppon a supper uppon those that rode to meete 

the kinge - - - iiij 1 ' 

Itm geven to the twelve wifelers then- 

Itm spent in p^secucon of Rea the mountiebank before the Lo : Maior 
Itm paid for a copie of the Kinges Commission and of Chauncery for 

the hearinge of peticiins p°ferred to his Ma ,,c 
Itm spent in wyne and cakes on the Election daye 
Itm for makinge cleane of the Hall then - 
Itm spent uppon a supper on the Election daye of the Assistants by 

consent - - xliij 5 

Iteffi geven to wydowe Barbor in benevolence and for washinge & 

makinge cleane of the Lybrarye - V s vj d 

xiiij d 

ix b 

vj d 

iiij 5 


Vj' 1 

ij 5 


iij s 



iiij' 1 

xvj s 

xvij b 

iiij' 1 

j s 

xj d 

xij s 

iiij 5 

xl 5 



Some of tfie e.xtordmary expencf 

xxxvij " xvnj 5 mj 
amounteth in the wholl to the somme of ) 

Some tofaff as well of the ordenary i 

as extraordinary expences Layd oute by the ( ... . „„ d 

handes of M r Edward Rodes amounteth in 

the wholl to the somme of 

'fBfye fai6 Jlccounfcmfa doe aske allowance for money disbursed by the handes of 
the said M r Thomas Martin yongest Governor w"'in the tyme of this p^sent Accompt 
for rentf and Repaeiins 2 as hereaft' ensueth viz 1 

' The amount torn out in original. 
■ Reparations. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 








vj s 



^mmenis for Chiefe Rentf 
and Annuities viz' 
^npvurtir. paid to the M re of S l Kathines - - viij' 1 

and for the Acquittance - - iiij' 1 

Itfii paid to M r Cannon for a quit rent for o r land at Hoborne Bridge - V s 

Itfri for the Acquittance - ____.. iiij' 1 

Itfn paid to the Renter of the Bridge howse - 

Itfii paid to M r Parvis for o r water p° aim - - 

Itfii paid to M r ffyneinge for his Rente 
Itfii paid to M' Mapes for his Annuitie - ... 

Sojiic of the Cheefe Rentf and ) ,. , 

xvnj" mi'' mi' 1 
Annuities paid out is I 

c£ctt6 oxvtc for new buyldinges Repa'Tons and oth r expencf as followeth viz' 

§uprmtia paid to Hamlet Xpian' Carpenter by order of Court of 
Assistant^ for the new buyldinges Easte Smyth feld and for oth r 
Repacons done accordinge to a p° of Indentures of Covenant w ,h 
that money w ch before hee had received in earnest - - - xl' 1 
Itni paid to the smythe for an iron grate for the utf yard of the hall - 
Itfii paid to the Plumb r & Pavier for mendinge the water pype at the hall- 
Itfii paid for a planck to put under the leaden cesterne in the iner yard- 
Itffi paid to the plumber for makinge of the same cestern - 
Itfii paid to the Bricklayer for underproppinge the same cesterne 
Itfii spent when M r Wood & M r Leacock went to compound w"' the 

Bricklayer for o r new buyldingf in Easte Smithfeild - - - vj d 

Itfii spent uppon some of the Assistant^ w ch went to Easte Smythfeyld 

to compound w"' the Carpinter for the said buyldingf - - - iiij s vij' 1 

Itfii spent uppon the M rs & Carpinters the 25"' of Septemb" - xv' 1 

Itfii spent uppon the Tyler and the oth r workmen when we bargayned 


Itfii paid to the Plumb r & Pavier for unstoppinge the pype that 
bringeth the wat 1 to the hall ------- 

Itfii paid to the Smyth for two peeces of Iron to hold up the Cesterne 
in the back yard- - ... 

Itfii paid to twoe laborers for scoweringe & clenseinge the well at 
the hall - - ....-.- 

x b 





<xxvj s 


»j s 

VI 1J 


xvj d 


Z D 2 


cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Itiii paid to the Goldsmyth for amendinge of the Corrector' 

Itm paid to the Smythe for amendinge of the key of the Election 

howse dore - - 

Itm paid for sixe thousand of Tyles and for a quarterne of roughe tyles- 
Itiii paid to the Bricklayer for makeinge the foundaeon of the new 

buyldinges in Easte smythfeyld & for sixe hryck Chimneys - 
Itm paid to two Laborers for 3 daycs woork a peece for rayseinge of 

the flowers 5 in the same houses at xij d per daye - 
Itiii paid 2° Baskettf to carry rubbishe in - - - 

Itm paid for 1 8 Lodes of gravell to raise the highe wey or causeway there 
Itm spent uppon the Bricklayers for their dinn r when they layd the 

foundaeon of the new buildinge - 

Itm paid to a laborer for carryinge of gravell to Levell the Bridge 
Itm paid to Peerson the Bricklayer for workmanship and stuffe done 

uppon the new buyldinges as by his bill appeareth ■ - 
Itiii payd to the Playsterer accordinge to his bargaine for woork done 

there - - - - ------ 

Itiii paid to Hamlet the Carpinter for worke done there 

Itiii paid to the Smythe for work done there as appeareth by his bill - 

Itfn paid for a padlock for the greate gate there 

ItSi paid to the Glasier for work done there as appeareth by his bill 

Itm spent uppon the M r M r Wood and oth rs that went to viewe the 

same buyldinges after they were finished ----- 
Itiii paid to Harbert for mendinge of the Cushions 
Itiii paid to the Glasier for work done about the hall - 
Itiii paid to the Carpinter for settinge up the Scaffoldf of the 

Anothomy & for mendinge of the same - 

Itiii paid for 2" plankes to cover the well in the hall yard - 
Itiii paid to the Plasterer for worke & repaciins done uppon o' 

tenemtf in Easte smythfeyld - 

Itm paid the Mason for free stones to cover the well at the hall & for 

layinge thereof - - - - - 

Itiii paid to the Plumber for woork done at the hall and for gutters of 

leade for o r said new buyldinges ------ 

Itiii paid to M r Rudd for blew and Crimson taffata to make the kinges 

banner as appeareth by his bill - - 

11J X111J 



v] s 

vj s 

VI lj" 





XVJ b 


Vl} s 

xxxvij 5 

iiij s 


ix b 




xij' 1 



For whipping apprentices. 

: Floors. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 389 

Itiii paid to the upholster for fustian sowinge silke and for makeinge 

the same - - xij s 

Itiii paid to M r Leacocke for 3 ounces & 3 q rs of greene & white' 

silke fringe - - x s 

Itm paid for a staffe for the banner - - x\'' 

Itfn paid to M r ffrizemigefeyld for payntinge the bann' w tb kinges 

armes in gold - - vj" xiij 5 iiij d 

Itm paid to the paviers for paveinge the waye to o' new buyldingf in 

Easte Smythefeyld - - - iiij 1 ' viij s x d 

Itiii paid to the Laborers then - - vj s 

Itfn paid to the Carpinter for makeinge of the shed ov' the pissinge 

place at the hall- - - - xij s x d 

Itm payd to the tyler for tyleinge of the same - - x s iiij d 

Itm paid to the plaistere for his worke aboute the same - - vj s 

Itm paid for an iron grate for the gutt r there - xviij d 

Itm paid the Joyner for mendinge the Cupbord where the plate 

useth to be placed in the hall - - xvj d 

Itm spent uppon the Carpinters when they sett up the gate postes 

& the gate and Rayles in Easte smythfeld - xv d 

Itm geven to wydowe Barbor for scowringe of o r pewter - vj d 

Itm paid to the Tyler for repactins done by him aboute the hall - ix s vj d 

Itm paynter for payntinge the skreene in the hall and for varnishinge 

the skreene postes & the banner staves xl s 

Itm paid for a newe register boke to register the M r5 Accomptes and 

to the Paynter for payntinge the Companyes Armes therein and 

the firste greate Lett'- ... .... xxxvij s iiij d 

Itm paid to the officers for whippinge a disobedient Apprentice - - vj d 

Itm paid for 12 wifiers staves - - - - iij s 

Itm paid to Hamlet Xpian 3 Carpinter for takinge downe the old pale 

in Easte smythfeyld over against Corners howse & for settinge it 

up agayne & for more pales & Rayles and for removeinge the pales 

belonginge to Hamlettf yard to inlardge the waye there - xxxij s 

Itm payd to Bricklayer for stuffe & workmanship in underpinninge 

the new buyldinge aforesaid and the house at the bridge end - vij s ix' 1 

1 These are the Company's " colours," and purchases of green and white silk and ribbons occur almost 

every year in the accounts. 
- This is the book from which these extracts are taken. 3 Christian. 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

X s 

xxxv b 
xxvij s 

"j s 

Cxxiiij' 1 

xl s 


Itm paid to the Bricklayer for Playses forges for underpininge his 

howse and for underpininge the new pales there - - iij 1 ' 

Itm paid for serch in the office of statutes and recog to see wheth' 

there were any fyne or recognizance passed whereby M r ffininges 

land to us p'Yerred to be sold mighte stand charged 
Itm geven to M r ffyneinge in earnest of the bargaine - 
Itm paid to the Carpinter Plaisterer & bricklayer for seelinge & 

foweringe' the brushmakers howse & for foot pases for the 

Chimneys of bothe the newe howses - 
Itm paid to the Carpinters for p°tinge- the gardens in Easte Smythfeyld 
Itm paid for turninge & triminge of the tapistrye Cushions - 
Itm paid to Isack the Carpinter for settinge the Companyes standinges 3 

in order & for repinge & augmentinge of the same 
Itm paid to the Smyth for mendinge the Lock & key of the hall dore - 
Itm paid for a padlock haspe & hinge for the Celler dore - 

§>ome totall of the Buyldinges & Repacons is 

Jomc totall of the rentes and Repacons togeth' is - L-'xlij" xiuj* vij" 

§01111; totall of all the money chardged and received 
within the tyme of this p°sent Accompt That 
is to saye uppon the foote of this Laste yeres 
Cxj 1 ' xij s ix d - Also by the handes of M r 
Edward Rodes second Governor xlvj 1 ' xv s viij d 
and by the handes of M r Thomas Martin 
youngest Governor Renter Cxv 1 ' xviij 5 w cl ' 
sev°all sommes beinge added togeth r doe 
amounte in the wholl to the somme of- CClxxiiij 1 ' vj s 

Some fofciTf of all the money disbursed and 
paid within the tyme of this p°nt Accompt That is 
to saye by the handes of M r Edward Rodes second 
Governor Lxxxix' 1 xij b iiij' 1 And by the handes of M r 
Thoihs Martin yongest Governor Cxlij" xiiij s vj d 
which said sev r, all soiiies beinge added togeth' doe 
amount in the wholl to the sonie of - - - J 

CCxlij" vj 1 xj d 




1 Ceiling and (qy.) flooring. - Tarting, i.e., dividing with a fence. 

The Standings which were placed in the Street for the Company's use on Lord Mayor's Day. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 391 

§>o trcsfcfB uppon the foote of this 

p°nte Accompte besydcs the debt( J and 

» r ~ , , )• xxxvj" xix s vj' 1 

Arrearages hereafter menconed the ' 

somme of 


Then follows a list of arrearages of debts due from freemen 
and others for fines and quarterage unpaid, with which the year's 
account closes. 

The accounts for the ensuing years are very similar to the 
foregoing, and we shall now give sundry extracts of the more 
interesting items to be found in them. 

1603-4. Itm spent uppon a dinn' in the hall when the 
Coronaeon of the Kinge was solempnized - - vij u iiij d 

Itm geven to the beadell for warninge certayne disobedient p^sons 

to the hall - - viij d 

Itm paid for o r seates in powles church yard when we prayed for the kynge iij s 

1604-5. Among various fines received this year occur — 

Of Hughe ffell for not appearinge uppon summons - xij d 

Of Willffi Patrick for not appearinge uppon summons - - ij s 

Of Thomas Goodale for his fyne for not rydeinge w"' o r M' s to meet 

the Kingf Ma lic - - x s 

Of Nycholas Kellawaye for the Lyke offence - x s 

Of Robert Money for his fine for geveinge evell report of a Broth' 

of this Company - - V s 

Of John Udall for puttinge awaye his Appntice w"'out the M rs order - x s 

Of Abraham Renex for his fine for his absens from Lectures - - x s 

Of John Carre for his fine to this howse for his evill practize in Surgery V s 

Of Barker Browne for hanginge oute Basons on St. Peters daye - xij d 

In this and many subsequent years occur entries of io^. paid to 
the preacher of the sermon at St. Olave's, Silver Street, on Election 
day as well as is. to the Clerk of that church, and 6s. for herbs 
and flowers. 

3$2 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Item geven to the Beadell & Porter for serch for an hurt malefactor ij h 

This would be a criminal wounded in some affray and who it 
was suspected was concealed by a Surgeon to be cured of his wounds — 
an offence against one of the Company's by-laws. 

Item geven to the Beadell for his paynes for arrestinge Coates& Sebastian 

Item paid for 2 whippes for correction 

Item paid for 12 yardes of greene & white rybbin when o' M rs rode to 

meete his Ma tic ...... 

Item geven then to the Torch bearers to the Porter & for wannes" 
Item spent the same night uppon a supper uppon the Ryders & their 

wyves . - _ - 

Item geven the Coock at the Winmill then 
Item geven to John a Lee to buy him a shirt 
Item paid for mendeinge the hower glasse - 

Paid to o r Armorer for scowringe of o r Armor ----- 
Item paid for 3 vizors 

1605-6. At this period the Court and Livery numbered 
together but fifty-nine persons. 

Item paid on the Lo : Maiors daye in the morninge for suger & Cloves 

for the Burnt wyne - - - iij s ij d 

Item pd for arrestinge of wydowe Ebbes an abuser of the Arte of Surgery ij s 

Item paid for his Matf picture by order of Court of Assistant^ - - iiij" 


iiij d 

xiiij' 1 

vj s 

xiij s 

vj d 

iij 1 ' xiij b 

x d 

v jd 


vj d 

xij d 


vj d 

vj s 

1606-7. Twelve of the Yeomanry were this year taken into 
the Livery, of whom eleven paid ,£5 each and the other £2. 

1607-8. Fines were received : — 

Of Xpofer Stopforth for settinge upp shopp before he had served one 

yeare jorneyman --------- v js v iij d 

Item of Thomas Allen for wearinge a faulinge band in his Lyverye - xij d 

1 Wands. 

nAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 393 

Falling bands (which are described in Planche's Cyclopedia of 
Costume) were considered by the Court an " excess of apparel," then 
rigorously suppressed. Thomas Allen, here referred to, was Warden 
1 620-1-2, and was the first Master of Dulwich College. 

Item of Andrew Wheatley for waytinge in his Lyverye in a hatt and 

a faulinge band- - \'f 

Henry John Bushe presented an Apprentice. This is noted 

as being the earliest instance of a double Christian name in the 

Company's books. 

Item paid for 108 flemish ells of tapestrye the x.xvj"' of March at x s p° ell liiij" 

Item bought a pece of Blacke buckaram to make Coote for correction 

of Appf - - - xj s 

This coat (popularly known as the "bulbeggar") was a garment 
somewhat like a sack with apertures for the eyes and arms, which 
was put over the head and body of the person appointed to flog 
an unruly apprentice, who was thereby prevented from identifying 
his castigator. See more fully as to this in the amusing foot note 
on p. 423, Vol. I, of Herbert's Livery Companies. 

Item paid to Braye y e informer the xj"' of Maye for 9 informations' 
9 fees xxx s for drawinge the 9 informations and inrowlinge 
xxij s vj' 1 for 4 subpenas viij* and the Barons hand iiij b vj' 1 - iij' 1 v s 
Item paid to the Joyners for the frames of the xxiiij chayres @ xxij' 1 a pece ij 1 ' iiij s 

Item payd for 8 muscovye skynnes the 2 of June at xij s vj' 1 a pece for 

the makinge of the chayres- v' 

Item payd for the frame of a chaire for the maister - vf 

Item payd to Blanye for makinge upp y c coate for correction of 

Apprentices - - ...... viij s 

Item paid to the uphoulster for making upp all the chayres and fynding 

some thingC to them as appeareth by his bill xix"' of June - vj 1 ' 

Item paid the xxx th of June for xix yardf of greene Kerseye for curtaines 

at 4 s vj d the yarde - - - iiij" V s vj' 1 

Item paid for a fair wallenut tree table - - - viij 1 ' 

Item paid for a Clocke bought the second of August - - - v 1 ' 

' Against persons practising Barbery or Surgery and not free of the Company. 

3 e 

394 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The new room in the Bulwark, which formed the upper end 
of the Hall where the Master sat, was built at this period, the 
accounts containing many items of payment for Builders' work 
connected with that room. 

1608-9. The rents received this year for the Company's 
property at Holborn Bridge, Conyhoop Lane, Walbrook, Tower 
Street, " Mugwell " Street, East Smithfield, Moorfields and Swan 
Alley amounted to ^130 ijs. 4.1/. 

Item paid to y e Shrife's officer for his attendaunce to carry Humphry 

Gorston & \V m Wright to the Counter ' ij s vj d 

Item paid to the Clarke for making cleane the hall - ij b 

Item for moing the grasse in y" backe yard & Cariing away- - xx d 

Item for weedinge y" Stone yard and making it cleane - xij d 

1609-10. Item paid for seatf in Paules Church yarde on 

the daie of Cowries Conspiracye - - - iij s iiij d 

This day (5th August) was for some years observed in thanks- 
giving, to commemorate the escape of James I from assassination by 
the Earl of Gowrie (see Chambers' Book of Days, Vol. II, p. 178). 

Item gyven to a poore broosen boye - - - xij d 

Item paid to the mynister of Garlick hill church for reading service 

on my lord Mayors daye - ... ij> vj d 

Item paid for bread and beere for the Bargmen in the morning before 

wee went out - ..... . jjjj s 

Item paid to the Drummer and ffyfe - - xv s 

Item paid to the Cornettf - - ... X xxj s 

Item paid to M r of the Barge - - - - iij" 

Item gyven to the maydes where wee take boate - - ij b 

Item gyven to the sexton of the churche ... - xij d 

Item gyven that night to the Bargemen to drincke - - - ij s 

Item paid for drinck fetched to the Barge - - - - xvj d 

Item paid two Taverne Billf that daie - ij' 1 vij s ix d 

Item gyven to the Mayde of the howse by Consent - - - xij' 1 

Item paid for Cakf and Roles - - - - iiij s 

' Compter in Wood Street. 

iij s 

iiij d 

V s 

vj' 1 

ij s 




c/ltinals of the Barber-Surgeons. 395 

Item paid for .1 Lanthome to hange out before the hall Gate 
Item paid for cuttinge of the vyne & for nayles and Lether - 
Item paid for a Roome to laye Gees goodes in and for Carryinge thereof 
the distresse to the hall and spent upon the Constable when I made 

The power of distraint for non-payment of fines, 
granted to the Company by their By-laws, the warrant was signed 
by the Master and executed by the Beadle, with the assistance of a 

161 2-13. Item paid for herbes at sev'all lymes on tewsdaies 
Courtf to strowe the house - xij' 1 

Item paid the n"'daie of September 1612 for washinge of the pictures xxj s 

1615-16. Laid out about obteyninge of the plate & follow- 
inge the Theves - - - - x u xix s iiij d 

An account of this robbery, and the apprehension and execution 
of the thieves, will be found on p. 208. 

1616-17. For mending the great bible 

161 7-18. Paid for Torches Ribbins & Whifrlers staves the 
xv"' of September when the masters went to mete the Kinge 

Gyven unto Thomas Shaw to release him out of Prison 

To Presson' in his last sicknes at severall tymes 

Gyven by order of Court to apparell Presson's sonne - 

Paid the rent of the Water - 

Paid unto Browne the Armorer for his yeares fee 

Paid for two spitt wheeles & mendinge the Jack 

Paid for a dore in East Smithfeild & mendinge the pryvie howse bords 
16 1 8-19. Paid for sending childeren to virgynia 

This sum would not send out many children ; for a notice of the 

Virginia scheme see p. 121. 

Paid for our seatf on the daie of thankfgyveinge for the Recovery of 

his Ma ,ics Sicknes - - iij' iiij' 1 

Paid for M r Aldermans Picture - - - iij ' 

This would be a portrait of Alderman Proby, Master in 161 5, 
and Lord Mayor in 1622. 

' Preston was the Porter or Under Beadle. 

3 E 2 

vj d 

xix s 

iiij' 1 

XXX s 

XX s 

xxij s 



iiij' 1 

xviij d 

X s 

vj' 1 



c/liwals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

For a muskett furnished sent to Ireland xxiij s 

1619-20. P' 1 for sendinge the childeren to virgynia - ij s 

1620-21. Paid by precept towardf the disburseinge of the 
5000" gyven to the Palsgrave ' - xxx 1 ' 

162 1-2. Paid unto the Clarke of the Ironmongers for a 
Copie of the Irish accomptf & the Acquittaunce 
Paid for sendinge childeren to virgynia 
Item paid for three black Jackf of leather - 
P d for mendinge the Rapper of the hall gate 

1622-3. Gyven by a Court of Assistant^ unto the Clarks 
maid towardf her marriage - - - ij' 1 

Paid by consent for a noyse of Trumpetf on the Lord Maiors daie 

Sir Peter Proby was Lord Mayor this year. 

1623-4. Received of the Companie of Ironmongers for the 
Irishe plantacon being o r p°t of the 5 division - xj' 1 

vj u 

vj u 

XXV s 

ix b 


HE Recorder had a yearly "fee" 
of £6 in this and many subsequent 
years, most probably to secure his 
friendship towards the Company. 

In 1623 occurs the last entry of 
the Company keeping "Cowries day." 

1625-6. Received of John 
Pinder for his comeinge into 
the Livery who hath byn once 
Warden of the Yeomanrye - xP 

Of Edward Charley for his comeinge into the Livery haveing not byn 

Warden of the V-eomanry - - - - v 1 ' 

Paid to Thomas Bourne a poore Scholler by order of Court iij' 1 

Every year about this period is an entry for wooden Trenchers, 
generally a gross of them, and the cost about 6s. 

1 Frederick V, Elector Palatine — son-in-law of James I. 
The initial letter T is reduced from one in the Audit Book, 1623-4. 

cAimals of the Barber-Surgeons. 3 97 

There are also many entries for "boat hire"; whenever a 
journey was taken it seems to have nearly always been on the river, 
and only on rare occasions is horse hire mentioned. 

1626-7. Given by order of Court amongst miserable poore 
people - - - xl b 

The cost of obtaining the Charter this year, as appears by the 
detailed account amounted to ^168 igs. 8c/. 

1627-8. Paid unto to Mercer for Taffitaes to make the 
banners streamers and Ancient - - xviij 1 ' vj s viij' 1 

Given the worke men that made the flaggs to drinck - - - ij> 

Paid M r Babb and M r Withers uppon consent for their painting the 
Auncient 2 Streamers 2 bannors and 10 bannorettf and the 
quarter for Scotland in the kingf armes and likewise for painting 
those flagg staves - - - xv' 1 

Paid for silke and fringe for the flaggs to M' March in Cornhill - vij b vj d 

Given by consent to a poore souldier that shewed a Mandrake to this 

Courte - - V s 

The root of the mandrake is said to bear a resemblance to the 
human form, and the "poore souldier" was not disappointed when he 
thought that by laying such a professional curiosity before the Barber- 
Surgeons, he would receive a benevolence. 

Paid unto the Chamfalaine of London for the Kings use as by precept ccclx" 
Paid and disbursed for takeing downe and carryeing of King Henrye 
the 8 picture to White hall for the Kinge to see and bringeing it 
back and setting it up againe - - - xij s 

James I in 161 7 borrowed this picture, his letter demanding it is 
still at Barbers' Hall, and it would appear by this entry that his son 
Charles did the same ; the wonder is that we have still got it, after 
running two such risks. 

1628-9. Paid M r Greene the Gouldsmith for the silver and 
makeing of 4 new Garland^ as p° bill - - - - xx 1 ' 

yp8 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


These Garlands, the most elegant in the City, are still worn by 
the Master and Wardens on Court days. 

ffor an hundred of sweete briers xiiij" for rosemary if violettf and 

strawberryes iiif and nayles ij' 1 - - - iif viij d 

Imagine sweetbriar with rosemary, violets, and strawberries in 
a garden in Monkwell Street in this present year of grace ! 

1629-30. Given to M r Greenelmry painter for new amending 
M r fferebras picture and to his man for bringing it home- x b vj d 

Spent that day wee attended S r John Cooke secretarye of State as 
concerneing one Dupont a frenchmen recomended from the Lordf 
of the privey Councell to practise in the cure of the pockf - vij' 

Given to M r Secretary Cookes man upon the returne of o r answere to 

him of Duponts insufficiencye in the cureing the pockf ij : 

Given to Edward Downes a poor barbar by order of Court - x 

Given by order of Court to John Blackwell barbar toward^ his losse 

by fier at Wood streete corner - - xl 

Paid in December to the Gardner for 2 daies worke cuting and 
nayleing the vines - - ... 

Paid for a dozen of double woodbines and 25 sweete briers 

Paid to a woeman for 3 dayes weeding the gravell and Stone walke 

Paid to William Brice for 4 daies at ij 5 vj d - 

Paid to him for halfe a daye w ch he grumbled for 

1 630- 1. In this year the trades of the masters binding ap- 
prentices are recorded, there being 48 barbers, 22 surgeons, 9 tailors, 
5 diers, 1 drawer, 3 butchers, 1 merchant, 1 sempster, 1 grocer, 
1 thridman, 1 brewer, 1 stocking seller, 1 sheeregrinder, and 26 un- 
classed ; these latter were most probably either barbers or surgeons. 

Given to Edward Pardoe and his wiefe lieing in prison - - x s 

Given to Marshall Petoe for his elegies on M r Banckf his funerall daie 

by order of Court - ... ... x * 

Petoe was a City poet who wrote a dirge upon Queen Elizabeth, 
and a few other not very cheerful compositions. 


viij' 1 

ix s 

iiij d 



X s 



cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. jgg 

163 1-2. This year the Livery fines were raised, those who 
had served the office of warden of the Yeomanry paying £7 and all 
others ^10. 

Of the masters taking apprentices this year, 55 were barbers, 
31 surgeons, 15 tailors, 8 dyers, 3 stocking sellers, 3 button makers, 
1 button loope maker, 2 chaundlers, 1 sempster, 1 butcher, 1 carpenter, 
1 bookbinder, 1 wheelwright, 1 glass seller, 1 grocer, 1 merchant, and 
1 was unclassed. 

Paid for our Dynner the 14 th of June and other Expencf for those 
Assistant^ that attended the Lordf of the Councell when the 
Phisitians complayned to have obteyned the viewinge of o r 
Pacients in daunger of death 

Paid to a Smith for mending and refreshinge of the Clock - 

Paid for 8 fyrre poales to beare up the vynes 

Paid for Nayles and Prymeinge the Vynes - 

Paid for 3'' of plaster of parris - - ix d 

1632-3. This year the sum of ^343 is. $d. was expended in 
the erection of a Gallery and a Granary over it in the Inner Stone 
Yard, the Granary being for the storage of the City corn. The 
details of all the expenses about this business are given and the 
following are a few extracts therefrom :— 

imprimis paid to Thomas Doorebarre Tymberman for a C of 
Deales at 7 1 ' 10 s the C and 18 Loadf and 27 foote of tymber at 
36 s the Load as p° bill xl" xvf vj d 

Paid to the Tumor for turneing the 6 great Collumbs at 9 s a peece as 

p° bill - liiif 

Paid alsoe to the Turner for turneing 4 postf & 25 ballisters for the 

stayres as by bill - xvj s 

Paid to Thomas Stanley Mason for squareing and layeinge of 630 foote 
of old stone in the Gallerye the stone stepps to the Granary the 
Capitalls and pedistalls of stone in the fronte the 6 bases the large 
sonne dyall & the little dyall as p° bill - xl 1 ' 



XV s 


viij' 1 


viij' 1 

400 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Paid to John Jeames Carver for Cuttinge the Companyes Amies in 

stonne - ...... . iiij 1 * 

Paid to Nathaniell Glover Uyall maker for paynting the great Sunne 
Dyall the Companyes Armes in Stone & layeinge in Oyle Collour 
the inscripcon of the M r and Wardens names the sume of - - iij" x s 

Paid to the Cittyes Bricklayer to viewe the foundacon of o' Bricke wall 

to the Granarye --------- jjjj s 

Paid to John ffowler Bricklayer for tyleing 9 ten foote squares & 1 
quarter & tenn foote at 1 8 s a square & for 9 Roddf & 5 1 foote 1 o 
ynches of bricke worke at 6' 1 the Rodd & for 5 Rodd & 119 foote 
9 ynches of the lower Bricke worke at 4" the Rodd cometh to - lxxxv" xiij s ij' 1 

Paid to Thomas Aldridge Plasterer for 155 yardf of lyme & hayre layd 
on the Brick walls at 3 d ob ' the yard And for 312 yardC & 6 foote 
of lathed worke layd with lyme & haire at 9 d ob. the yard And for 
whiteing & sizeinge that worke w dl was more then the Bargaine 
As by bill appeareth --------- xvj 1 ' xviij 5 iiij d 

Paid to Edward Spencer Plumber for 52C 3 quarters and 1 pound of 
lead at 14 s the C 54 1 ' & a half of Sauder at 9'' the pound And for 
Plumbers worke & Carriage of the Lead as p° bill - - - xlj 1 ' iij s iiij d 

1633-4. Given to Mondayes widow whoe p°sented 

a guift to this Courte The booke of The Surveigh of London 
beinge in folio - - - xxx s 

This was the widow of Anthony Munday, the author of many 
City pageants, and of the Edition of Stowe's Survey, which his widow 
" presented " to the Court in exchange for 30s. 

Given by order of the 29 Aprill to the Keepers of The xchaunge to 

put downe Mountabanck bills - - - x s 

These were quack surgeons' advertisements ; the Royal 
Exchange seems to have been a favourite place for their exhibition, 
as there are various other entries to a like effect. 

Paid to M r Treswell Harrold painter for the amendinge & paintinge of 

o r fflaggf that were torne and ruyned by the weather as p' bill - iiij 1 ' v s 

1 ob. = ubolus, a halfpenny. 

aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 401 



The following entries relate to the Company's "provision of 

Paid for a Bushell a halfe bushell a Peck and a lialfe peck measures 

and bringinge them to the hall - - xj s iij' 1 

Paid for a Roape for the Jynn - vj s v' 1 

Paid for a great Iron Beame & Scales to weyghe Corne - - xxvj s 

Paid for new Leaden waightf waighing CCC 1 ' viz 1 5 halfe hundrede 
waight 1 quartern 1 halfe quarterne 1 seaven pounde 1 foure 
pounde 1 twoe pounde 1 pound 1 halfe pound & 1 quarter of a 
pound waightf at 16 s 8 d p° C. comes to I s 

Paid for a Skreene for the Corne xj s 

Paid for a sacke for that Skreene iij s 

Payd for the Carryage of the great Skreene for Corne w cl ' the Companye 

did not like of - - - ij s vj' 1 

Paid for twoe hand treys to sell meale by in y e m'ket - xvj' 1 

Paid for a Ballattinge boxe & Bullettf - - xl s 

Disbursed in chargf about the 4 Condempned Lancashire woemen that 
were brought to o r Hall by the Kingf Comaiind to be searched 
the sume of x s vj' 1 

These women were examined to ascertain if any were pregnant, 
that if so their execution might be stayed. 

1634-5. Paid to S r Willin St. George Herrauld at his gen°all 
visitaton for the severell Companies Armes in London the sume 
of iij" vj 5 viij d as his ffee & xx s amongst his Clerkf - iiij" vj s viij 

The Company paid £\b " ship-money " this year. 

Paid to the Clocke Smith for mendinge the Clock iij* 

This entry is curious, being the transition name of a trade ; 
the blacksmiths were originally the clockmakers (see p. 399) ; here we 
have the " clock smith" and later on the " clock maker." 

The records obtained from the Guildhall and the Tower to 
which reference is made in the following extracts, and which are 

3 f 

402 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

preserved in a vellum book (still in the possession of the Company) 
were made by William Colet, here called " Colley." The record 
from the Tower has been already fully referred to on p. 29, etc. 

Paid for searchinge in the Threasury at Guildhall and for a Coppy of 
Richard le Barbars beinge chosen M r to governe the Companye 
for one yeare Intrat in Libro C. folio 96, and in the second yeare 
of Edward the Second Also in Libro H folio 73. Thomas Boyvell 
& Willm Osney sworne M rs for one yeare to rule the Company in 
the first yeare of Richard the second - x s 

Paid the ffee for search in the Roles in the Towre of London for the 

Companies antiquitye - X s 

Paid for a Coppy of o r Companies auncient Ordynances out of those 

Roles The Eleaventh of Richard the second xij s vj d 

Paid to M r Colley at twoe tymes for his extraordinary paynes in 

searchinge - - - x s 

Paid to M r Riley for his paynes there- - ij 5 vj' 1 

Paid & given for a search & Coppye out of the Herrauldf Office of our 

Companies beinge the 17 th in precedency at their visitacon 1568 - x s 

Given to the Porter at the Herrauldf office that day o r hearinge was 

betwixt us and the Talloughchandlers - - if vj' 1 

1635-6. Spent when M r Inigo Jones the Kinges Surveyor 
came to view the back ground. - xj s vj d 

Given to M r Mason that drew y c plotf for y c Theater - xl s 

1636-7. In the previous year ^480 had been paid in respect 
of the building of the Anatomical Theatre and this year a further sum 
of ^242 1 ys. \d. This was exclusive of the cost of digging for the 
foundations which the Company did by their own labourers, whom they 
paid \bd. per day each. It was the practice of the Company to allow workman engaged, whether labourers or mechanics, id. a day for 
" breakfast money," and this was paid to the "chandler" for them. 

Amongst the expenses incurred about the Theatre were these : — 

Spent by water at tymes when wee went to M r Surveigher (Inigo 

Jones) about the Theater - - vj s j l1 

oAniials of the Barber-Surgeons. 40) 

Paid to M r Wilson a Mason to Measure Stanleys worke in the Theater 

& spent then - - - xiij s ix d 

Given to Robert Butler and John Pullen for their measureing the 

'Theater - xl 5 

The expenses connected with the Building of the New or Great 
Parlour, and the Gallery next the Theatre, were this year ,£263 Js. yd. 

Paid to widd Lucas for an iron money box for the M rs - xx s 

This quaint old box is still in use as the " Poor's box." 1 

1637-8. The Wardens received ,£188 10s. orf. from 41 
members of the Company by way of gift to the Building fund ; 
the names of the donors are all set out in the book. 

Reced for the old Rustic Armo' and Gunnes the some of- - if xvf ij d 

P d for Linckes & torches at the awdite day night & Lo : Maiors day night ij s iij d 

Paid for mendinge and pitchinge the 3 Blacke Jacks - - - - iij 5 

The Company paid £30 being three years' contribution to the 
repair of St. Paul's, due August, 163S. ^224 os. 3c/. was also paid in 
respect of the building of the Theatre. 

1638-9. 15Be charge and settinge upp o r bookes and 
auntient Manuscript in o r new Library. 

Paid for 36 yardf of chaine at 4 d the yard & 36 yards at 3 d ob. the 

yard cometh to - - - xxif vf 

Paid to the Coppersmith for castinge 80 brasses to fasten the Chaines 
to the bookes 

To porters at sev r 'all tymes to carry these bookf 

Paid to the bookebynders for new byndinge 15 bookf 

Paid for Claspinge 19 large & small bookf & fasteninge all the brasses 
to the iron chaines to Threescore & foure bookf in the Library, 
new bosses for two great bookf 8 s setting on old bosses j s 
mending ould Claspes if ------- xxxf viif 

Paid for makeinge Ringes swiffles & fittinge all the iron chaines - - xif 

g>om is vf xviif 






See head piece to Chapter on " Charities." 

3 F 2 

404 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1639-40. Paid 2 fifteens towardf Midletons water' - vj s 

Given to the Recorders Clerke that the ffrenchmen might not take the 

body from Tyborne - - - - - ij b vj' 

1 640- 1. Paid to the Tellers of the Exchequer in 8 h " 1640 
for y c Kings use ----- 400 o o 

Paid and given to M r Davies man ij s and the water men and Porters to 

bring King Charles figure in Brasse to the hall - - 046 

This Bust of the King was set up in the Theatre. 

1 64 1 -2. There were seventy-three liverymen on the roll this 

year, and the Court numbered thirty-three in addition. 

Paid to Edward Cock Painter for mending the pictures & frames of Queene 

EH3. S r Peter Probye Sarjeant Balthrop and blacking Gilding Apollo - 120 

pisDurscfc at the Kings enterteynem' in London the 25"' of November 1641. 
Paid for a peece of rich Taffitae to make a pendant - - - - o 18 o 

P' 1 for Greene Perpetuana for the 1 8 ffootemen - - -940 

P' 1 for white lace to sett on those suites - - - 1 1 1 4 

P' 1 for white and greene ribaning as by bill - - 3160 

~P A in the morning for buttred sack 8 s buns 3 s butter 3" ij s beere <S: bread 4 s 0170 

P d for the Companies dinner at the Castle that daye 680 

P d to M r Berisford taylor for making 6 suites tape & thread - 120 

Paid to M r Ball taylor for making 12 suites ------ 240 

P' to M r Treswell the Harrould Painter - - - 2 12 o 

P' 1 for the Pendaunt Staffe and 18 trunchions - - -090 

1"' to a porter to watch the standings and candles - 036 

to workemen to drink - -006 

ffor making 18 greene flatt capps - 0180 

ffor 3 dozen of torches that night - - - 2 8 o 

for hier of three blewe clothes and porteridge - - 0166 

To Richardson a porter ------ - 020 

Paid by consent towards the 18 ffootmens suppers - - - - 100 

Paid for John Perkins his scarfe that beare our Pendant with our Coate of armes 100 

Paid M r Dorebare Carpinter for boards and setting upp and taking downe 

and cariage of our standings - - ---480 

Smme is - - 39 17 10 

' The New River water. 

c/ln mils of the Barber-Surgeons. 405 

1642-3. Paid into the Chamber of London for Ireland - - 400 o o 
Paid into the Committees at Grocers Hall for releife of Ireland - 5000 

Paid the Companies viij" weakly assessment for 12 weekes - y6 o o 

Paid the 9"' August 1642 for one Silver Canne given to Docto' Chamberlaine 
for his anatomye Lecture vj 1 ' and to the Porter that brought things 
from thence j s & to Docto' Meverells man j s when he sent Cafferius 
Placentitis his booke of Anatomye w ch he gave to the Librarye - 620 

Paid for 60 yards of Chaine for bookes in the Librarye at 4 A p. yard - 100 

P d to the Copper Smith for 60 brasses - -0100 

To the Claspmaker for setting on 32 brasses - 080 

1644-5. Wee charge ourselves with foure hundred and five pounds 
received of S r Iohn Wollaston and the rest of the Thrers at warres by 
order of the Comiltee of Parliam' for the Army for furnishing xxvij 
Chyrurgians Chests & Instrumt 5 for S' Thomas ffairfax his Armie - CCCCv 1 ' 

The Company were bound under precepts directed to them, to 
press Surgeons for the Army and to provide them each with a Medicine 
chest and Instruments value ^15. It is a remarkable circumstance 
that the Parliament should have paid the money to the Company for 
this service, a proceeding contrary to the practice then in vogue. 

At this time it appears that the indebtedness of the Company 
to various creditors for monies lent to enable them to meet the 
demands of the authorities amounted to no less a sum than 
.£2,633 4 s - This was borrowed at 6, 7 and 8 per cent, interest upon 
the seal of the house ; the Company had pawned the best of their 
ancient plate to satisfy the rapacity of the King and the army, and 
the following pitiful entry speaks volumes — 
Paid for the hyre of 4 Cupps for the eleccon - 020 

1645-6. Money was raised by granting annuities thus — 

Wee charge ourselves with Twoe hundred pounds reed of M r Nichas 

Heath for an Annuitye of xxvj 11 for term yeares - - - - CC' 

Paid for one newe black Jack - 050 

Paid for amending two old black Jacks 026 

Paid for two douzen of sawcers 012 o 

Paid for 15 dozen of Trenchers - 067 

P d the Lord Maiors Officers as a fine for the Rubbish lyeing in the Streete- 020 

4o6 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

The indebtedness of the Company this year amounted to 

.£2,847 1 % s - loa '- 

1646-7. ffor mending the Corrector twice - - - o 3 o 

The apprentices must have been especially troublesome this year. 

1647-8. Given to Richard Greenburye Workeman to this house 
towards his inlargement out of prison - - - - 2 o o 

Mr. Greenbury had often been employed by the Company 
as a portrait painter, and it is delightful to notice their kindly regard 
for him in both his and their evil days. 

1648-9. In 1644 the Company had pawned their plate, but 
seem to have redeemed it within the next year or two, for under this 
year we read that plate to the value of £297 us. 8d. was absolutely 
sold to Mr. Thomas Madox, Goldsmith, and other plate was pledged 
with Mr. John Browne for ^250. 

Paid for our seates in S 1 Paulls Church on Thancksgiving day for the 

Northerne Victorye - - - - 070 

Paid for the same on a day of humiliacon for a blessing on the treatie 

w'" his then Ma t!e - ----070 

1649-50. Paid for o r Seates at Christchurch the Thancsgiving 

day for the Irish Victorye- 030 

Paid for cakes and ale for the Livery on that day at y e hall - - - 044 

The expenses of Sorb ]2&cu?ov's day were as follows : — 

Paid for Ribbon for the Whifflers Officers & Bargemen - - - - 144 

ffor eight staves - ... -020 

Paid to Edward Soare Barge M r - - 3 1 5 o 

Paid to the Trumpetts that came to the hall voluntarilye - - 0100 

Given to the Clarke & sexton of S' James Church Garlick hith - - - 026 

Given to the Porter at Baynards castle - ..... 016 

Paid to the Drufne & Phiffe - ----- o 12 o 

Given to the Watermen to drinck - ...... 026 

More for beare for the Watermen ------ - 006 

ffor 8 dozen of cakes & 3 dozen of other bread - - o 1 1 o 

a/1 finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 40J 

Paid for foure pounds of butter- ° 3 4 

Paid the Grocers bill and Vinteners bill for a potaeon for the Liverye 

in y° morning - 136 

Given to the Servants of the Taverne - 026 

ffor washing linnen & making cleane the hall - - - o 1 1 6 

Paid the Butler for his attendance - - 0100 

Paid for hyre for 3 dozen of Napkins - 040 

ffor hier of Pewter - 0100 

Given to the Stewards by order of Court - - 800 

Paid for cords - 004 

It was the custom for the Stewards to provide the Livery 
dinner, and the ,£8 was an allowance made by the Company towards 
the cost of the dinner. 

Paid in exchange of clipd & counterfitt money - - o 16 6 

Given by order of Court to wide} Morgan towards the apparelling her sonne 

to bee placed an Appfitice 1 10 o 

On the 1 st November, 1649, the Company attended a Thanks- 
giving service at Christchurch, and later on they were present at 
the same place for a " Humilation day for Ireland." 

1650 1. Paid for a large Banner of the Amies of England and 
Ireland and mending the old Banners 617 6 

This "mending the old banners" was really taking out the 
Royal arms and inserting those of the Commonwealth, and was done 
under compulsion by order of Oliver Cromwell. 

Paid to Greenburye for painting the Picture of M' Edward Arris and Doctor 

Charles Scarborough & Anathomye - - 9 10 o 

This fine picture is preserved at Barbers' Hall. 

On October 8th, 1650, the Company attended a Thanksgiving 
at Christchurch, for a victory at Dunbar. 

40S oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1652-3. On Lord Mayor's day the ribbons for the whiftiers 
were 30 yards of white bd. ribbon, and 30 yards of green 8d. ribbon. 

The Company were present at one Humiliation and two 
Thanksgiving Services this year. 

1653-4. Paid for hire of a greene cloth to lay over the Rayle of 
our standing in Paulls Churchyard when the Lord Protector was 
enterteined by the Citie at Grocers hall - o 12 6 

To the Butler for his attendance then 010 o 

ffor the hire of a Case of Knives then o 1 o 

Paid for Cakes and wine 7 s and for attendance ij s -090 

Paid to M' Dorebarre Carpinter for fitting the standing and doeing other 

worke as by twoe bills appeare - - - - - - - 7100 

Paid for washing the Table Lynnen and making cleane the Hall on y l day - o 1 1 6 

Paid to M r Dorebarre Carpinter for the newe building next the newe gate of 

the hall according to agreement - - - - -12000 

The liabilities of the Company to Creditors for money borrowed 
amounted to .£2,386 13.?. \o l /id. 

1655-6. ffor a large Mapp of the World on the Chymney in the 
long Parlour - 2 10 o 

1657-8. Payd for thinges to p'serve the Robes and Carpettf 
from mothes ----- ... - 050 

Paid for a paire of Gloves p'sented to M' Secondary Trottman by order of 

Court - - 1 10 o 

1658-9. To the Herauld Painter for severall Amies in the new 
Booke of Charters and ordinances - ... -200 

Paid the Clerke for Velome bindinge and other charges about that Booke - 0130 

This book, very handsomely illuminated, is preserved at the Hall. 

The Great Account Book ends here, and the next one embraces 
the years 1659 to 1674. 

aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 409 

1659-60. Payd by order of a Court of Assistantf into the 
Chamber of London o r proporcon of ioooo" to be raysed by the 
Companies of London to be sent as a Guift to the Kinge 1 - 96 o o 

Payd M r Phinees Bill for Cloathes for the ffootemen att the Kinges 

Entertainem" in the Cittie when hee came first into the Kingdome - 20 o o 

ffor 4 peices of Greene & white Ribbon for the Horsemen and footemen 
that day - 

ffor 24 Staves for the ffootemen 

Payd to the Herauld Painter for a new Pendent and the Kingf Armes 

ffor payntinge the ffootemens staves 

Payd for a Dynner for the Horsemen that day - 

Payd ffor 4 peeces of Greene & white Ribbon the 5 th of July for the 
ffootemen &c when the Kinge dyned at Guildhall 

ffor a breakefast for the Livery that day 

ffor three Staves for the Attendant^ that day 

ffor a Dynner for the horsemen that day - 

ffor a Dynner for the Livery that day 

ffor the Trompeterf that day 

Payd the Cookes Bill upon a Thancksgivinge day the io"' of May 

The Vintner^ Bill that day 

Spent att the Miter on choyce of my Lord Maio' 

Expended in Attendance on the Duke of Yorkes Secretary att severall 

tymes to frustrate the designe of the Apothecaries - o 13 4 

1 660- 1. Payd by order of a Co" of Assistant^ into the Chamber 
of London o r proportion towards makeinge of pageantf 48 o o 

This refers most probably to the rejoicings in June, 1660, when 

the City entertained Charles II, the Dukes of York and Gloucester, 
and other persons of quality, 

ffor strowingf on the Eleccon day - 018 

These were herbs, etc., spread over the floor of the Hall, 
and flowers strewed by the maids in the street in front of the 
Company as they went to church. 

1 Charles II at the Restoration. 
































oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1 66 1-2. This year there were 158 Liverymen, of whom 29 

were on the Court. 

To a Couple of Serjantf to Arrest severall p°sons that used the Art of 

Shaveinge in this Citty and not beinge ffreemen of this Company - o 15 o 

To S' W'" Wylde for his advice upon a Declaracon ag' those p°sons - 100 

Payd the Attorneys Bill in that Businesse - 3136 

1662-3. JUtyitsif 26"' 1662 att the Kinge & Queenes cominge 
by water to London (from Hampton Court to Whitehall) 

Spent lookeinge after a barge - 016 

The Bargemans Bill - 800 

To the Trompeters - 300 

ffor 74 yards of white & Greene Ribbon att 6 d p' ; yard 117 o 

The Vintners Bill att the 3 Tunnes att Breakefast - 3160 

Butlers Bill that day- ... - -212 

Beadles Bill that day for expenses - o 1 2 1 

Cookes Bill that day - - 487 

Vinteners Bill at the Sunne that day - 3 3 8 

ffor 4 douzen Bottles of Ale that day - - o 14 10 

To the Clerke at Garlicke Hithe Church that day - 026 

JLovb jKTcxnors ipctt?. 

The Bargemans breakefast 026 

To the Bargeman & 1 1 men - 4 8 o 

ffor 84 yards of Ribbon att 6' 1 p'' yard 220 

Michells bill for Cordage, &c. - - - 022 

ffor washinge the Table Lynnen & makeinge cleane the hall then on 6 

The Butlers ffee then 013 4 

The Vintners Bill for Breakefast 380 

The Beadles Bill for Tabaccoe that day - - 038 

To the Sexton of Garlicke hithe Church that day - - -026 

To the porter att Baynards Castle - -016 

To the Trompeters then - - -250 

ffor 8 douzen of cakes then - -080 

ffor 6 Staves for the Whiflers then -------- 020 

This year also the Company rode to " meete the Russia 

Embassadour " and the charges for this are set out in the accounts. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 4 1 1 

The Company employed counsel and presented a petition 
against the granting of a Charter to the Physicians ; this business 
involved several meetings at taverns and some presents to the Duke 
of York's Secretary, who seems to have espoused the cause of the 

ffor makeinge presipientia to be prrescientia in the Bason and Tankerd - o i 6 

This would be the correction of an engraver's mistake in the 
Company's motto on some silver plate. 

ffor paintinge the staves for the Companyes Colo rs and 4 windowes of the 

Granary - - • - 1 10 o 

ffor makeinge cleane of severall pictures - 0170 

ffor two Silver Salts - - - 220 

ffor mendinge Erasmus statute - 030 

ffor a large Chamber pott - - -056 

1663-4. Received of the Governours Assistants and Livery 

towards the Building of a Barge with other necessaryes thereunto 

belonging - - 178 o o 

A considerable sum was again spent in opposing the Physician's 
Charter, Sir Wm. Scroggs, Mr. Pollexfen, Mr. Serjeant Glyn, Mr. 
Phillips, and Sir Orlando Bridgeman being the Company's counsel. 

ffor meding King Henry the 8" ,s cupp - 020 

To a Serjeant to arrest M r Arnold for refusing to take a fine for the 

Cloathing and entring the Accon - 054 

To M r Banes the Attorney his ffee - 026 

To Peter Smith [the Beadle] for his expences to ketch M' Arnold 026 

The Company spent a large sum on their Barge and Barge 

house ; all the details are in the accounts, but the following extracts 

will suffice : — ■ 

To Henry fforty for makeing the Barge - "5 ° ° 

ffor Calicoe for the Watermens Suites 3 5° 

3 G 2 

412 e/J nnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ffor Staining the Coates - 2150 

ffor makeing 20 Suites and Capps at 4 s 6' 1 each - 4100 

To Henry fforty for triming the Barge Curting Rods &c v' p° Bill - 200 

ffor Bayes and Curtain es - - o 18 10 

ffor Oares - 1 14 o 

To M r Blackmore the Herrald Painter for fflags to the Barge - 29 10 o 

ffor Boards to house the Barge last Winter - - 1756 
Boathire and given to a Carpenter to view the Uuke of Richmonds 

Bargehouse 026 
To the Archbishop of Canterburyes Counsell ffor his perusall of the Draught 

of a Lease for ground to build a Barge house on [at Lambeth] - 100 

To his Clarke for drawing it 0100 
To M r Snowe and M r Turney 2 of the Archbishops Sei vants upon sealing 

the Lease 10" in Gold and the change of Silver for Gold at 2 s 4'' a 

peicc i 1 ' 3" 4 (1 in all n 34 

To M r Turneyes man for ingrossing the Lease 010 o 

To the Archbishops Porter - 050 
Given to other Servants of the House when the Governburs attended his 

Lordship o 12 o 
To M r Matthewes the Bricklayer in part of payment for his Brickworke 

about the Bargehouse - - - 100 o o 

1664-5. The Company subscribed ,£94 15J. 6d. as a Con- 
tribution towards the ship " The Loyal London," to be presented 
to the King by the City. They also "lent" the King ^500 for 
which 6 per cent, interest was promised. 

Coach hire for the Governours to the Navy Office on Audit day 020 

Given to M r Pepis' his man that day - - 010 

To the Hoboyes [on Lord Mayor's day] - 250 

To Peter Smith for Tobaccoe and pipes - 0210 

ffor Rosemary and Bayes for the Barge 020 

ffor mending a Skelliton - - 050 

1 Samuel Pepys, the Diarist. 

o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 41 3 

An entertainment was given to the Duke of Monmouth (who 
was free of the Company) and among other items of expense 
incurred were : — 

Comfitt makers Bill that day - - 426 

ffor a quarter of a Pound of Spanish tobaccoe that day - 026 

Given to the Officers of the Navy according to custome yearely 200 

Perhaps Samuel Pepys came in for some of this. 

There was a grand dinner at our Hail on 20th June, 1655, being 
Thanksgiving day for the Victory over the Dutch. 1 
ffor bringing the Woodden Griffen from Wapping to the Guilders - 026 

This would be the Opinicus for the bow of the barge. 

ffor Imbroydering the Barge Cloath 15 o o 

Payd M r Rolls his Bill for the Barge Cloath - 1 1 o o 

To M r Goodwyn for paynting the Barge - 3500 

The next refers to the Great Plague. 

Given to the poore visited persons the Third part of the Companyes usuall 

allowance at an Election Dinner - - 500 

Given to Thomas Vere in his visitacon - 100 

To Chamberlaines YViddow her house being visited - 100 

To Peter Smith in his sicknes 300 

1665-6. Expended by myself y e Clerke & Beadles in sev°all 
Journeys to Greenw ch to attend y c officers of y e Navy in y e late time of 
Visitacon - - - 1 16 6 

The Company made very many grants of money to the poor 
stricken people about this time ; and further contributed ^69 gs. 6d. 
towards the Ship " The Loyal London." 

1 Pepys also kept this day. He says, — " Thankes-giving day for victory over the Dutch. To the 
" Dolphin Taverne, where all we officers of the Navy met with the Commissioners of the Ordnance by 
"agreement, and dined : where good musique at my direction. Our club came to 34J. a man, nine of us. 
" By water to Fox-hall, and there walked an hour alone, observing the several humours of the citizens that 
" were there this holiday, pulling off cherries, and God knows what." 

414 o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1666-7. The following interesting entries relate to the Qveat 
§ttre and the providential preservation of the <$oC6em painting. 

To a souldier two dayes & two nights on the trained bands when the great 

fier was & for powder - - - - - 080 
ffor carrying of the Companyes goods by Porters to Moorefeildf, howse 

roome there & carrying thence to Holborne bridge - 300 

To a seaman that quenched the top of the theater when fired - 040 

To other labourers at that time 1 o o 

To one hurt in that service 010 o 

ffor drinke for the labourers then - 016 

To a poore fellow that found a skelliton - 010 
To the City Marshall for getting of labourers and laders & an engine to 

save the Theater - - - - - 1 o o 

ffor the use of timber & other things at that time - - - 026 

To Major Brookes for his expences about & y e 8th picture 013 o 

Given him as the Companyes gift - 100 

To six porters w th expences of bringing home y' picture - 089 

To Cap' Carroll his expenses about that picture - 0160 

Given him as the Companyes gift - - 100 

Expended on him - 026 

ffor a Cipres chest to put the plate in 200 

ffor foure locks 2 handles & 8 plates for that chest - - 1 10 o 
ffor a trunke for the linnin - -- --0100 

To Jonas Wills for Workemen to Carry in leade & iron out of the ruines - 0130 

To a Carpenter & his man that assisted - - - 9 6 o 

To Peter Smith for Workemen at the hall 2 2 ,h Septemb. 1666 - 474 

More to him for workemen y° 25 of 7 bcr 66 - - 7 n 8 

ffor 7 large boxes w th L.ocks & keys to put the Companyes writings in 180 
To Peter Smith his charges in getting home sev°all flaggs & pictures & a 

skelliton - - - - o 14 o 

To Jonas Wills for the Skelliton the Cobler had - 050 
ffor a Warrant for sev°all p°sons suspected to have some of the Companyes 

goods & Expended about it - - 026 

1667-8. Received of severall Members of the Company and 

fforreyn" towards the Building of the Hall and other offices - - 383 8 o 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


These contributions were voluntary and are accounted for every 
year for a considerable period. At the end of the book is a long and 
detailed list of the contributors, commencing 23rd April, 1668, and 
extending to March, 16S1. There seem to have been 398 subscribers, 
and the sum collected from them was ,£1,850; this amount, however, 
was wholly inadequate for the rebuilding of the hall, which appears by 


entries extending over 1668 to 1674, to have cost the Company no less 
than ,£4,292. The deficit was made up by sales of freehold property 
in the City, for what to us, in these days, would seem absurdly low 
prices, and by loans, etc. 

1668-9. The Company received from the Chamber of London 
^620 6.?. be/., being the return of .£500 lent to the King in November, 

4i 6 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1664, and the interest thereon ^120 6s. 6d. This is the only instance 

recorded of any forced loan having been refunded. 

Received of severall Barbers for trimminge on y c Lords Day - 10 4 o 

1669-70. The Company's barge seems to have been manned 
by twenty rowers, besides the Barge Master, and these men had 4s. 
each for rowing on Lord Mayor's day. 

1669-70. Serjeant Surgeon John Knight wainscotted the 
Parlour at his own charge, and Mr. Barker glazed the Windows; part of 
this glazing is still preserved. It should be borne in mind that the 
present Court room or Parlour (as it was formerly called) and which 
was the work of Inigo Jones in 1636 was not destroyed in the Great 

1 670-1. The freehold property in Conyhope Lane, Grocers' 
Hall Court, was sold to the Corporation of London for ^"190. 

167 1-2. The livery this year numbered one hundred and 
eighty-five persons. 

1672-3. The Company sold an extensive property at Holborn 
Bridge to the City for ^650. 
To — Woodroffe for measuringe all the hall worke April y c 19"' 1673 7170 

The whole of the Wardens' accounts from 1674 to 1 7 1 5 are 
unfortunately lost, and the next book embraces the years between 
1 71 5 and 1785. 

1 715-16. The Ironmongers' Company rented at £$ per annum 
from the Barber-Surgeons a portion of their Barge House at Lambeth 
for the Ironmongers' Barge. Our Company still retained their Barge 
and Bargemaster and this year purchased for him a new livery. 

Paid M r Wiseman the Painter for new Painting and Gilding the Company's 

Banner --------- -- 900 

Paid the maids who strewed the flowers to Church upon Election Day - 030 

d/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 41 7 

1716-17. Received of M r George Stevenson S. his ffine for 
practising Surgery before he was admitted being 346 

Paid a person to go to Islington to see after a dead body which had been 

drowned ' - 050 

1717-18. The Company sold a large property in East 
Smithfield for ,£1,250. 

Paid the Hangman for his Christmas Box 026 

Similar entries to the above occur for many years. 

Paid Charles Window for fetching four Dead Bodies from Tyburn this year 

and expenses ----------- 280 

Paid my Lord Chief Justice Parkers Tipstaffe for taking up severall persons 

who rescued the Dead Body from the Beadles - 100 

1718-19. Paid M r Elms his Bill for ffees at the Sessions in 
prosecuting the persons who were Indicted last year for taking away 
the Dead Bodies - "57° 

1719-20. Paid Cha: Window for fetching two bodies from 
Tyburn & for going for another when they could not gett one - 150 

Paid to bring a Skeleton from St. Giles's to the Hall in a coach - 020 

Paid the Beadles expences for going to Tyburn for a Body for the Muscular 
Lecture when they could not get one by reason of a great Mobb of 
Soldiers & others - -0130 

1 720-1. Paid for a Livery gown and hood to the use of the 

Company to Cloth the Members with upon their taking the Livery - 2126 

P d the High Constable of S' Giles's Parish for assisting the Beadles in 

recovering a Body which had been taken from the Beadles by the Mobb 076 

Paid the Hangman for the Dead mans cloths which were lost in the Scuffle 

and for his Christmas Box o 15 o 

Paid for a halfe length Picture of King Charles the Second to hang up in 

the Parlour and for a Gold frame to the said Picture - - 7 5° 

This was no doubt wanted for an " Anatomy." 

3 » 

4i8 ^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Paid M r King the Frame maker for a frame to Inigo Jones the famous 
Architect's picture Presented to the Company by our late Master M r 
Alexander Geekie - - i 5 ° 

Both of these pictures are still preserved at Barbers' Hall. 

Every year now, and for some years, are entries of Expenses 
incurred about the rioting, which took place when the Beadles went to 
Tyburn for the bodies of malefactors ; very frequently the Company 
prosecuted the rioters, and were continually compensating the Beadles 
and others who were injured in the fights. 

1731-2. Paid M r Osmond for Plumber's Work about the Trough 
for the Dead Bodys - - - 600 

Paid M' Ashfield for Carpenters Work about the said Trough - 1 14 o 

This was a species of wooden coffin lined with lead in which 
the "subjects" were placed on their arrival from Tyburn. 

Paid for 4 Silver Pepper Boxes' - 5 5° 

Paid the Officers of both Counters for a body - 220 

1 735—6. Paid M r Newton the Silversmith for a new Badge for 
the Barge master - - - 4 1 1 6 

Paid the High Constable for the expenses at the late execution when the 

body was rescued - - - - - - - - - - 3 13 6 

Paid the Beadles expenses in prosecuting John Miller, one of the Persons 

who assaulted the Constables and rescued the body - - - - 220 

Paid M r Clarke the Sollicitor at Hicks Hall his Bill for Indicting and 

prosecuting the said John Miller to a conviction - - - - 8710 

Paid M r Clarke the Engraver for engraving the Dedication to the Right 
Plonorable the Earl of Burlington on the Print of King Henry the 
Eighth's Picture 5 5° 

1737. Paid M r Babbidge for making a Skeleton of Maiden's 3 Bones 3 3° 

1 These are still at the Hall. - Probably the body of a prisoner who had died in one of the Compters. 

J A criminal hung at Tyburn. 

aAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 4 1 9 

1739. Paid the Beadles for their being beat and wounded at 

the late execution - -440 

1740. Paid for mending the Windows broke upon bringing the 

last Body from Tyburn - - - 060 

1741. Paid for a Silver Punch Laddie - -140 
Paid the expences for the Buck S r Rob' Walpole gave the Company - 136 

1744. Paid M r Hawes for two large Branches for the Hall - 70 o o 

These massive chandeliers were broken but preserved when the 
Hall was pulled down in 1864, and one formed of their fragments is 
now hung on the staircase leading up to the Committee Room. 

Paid taking the Company's Linnen out of Pawn 426 

This linen must have been stolen and pawned, as the Company 
were not at this period in such financial difficulties as to necessitate 
their personal property being taken care of by a pawnbroker. 

1745-6. Dr. Tyson's picture was sold to Mr. Luke Maurice 
for £10 \os. 

Mr. Goodyer was paid ,£11 for the table and inscription (now 
in the entrance lobby) which records the separation of the Surgeons 
from the Barbers in 1745. 

1 75 1-2. Mr. Whiston bought the Company's library for ,£13. 
This library consisted of a great number of ancient MSS. and books 
relating to Surgery. 

Putting an Advertizement in the Daily Advertizer offering a Reward to any 

Person who should discover who stole the Lead from off the Hall Kitchen 020 

Paid M' Spencer for cleaning the Guns Swords and bayonetts - - 060 

7 II 2 

420 oAmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1 760. Paid M r Chessun the Upholsterer his Bill for new Standards 
& making the new cloth for the Stand 67 15 6 

This was the stand for the liverymen used on Lord Mayor's 
day and on other public occasions. 

1770. The expenses on Lord Mayor's day this year were 
as follows, and are a fair sample of the entries for many years before 
and after this date. 

Cash Paid — 

M r Bick for Spermaceti - - 1 10 o 

The Watermen for their Breakfast and attendance - - 1126 

Two men to keep the gates - - -0100 

Four men to keep the Stand 1 o o 

M r Beaumont for musick - 500 

Mess" Sherwood & Co. for Ribbons - 3149 

M r Hulberd for Beef for breakfast 410 

M r Wareham for dressing ditto - 0160 

The Housekeeper's Bill - 200 

M r Wilding's Bill for Wine for the Stand - 6157 

The Beadle for pipes and Tobacco for the Stand - -060 

M r Dance Clerk of the City Works for fixing the Stand - 1 1 o 

The Carpenter's Bill about ditto - - 8 1 1 3 

The Upholsterer's Bill - 200 

Jarvis & Sharpe, Turner's Bill - o iS 8 

£2,9 16 9 

The Livery dinners on these occasions were paid for by 
the Stewards. 

The next book of Accounts extends from 1785 to 1821, but 
like the latter part of the last one it is almost destitute of interest. 
On the first page is an extract from the Will of Mr. Edward Griffin 
(10th April, 1596) relating to his gift to the Company, and there 
are also sundry memoranda concerning Banckes' gift. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 421 

1785. This was the last occasion on which the Company 
"went out" on Lord Mayor's day. 

In addition to the Wardens' accounts, there are two books 
containing receipts of tradesmen and others for money paid to them 
extending from 1722 to 1764. These books are not specially 
interesting, excepting that they contain autographs of a few 
eminent Surgeons, hangmen and others, and the following extracts 
will suffice : — 

1722. Reced of the Governours of the Company the surae of ten shillings for 

fetching the Body of Richard Oxer from Tyburne. 

Charles Window. 

1723. Reced of the Governours of the Compa the sume of five pounds fifteen 

shillings for fetching the Body of W ra Pincher from Tyburne and for sev" Disbursements 

expended thereon. 

Rich : Collins. 

1723. The Receipt of Abraham Shepherd, Attorney, for 
,£15 os. 6d., being the costs of prosecuting Cooke and others for 
taking away the body of William Pincher from the Beadles when 
they brought it from Tyburn. 

1729. Reced Dec r 23 d 1729 of the Gov rs of y e Comp a p° the hands of Cha : 

Bernard their CI : 7 s 6 d for my Xmas Box. 

John Hooper. 

In 1730 this gentleman signs "John Hooper, Executioner." 

1743. The hangman, John Thrift, signed with a x the receipt 
for his Christmas box, and the Clerk has humorously styled him 
"John Thrift, Esq re Hangman." 

1736. The printing of 1,000 Copies of Baron's Engrav- 
ing of Holbein's picture cost £\$ x 5 .v. od. John Harper was 
the printer. 


oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

A copy of this print was sent to the Earl of Burlington, as there 
is a Bill of William Gills as follows : — 

One large picture frame w"' a broad carved & Gilt Sanding inside and a 

fine plate glass &c for The Earl of Burlington - - £2 8 o 

Rcce'd Nov 5 1736 of y c Gov' 4 of the Compa p° the hands of Cha. Bernard 
their CI : twenty one pounds for the paper to print the 1000 prints of 
King Hen : 8" ls Picture being two Rheams of paper 

\? B. Baron. 




r/t*T U 



_■— ■ 









138S. One of our earliest ordinances enacts that — 

If any dispute arise between any of the brethren, which God forbid, it is to be 
amicably settled by the decision of the Masters of the said Fraternity and they are to deal 
plainly, 1 and that no one sue another in other manner than at the assize, and then only 
if he be empowered by leave of the said Masters to be recorded. 

1530. And again in the ordinances signed by Sir Thomas 
More, it states that — 

yff any matter of stryffe or debate herafter be betwene eny p°son of the said 
Crafte as God fforfende that noon of them shall make eny p°suts 2 in the Comen lawe 
but that he whiche ffyndeth hym aggreved shall ffurst make his complaynt to the 

Maisters to trTentent that they shall ordre the said matter or cause of 

complaynt so made yff they can 

This prerogative of the Company was jealously guarded, and 
indeed extended, the Court becoming in effect a sort of Court 
of Conscience, in which non-freemen frequently appeared as plaintiffs 
against freemen, when their cases were heard and adjudicated upon, the 
Court settling the amount and time of payment, or dismissing the suit. 

Whenever (as often happened) one freeman went to law with 
another, without leave of the Court, and the defendant complained, 

i.e. , openly, honestly. 


424 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

the plaintiff was ordered to withdraw his action, and if he declined to 
do so, an opportunity of reflection upon the powers of the Company 
was afforded him in the seclusion of the " Compter." 

It was frequently the custom for the Masters to require both 
parties to enter into bonds to abide the decision of the Court, and 
where this was not so, and either of them disobeyed the order made, 
the offender was either fined, imprisoned or expelled. 

The following are a few notices of cases of dispute which came 
before the Court from time to time, and other instances will be found 

30th June, 1 55 1. It was ordered — 

That James Wood John Chamber and William Drewe Waterman shalbe lovers 
and friendes and clerlye to acquite and discharge either other of and from all maner of 
accons quarrells detts demaundes and suts as well spirytuall as temporall whatsoever 
they be from the begynnyng of the worlde untyll the daye abovesayd. 

4th November, 1 55 1. Ordered — 

That John West shall bring in his fyne which is vj s viij d for speking opprobryous 
wordes against John Androwson in the presence of the M r - 

2nd May, 1552. It was ordered and declared that Harry Cooke 
and Nicholas Connysbye — 

are fully condescended concluded and agreed for all maner of accons dettes 
suetts demaunds and quarrells whatsoever they be from the begynnynge of the worlde unto 
this daye and that they shall clerly dischardge eche other and to be lovers and freinds. 

1566. By an entry in this year it seems that each disputant 
when before the Court was " put to his othe upon a booke y' he sholde 
saye the trothe." 

oAiinals of the Barber-Surgeons. 425 

ioth December, 1566. Thomas Lambkyn appeared against 
his late apprentice W m Woodfall — 

for serten shavynge clothes y l he tooke awaye w" 1 hym when he went home his 
M r w"'out his lycence and the saide W'" hath payde unto the saide Thorns Lambkyn in 
the p°sents of this courte in lawfull Englyshe mony x 5 in recompence. 

In this Courte here was John Hawkes playntyf agaynst Richard Olkar for his 
unfyttinge words & Olkar shalbe here the nexte courte. 

30th December, 1566. William Collins the covenant servant 
of John Johnson complained of his master for " myssusing hym in his 
boxe money," whereupon M r Johnson was ordered to amend his ways. 

4th March, 1567. Here was Walter Lynche for his unfytting wordf seyeng y' 
Richard Dycson sholde be got his mayde w"' chylde and Lynche denyeth yt, y' he nev° 
harde of yt, and Dycson sey d y' Edward Parke & too other servyngemen he hath to wytnes 
the same, spoken at the Rose taverne at the fleete brydge And yt is ordered y' they shall 
brotherly one gyve unto & by another good wordf & good reports & no more repetallf to 
be had any more hereafter in this behalf. 

nth March, 1567. In this Court here was John Wall for y'he warned John Staple 
unto the courte of concyence in the guyldehall in London w"'oute lycence of the M r & 
Gov^no' 5 and yt is now ordered once agayne y' John Wall shall not p°cede any forder in 
lawe but shall stande to the awarde made ordered & awarded the xij" 1 daye of november 
laste paste and not ells otherwyse upon payne of his alegiance & penaltie in that behalf 
p°vyded & ordayned. 

Edward Park, who was a troublesome fellow, and often before 
the Court, would seem (by the next extract) to have revived the old 
scandal about Dycson and his " mayde," for — 

14th November, 1567. Here was Rich. Dycson playntyf agaynst Edward 
Parke for undecent and slaunderous words And they both have consented to put yt 
unto the determynacion of this worsshypfull Court, & they shalbe both bounde in 
oblygacions to abyde the order & warde 1 & to kepe the peace in y r owne p^sons. Rich. 

' Award. 

3 1 

426 cAiinals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Dycson hath chosen to be arbytraytors for hym John Bonar & Thomas Burston, and 
for Parke he hath chosen for hym M r Bowie & Rich Wysto & the M r & govnors shalbe 
umpers, ' bonde in xx 1 ' a peece. 

13th January, 1568. In thys Courte here was John Cooke playntyf against Rich' 1 
Barker for serten word^ undecently spoken by Rich d against the said John and also for 
serten housold stuff y' the said Rich d Barker w ,h holdeth frome the said John, and they 
both are comaunded the nexte courte daye to brynge in bothe y r fynes vj s viij ' a pece for 
y r unfytting wordf . 

7th June, 1569. In this Courte here was the wyf of John Burges for that Rich. 
Barker beate black her amies and yt is ordered that the said Rich. Barker shall upon this 
p°sent daye go unto the house of the said John Burges his m r and y r acknowledge hym 
sylf to be sory for trespassynge hym & his wyf. 

19th July, 1569. Here was John Charnock, said that he is his M rs pntf 2 
& kepeth shoppe & is accomptant wekely to his M r & he said the M r of the company 
did hym wronge & y* he wolde at lawe trye yt and unreverently he did behave 
hymsylf w' h stoute & undecent [words] & so he charged the M r styll, but not the 
worsshypfulls of this Courte. 

1 8th November, 1572. Here was one Edward Browne Bricklayer and complayned 
[against] one Richard Upton for that he had taken his money for curynge hym of Morbus 
Gallicus but the sicknes as he said was not cured & M r Upton p°mised to agree w' h hym. 

The next is a rare piece of tittle tattle ; like Edward Park, 
Colley was often in trouble, and it is amusing to observe how he 
shortly afterwards lays an information against Carrington, which 
compliment Carrington returns to him in the March Court. 

1 8th November, 1572. Here was Willm Carington and required his complaint to 
be herd in that Allein Colley had slaundered hym w ,h unhonest wordes, that is, that Allein 
should say that Wiberds wife should say that Charringtons wief should not be honest, and 
they were p°mytted to take ordre of Lawe. 

10th February, 1573. Colley laid an information against Car- 
rington for " Trimminge on a Sondaye," whereupon he was fined 40^. 

1 Umpires. - Apprentice. 

oAmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 427 

nth March, 1573. Carrington complained of Colley "for un- 
decent wordes calling him verlet before the Mr.," etc., and they were 
ordered to be friends, and to bring no more complaints against each 

This feud seems, however, to have continued for a few 
years, but was at last happily settled, for we read under date, 24th 
January, 1576 : 

Here at this Co r te witnesses being hard betwene Willm Carrington and Allen 
Collye they were made frendes, shoke handes and frendly deputed. 

2nd March, 1573. Here was a complaint agaynste Henrye Lushe by John 
Parrndize for that the said Henry Lushe called the said John Paradize knave, and he p d 
his fyne xij 1 ' and they toke hands & were ffrends. 

19th April, 1574. Here was Willm Brode and brought in an answere agaynste 
the complaynt of Edward Saunders for lykeninge hym to Esoppes dogge and they were 
appoynted to be ffrends and' to brynge the matter no more in question. 

Was this the "dog in the manger" ? Anyhow, it seems a trivial 
matter to have been brought before the grave old Masters. 

2nd February, 1575. Here came one Willm Goodnep and complayned of Willm 
Clowes for not curing his wief de morbo gallico and yt was awarded that the saide Clowes 
sholde either geve the saide Goodnep xx s orells cure his saide wief, w ch Clowes agreed to 
pay the xx s and so they were agreed and eche of them made acquittance to other. 

28th February, 1576. Here was a complainte against Willm Clowes by one 
Goodenge for that the saide Clowes had not onlie misused the saide Goodinge in speeche 
but also most of the masters of the Companye w"' scoffing wordes and jestes and they all 
forgave him here openlye in the Co r te and so the stryfe was ended upon cond' that he 
shold nev r so misuse him self a gayne, and bonds was caused to be made to that effect. 

25th September, 1576. At this CcPte came Willm Wise and Mathew Ken, and 
divers evell and unbrotherlike speches was p°ved and so the saide Willm Wise confest his 
fait paide his ffyne and made a breakfast to the Companie for their paynes, and so they 
shoke hands and were made ffrends. 

428 c/fmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

25th March, 1577. Here at this Corte was a greate contension and stryffe spoken 
of and ended betwene George Baker' and Will in Clowes' for that they bothe contrary 
to order and the good and holsome rules of this howse misused eche other and fought 
in the ffelds togethers, but the M r Wardens and assistance wishing that they might be 
and continewe loving brothers p°doned this greate offence in hope of amendment. 

9th January, 1598. Thomas Cole complayned of Thomas Goodall for sueinge 
him at the Comon lawe \v"'out license of the M re And was fined And his fine mittigated 
to 3 s 4" 

4th December, 1599. This daie Roberte Morrey complayned of William ffoster 
for callinge him Pandor and Bawde and for sayeinge he was presented by the Wardemot 
inqueste for keepinge a bawdye house, uppon hearinge whereof their controversies were 
referred to the Maisters of this Companye, the same to be ended before the sixte daie of 
Januarye nexte. 

24th July, 1600. In the matter in Controversie betwixt Roger Semper and 
ffrancis Thompson it is ordered that the sayd Semp r> shall at the next Court bringe in his 
fine for usinge reprochefull wordes against the sayd Thompson And for that the sayd 
Sempers wyefe did assalt the sayd Thompson & brake his shop wyndowes. And that the 
sayd Semper shall deliv' such goodes as hee hath of the sayd Thompson before the next 
Court And that hee shall at the same Court geve the sayd Thompson satisfaccon for his 

24th July, 1600. In the Controversie betwixt John Izard & Robert Steward it is 
ordered that the sayd Robert Steward shalbe comitted to the Compter for refusinge to 
paye his fine for supplantinge the sayd John Izards cure and for behavinge himselfe 
unreverendly before the M rs in the Court. 

nth September, 1600. This daie John Urvey complayned of Henry Bracye for 
arrestinge him before he had obtayned leave of the Maisters And it was thereuppon 
ordered that the said Henrye Bracye shoulde be warned to appeare before the Maisters at 
the nexte Courte and that he shoulde be commaunded from the Maisters to staie his 
suite till then. 

17th September, 1600. This daie in the matter in controversi betwixte Henry 
Bracy and John Urvey It is ordered that the saide Henry Bracye shall not proceede any 
further in his suite but that the said John Urvey shall paie the debte of ffowerteene 
shillinges and twoe shillinges for his chardges by twoe shillinges wickelye till all be fully 

1 Master 1597 and Serjeant Surgeon. - Warden 1594. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 429 

satisfied and paide And uppon the payment thereof the said Bracye to make him a 
generall aequittaunce the firste payment to begine on Tewsdaie nexte, And the money to 
he paide to the M re of this Companye. 

20th October, 1600. This daye it is ordered that John Urvey shalbe comitted to 
the Compter for not p°forminge his payments to Henry Bracy accordinge to the orders of 
this howse. 

21st July, 1601. Where div s controversies hath bene betweene John Browne 
and Jenkin Marcrafte the endinge of w ch is by them of their mutuall assents referred to 
the M rs or Governors of this Company who aft r hereinge of their sev°all controversies & 
fyndeinge thereby that the wounde for w ch the money was to be paid to John Browne was 
reverted to his former state It is thought fit that the said Marcrafte shall paye to the 
said Browne prVtly ' the somme of xl s in full satisfaction of all debts duties and demaunds, 
w dl the said Browne accepted of and received the said somme accordingly. And whereas 
Lewis Atm r finished the Cure after it was reverted Therefore it was lykewise ordered that 
the said Marcrafte shall paye to him xx s for his paynes. 

6th August, 1601. This daye John Ibatson and John Wyndet referred a 
controversie betwene them concerninge a debt of iiij 1 ' lent by the said Wyndet to the said 
Ibatson to the hereinge &: endinge of the M rs of this Company and gave the eyth' to the 
oth r 6 d to stande to their award so that they ended the same before the laste daye of 
Septemb r next w ch if they refuse to stand to, the refuser shall forfeyt x l! - 

27th March, 1604. This daye Lycence is geven to Andrew Mathewe to sue 
Richard Tyler at the Covnon Lavve for the tenenr't wherein the said Tyler nowe dwelleth, 
for that Tyler refuseth to referre the heareinge & endinge of that controversie to the M' 3 
of this Company. 

1 6th October, 1610. In the Controv°sie between William Wright and one 
Harrington Itt is att this Court ordered that Harrington shall paie unto Wryght for and 
in respect of such rentes he doth owe unto Wright the some of xxx s imediate And 
like wise he shall mend such paynes of glasse as nowe by his necligence are broken in 
Wrightf wyndowes and soe all controv°sies between them are determyned. 

24th September, 161 1. In the Controv°sey between ffrauncf Bilford of th°one 
p°te & John fflint on th°other p°te It is ordered that either of them shalbe bound unto 
th°other of them in 20 1 ' a peece to stand to the Award of M r John Gerard & M r Richard 

1 Presently, i.e. , at once. 

4)0 c/innals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ist October, 1611. At this Court forasmuch as John fflynt would not stand to 
the order of the M rs set down the last Court between him & ffrauncf Bilford the said 
Bilford hath leave to arrest the said fflynt. 

22nd October, 161 1. In the Controv'sie between Dennis Davys on thPone p°te 
& John Person on thPother p'te It is ordered that they shall live quietlie togethers as 
brothers of one Company should doc and neither of them by him selfe or his servantf to 
gyve or move offence either by word or deed unto tfPother of them. 

It was not often that the good offices of the Court were unavail- 
ing in the settlement of disputes, but in the following case, in which the 
lady probably played a prominent part, the Masters seem to have been 
unable to settle the matter : — 

1 2th July, 1614. In the complaint made by William Purkf and ffrauncis his 
wife against Greene, w ch beinge heard at this Court, the M rs could drawe them to noe 
quiet ende, all pities being verye obstinate. 


HERE are numerous excellent examples of the Com- 
pany's Arms at the Hall. The records contain many 
beautiful drawings and emblazoned shields of arms, 
not only of the Company but of some of the 
Masters as well. 

One of the choicest specimens is the massive old carving beneath 
the semicircular canopy of the entrance doorway; this is dated 167 1, 
and is both bold and quaint ; long may it be preserved to the Barbers ! 
The carved coat of arms which formerly ornamented the stern of the 
Company's barge, and which is probably late 1 7th century work, has 
been carefully preserved, and may be always admired over the chimney 
piece in the Committee room. There is the large " tortershell " in the 
vestibule given by Mr. William Kings in 1645. The cloth on the 
Court table is artistically embroidered with the Arms of the Company 
and the City, the embroidered portions being part of the ancient 
barge cloth. There is a handsomely emblazoned coat of arms on the 
plan of the Company's property (presented by Mr. Charles John 
Shoppee), and a pretty little bit of old stained glass in the window 
on the first floor landing. The Company formerly possessed a great 
many banners, but these are unfortunately lost to us ; the one which 

432 -Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

is placed behind the Master's chair is beautifully painted by Bishop 

of Doctors' Commons, and has at the back the inscription — 

Ex dono Sidney Young Misterii Barbitonsorum fratris amandi 1885. 

145 1. In this year the original grant of arms was conferred, being 
simply the first quarter of our present achievement ; sable, a chevron 
between three fleams argent, the fleams being mediaeval lancets, though 
from their shape they have sometimes been thought to represent 
razors. This coat was borne by both the Barbers and their successors, 
the Barber-Surgeons, until the time of Elizabeth. The grant is 
as follows : — 

j?3e it knowen to all men that y Clarensew Kyng of Armes of the South Marche 

of Englond Consideryng the noble estate of the Cite of London by the name of Erie & 

Barons as in their ffirst Charter by scripture appereth 

*Wp— ^B ^M^y called mayre and aldermen and by good avya 

^^^j| B^Kfl °f a " tne Mermen ar >d the noble citezenis of London that 

W^^T ^ ^L^ every alderman shuld have award by hymself to governe 

^^^ ^^ and rule to the Worship of the cite and the maires power ev°y 

^^ ^^^ ^^ alderman in his Ward with correccion of the mair beyng for 

^f^^^^ the tyme and so notablie ordeyned to be custumed ev°y 

\jttw4CjL ^^J Craft clothing bo hem self to know o Craft from a nother 

^B B^a ^r and also synes ol Armes in baner wyse to beer conveniently 

^^^^^^ for the worship of the reame and the noble cite and so now 

late the Maisters of Barbory and Surgery within the craft 

of Barbours John Strugge Thomas Wyllote Hugh Herte & Thomas Waleys come & praying 

me Clarensewe Kyng of Armes to devise hem a conysauns & syne in fourme of armes 

under my seall of myn Armes that might be conveniently to ther Craft. And where y 

Clarensewe Kyng of Armes consideryng the gode disposicion of them y have devysed a 

Conysaunce in fourme of Armes that is to sey A felde sabull a cheveron bytwene iij 

flemys of silver the which syne of armes y Clarensew gyve the same conysaunce of Armes 

to the forsaid Crafte and none other Crafte in no wyse shall not bere the same, 'go 

the which witenesse of this wrytyng y sette my seal of myn armes & my syne manuall 

wreten atte London the xxix day of the monthe of September the xxx lh yere of the regne 

of oure soverayne lord Kyng Henry the Sixt. 

By Ci.aransew Kynge of armes. 

c/Jmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 4)) 

1492. In this year a cognizance, or possibly an informal grant 
of arms, was given to the Surgeons' Company ; this is depicted on 
the first leaf in the beautiful old vellum book of Ordinances at the 
Hall, the inscription under, stating that it was given to the Craft 
of Surgeons of London in the year 1492, at the going over the sea 
into France of Henry VII. {See the fac-simile at p. 69.) 

No other authority than the above statement is known for this 
coat, but in the grant to the Barber-Surgeons (1569) it is recited that 
Henry VIII granted the Company of Surgeons a cognizance "which 
is a spatter thereon a rose gules crowned golde for their warrant in 
fielde but no authoritie by warrant for the bearinge of the same in 
shilde as armes." The Herald in drawing the grant of 1569 probably 
accidentally put in the name of Henry VIII for that of Henry VII, 
the entry in our book being undoubtedly coeval with the circumstance. 
We here get the foundations of our present coat of arms ; the fleams 
representing the old Barber-Surgeons or Barbers, and the crowned 
rose and spatula the Surgeons proper, both of which were introduced 
into one shield in 1561, and quartered in 1569. 

On either side of the shield of the Surgeons' Arms stands a 
Saint habited as a doctor or physician, one of whom holds a medical 
vessel in his right hand, while the other has a box; of ointment and a 
spatula, indicative of their being professors of the healing art. These 
are the patron Saints of the Company, Cosmus and Damianus. Mrs. 
Jameson states that they — 

were two brothers, Arabians by birth but they dwelt in ^Ega;, a city of Cilicia. Their 
father having died while they were yet children, their pious mother Theodora, brought 
them up with all diligence, and in the practice of every Christian virtue. Their charity 
was so great, that not only they lived in the greatest abstinence, distributing their goods 
to the infirm and poor, but they studied medicine and surgery, that they might be able 
to prescribe for the sick, and relieve the sufferings of the wounded and infirm ; and the 

3 K 

434 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

blessing of God being on all their endeavours, they became the most learned and the 
most perfect physicians that the world had ever seen. They ministered to all who 
applied to them, whether rich or poor. Even to suffering animals they did not deny 
their aid, and they constantly refused all payment or recompense, exercising their art only 
for charity and for the love of God ; and thus they spent their days. 

In the cover of a Latin Bible, printed in 1470, I discovered 
some vellum padding, which on examination proved to be a MS. of 
Xlth century, consisting of part of a collection of the lives of the 
Saints, interspersed with prayers, etc., and which probably had been 
read in some Convent refectory during the hours of meals. This MS. 
is moreover curious, as those portions intended to be sung have certain 
signs affixed, known as " neumes," which, before the more modern 
method of musical notation was introduced, were employed to denote 
musical expression. An account of the martyrdom of Cosmo and 
Damian, together with their brothers, is here preserved, but as the 
original is in very contracted Latin, the following translation will, 
perhaps, better supply its place : — 

The souls of Cosmus and Damianus the Just are in the hands of God. 

There have moreover been crowned these five brothers Cosmus, Damianus, 
Antimeus, Leuntius and Eutrepius. 

Furthermore we beseech Thee, Almighty God, to grant that we, who com- 
memorate the nativities of thy Saints Cosmus and Damianus, may by their intercessions 
be delivered from all present and future evils. Amen. The blessed martyrs Cosmus 
Damianus, Antimeus, Leuntius and Eutrepius, were committed to prison by order of the 
governor ; and on the following day, the proconsul sitting on the judgment seat, caused 
an enormous fire to be made, and the above-named men to be led out of prison and cast 
into its midst. But on account of their prayers the fire lost its power over these saints. 
The governor was astounded, and the executioner, thinking that the circumstances which 
had happened with regard to the martyrs of God depended on their magical arts, 
ordered them to be again interrogated. But, when they remained firm with a cheerful 
and joyous countenance rendered more noble by torture, he ordered crosses to be made, 
and the martyrs, when stretched upon them, to be pelted with stones. Accordingly, when 

zAnnais of the Barber-Surgeons. 


the blows recoiled on those that delivered them, the governor, inflamed with excessive 
rage, gave orders to attack them with arrows, so that at a less distance the steel might at 
least penetrate. But, although he had not been able to injure them in any way, many of 
those who discharged arrows and who stood near withdrew on account of the wounds 
that they received. 

For so is the testimony. 

Seeing accordingly that his ill will was overcome by Divine power, the governor 
ordered them to be mutilated with a sword. 

The blessed martyrs were put to death on the Twentieth day of September ; and 
their bodies were buried by devout men in a holy spot not far from the city of ACgae. 

Mrs. Jameson relates a legend somewhat similar to the above, 
and states that it was of great antiquity, being transplanted into Western 
Europe in the first ages of Christianity. The Emperor Justinian, 
having been recovered, as he supposed, from a dangerous illness by 
the intercession of these saints, erected a superb church in their honour. 
Among the Greeks they succeeded to the worship and attributes of 
^Esculapius ; and from their disinterested refusal of all pay or reward, 
they are distinguished by the honourable title of Anargyres, which 
signifies moneyless, or without fees. These saints are commemorated 
on the 27th September, and all over Europe have ever been the patron 

saints of the Barbers and Surgeons ; they 
are. also the patrons of the Medici family, 
and as such they figure on the coins of 

1540. In the bowl of the grace cup 
given by Henry VIII to the Barber- 
Surgeons, the arms of the Barbers impaling 
the Surgeons are cut, but this is merely the 
fancy of an engraver, and of later date than 
the cup. 



zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons, 

ioth July, 1 561. In the Heralds' College (I.C.B., No. ioi, 20) 
is a grant of arms by William Harvey, Clarencieux King of Arms, to 

the Barber-Surgeons, 
in which he grants 
and assigns unto them 
for an "augmentacon 
to ther old and aun- 
scint Armes (which is 
sables a chevrone 
between thre flumes 
argent) a chef paly 
argent & vert on a 
pale goles a lyon pas- 
sant regardant gold 
betwene two spatters 
argent a roze gewles 
crowned golde & to 
ther creast upon the 
healme an opinacus 
golde standing upon a wreath argent and sables manteled gewles 
dubled argent." 

1565. This year, Harvey, Clarencieux, granted two supporters 
to the above arms, namely, "two lynxe in their proper Collor about 
there necks a crowne with a cheyne argent." 





^r ((QS ' /- w •< 


~i^"^ j'rs^^ *VfcS^ 


t ^KtV 






i ^^^r ^j 

1568. This year, Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy, Kings of 
Arms, ratified and confirmed the above arms, crest, and supporters, 
with the following variations, the arms to be borne quarterly, " the 
ffyrst sables a cheveron bytwyne iij flewmes argent, the second 
quarter per pale argent and vert on a spatter of the fyrst a Dobele 

oAimals of the Barber-Surgeons. 437 

rose gules and argent crowned or, over all on a crosse gules a lyon 
passant Regardant or." 

1 2th June, 1569. The grant of Arms by Dethick, etc., is a 
beautifully artistic production, though, unfortunately, slightly damaged, 
and the seals are missing. In 1885 the Company had it reproduced 
in chromo-photography by Mr. William Griggs, whose work has 
been so skilfully executed that it is difficult to observe the least 
difference between the original and the copies. 

With this grant is the first appearance of a motto " De 
praescientia Dei." How this motto came to be chosen, or in what 
way it applies to the Barber-Surgeons, I am at a loss to point out. 
The following is the text of the grant. 

%o all and singuler aswell Kinges herehaultes and Officers of Amies, as nobles 
gentlemen and others to whome these presentes shall come be seene heard, read or 
understand Sir Gilbert Dethicke Knight alias Carter principall Kinge of Armes, Robert 
Cooke Esquire alias Clarencieulx kinge of Armes of the South partes of Englande, and 
Willm Flower Esquire alias Norroy kinge of Armes of the northe partes of Englande send 
greetinge in our lorde god everlastinge. For as much as aunciently from the bcginninge 
the valiaunt and vertuouse actes of excellent personnes have ben coinendid to the worlde 
and posterite with sondrey monumentes and remembrances of their good deseartes ; 
Emongest the which the chiefest and most usuall hath ben the bearinge of signes and 
tokens in shildes called Armes, beinge none other thinges then evidences and demon- 
stracions of prowesse and valoir diversly distributed accordinge to the qualytes and 
deseartes of the persons meritinge the same To tlfentent that such as have done 
coinendable service to their prince or countrey either in warre or peace, or other wyse by 
laudable and couragiouse entreprices or proceedinge of eny person or persons in 
th°augmentacion of the Estate or coition wealth of their realme or countrey might thereby 
receyve due honor in their lyves, and also deryve the same succesively to their successors 
and posteritie for ever. And wheras in this Citie of London thPexperience & practise of 
the science and facultie of Chirurgery is most requisite and daily to be exercysed & 
experimented for the preservacion of meny, & by thPoccasion of the practise thereof meny 
expert persons be brought up & experimented to the relief, succour, & helpe of an infinite 
nomber of persons. And for as much as within this Citie of London ther were two 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 439 

severall copanyes, tlv'one by the name of Barbours Chirurgeons, and tbPother by the name 
of Chirurgeons onely : the Barbours Chirurgeons being incorporate & y e other not, & bothe 
occupyenge y e arte of Chirurgery wheruppon greate cotention did arise. And for y' it was 
most meete and necessary y' the sayd two copanyes shuld be united & made one hole 
body & so incorporated, to th°entent that by their union & often assembly togither, 
thPexercyse & knowledge of their science & mistery might appeere, as well in practise as 
in speculatio not onely to theim selfes, but to others under theim. So that it was thought 
most meete & covenient upon grave & greate cosideracion, to unyte & joyne y° sayd two 
copanyes in one : w ch was don as may appeere by an acte of parleament in alio xxxij of 
Henry theight w' these wordes " Be it enactid by the Kinge our souvereigne lorde & the 
lordes spirituall & temporall & the cofrions of y° same, that y e sayde two severall & distinct 
companies, that is to say bothe y e Barbours Surgeons, & the Sourgeons & every parson 
of theim beinge a fireman of either of y e sayde copanies after y e custome of the sayde citie 
of London, & their successors, from hencefoorthe immediatly be unyted & made one 
entier and whole body corporate, & one societie perpetual, which at all tymes heerafter 
shalbe called by y e name of Maisters & Governours of y e mistery & comunalty of Barbours 
& Surgeons of London for evermore, & by none other name." In consideracion whereof 
& for that it doth appeere a thinge most requisite for the unitinge of these two copanyes 
togither and for that thPoccupation of the Barbo rs Chirurgeons beinge incorporate hath 
since y e tyme of Kinge Henry the sixt used & boren Amies y' is to say Sables 
a cheveron betweene thre Flewmes argent w' 1 ' Armes wer unto theim assigned onely 
by the gifte & assignement of Clarencieulx Kinge of Armes, as by y e patent 
thereof doth & may more plainly appeere. And since y e unitinge of y c sayde 
two copanies these Armes of y c sayd corporation of Barbours Chirurgeons hath 
ben used & none other, yet notw'standinge y c late Kinge Henry th°eight of famouse 
memory assigned & gave unto y e company of y c Chirurgeons onely, a Cognoysance, w ch 
is a spatter, thereon a rose gules crowned golde, for their warrant in fielde, but no 
authoritie by warrant for the bearinge of the same in shilde as Armes. And for y' it 
pleased y e same Kinge Henry trPeight, not onely to unite & incorporate these two 
copanies togither by acte of parleament but also hath ratifyed & cofirmed the same by 
his letters patent^ under the greate seale of Englande & so lately cofirmed by y° Queenes 
Ma ,ie that now is. 1 And wheras Thomas Galle in the 3 yere of the Queene's Ma tics reigne 
that now is beinge Maister, Alexander Mason John Standon Robert Mudesley governors 

1 This statement is incorrect. The Act of Parliament was passed in 1540, but was not confirmed 
by any letters patent of Henry VIII. We have no such charter or any reference to it, and moreover it is 
not on the Patent Rolls, where it would appear, had it ever existed ; furthermore Elizabeth's charter (in 
our possession) confirms Henry's charter of 1512 and not this pretended one. 

44v -Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of y c same corporation mistery & comunaltie of Barbours & Chirurgeons being 
desirouse to have some signes & tokens addid & augmented to tlvbld & auncient Armes 
of the Barbours Chirurgeons, not onely for a perpetuall memory as well of y° famouse 
prince Kinge Henry tfPeight their founder & patrone but also for a further declaration of 
y c unitinge of those two copanies togither did instantly require the late Clarencieulx Hervy 
to consider y c premisses & to shew his endevor therein. Who finding their request just 
and lawfull did graunt & give unto them by his letters patentes under his hand & seale 
bearinge date the x"' of July in the third yere of y" reigne of the queenes Ma ,ie that now 
is, an augmentac'on in chief to their olde & auncient Armes w"' heaulme & Creast to the 
same : which chief was paly argent & vert on a pale gules a lyon passant gardant golde 
betweene two spatters argent, on eche a double rose gules and argent crowned golde : 
and to their Creast on a torce silver and sables an Opinacus golde : Mantelled gules, 
doubled argent. And further in the tyme of Robert Balthrop Esquire serjeaunt of the 
Queenes Ma ties Chirurgeons then beinge Maister of the sayd mistery and comunalty of 
the Barbours & Chirurgeons and George Vaughan Richard Hughes & George Corron 
governours of the same corporation the sayd Clarencieulx Hervy did graunt unto the sayd 
corporation two supporters to those Armes before given them : which were two Linxe in 
their proper coulor, aboute their neckes a Crowne w' a chayne argent pendant therat : 
As by the sayde letters patentes more plainly doth appeere. Yet notwithstandinge for 
as much as it doth plainly appeere unto us the sayd Garter Clarencieulx & Norroy Kinges 
of Armes, that the aforesayd Amies in some respectes wer not onely contrary to the 
wordes of the corporation of the sayd Barbours and Chirurgeons but that also in the same 
patent of Armes ther ar sondrey other thinges contrary and not agreinge with the auncient 
lawes & rules of Armes : We the sayd Kinges of Armes by power & authorise to us 
cofriitted by Letters patent under the greate Seale of Englande, have confirmed given and 
graunted the forcsayd Armes Creast and Supporters heertofore mentioned, to be boren 
in maner and fourme heerafter specified. That is to say : Quarterly the first sables a 
cheveron betweene three Flewmes argent : the seconde quarter per pale argent and vert 
on a Spatter of the first, a double Rose gules and argent crowned golde : the third quarter 
as the seconde and the fourth as the first : Over all on a Crosse gules a lyon passant 
gardant golde : And to their Creast upon the heaulme on a Torce arget and sables an 
Opinacus golde : Mantelled gules doubled argent : Supported with two Linxe in their 
proper coulor about their neckes a crowne with a chayne argent pendent therat: As plainly 
appeerith depicted in this margent. Which Armes Creast and Supporters and every 
parte and parcell thereof, we the sayd Kinges of Armes have confirmed ratified given and 
graunted and by these presentes do ratify confirme give and graunt unto Richard 

cAiw.als of the Barber-Surgeons. 441 

Tholnv.vood Maister of the sayd mistery and coffiunatie Nicholas Archenbolde Thomas 
Burston and John Fielde Governors of the sayd Corporation mistery and comunaltie of 
Barbours and Chirurgeons and to their successors by the name of Maister and Gouvernours, 
and to the whole Assistantes Company and fellowshippe of the sayd Corporation mistery 
and cofnunaltie of Barbours and Chirurgeons within this Citie of London and to their 
successors for evermore : And they the same to have, hold, use beare enjoy and shew 
forthe in shylde, seale, banner or banner rolles, standard or standardes, penon or penons, 
pencell or pencelles or otherwise to their honors and worshippes at all tymes and for ever 
heerafter at their, libertie and pleasure without the impediment let molestation or 
interruption of eny person or personnes, In witnesse wherof we the sayd Garter 
Clarencieulx & Norroy Kinges of Armcs have signed these presentes with our handes 

unto our several! scales of Amies, the second day of June In the yere of 

the nativitie of our Lorde Jesus Christ A thousande five hundred sixty nyne And in the 

eleventh yere of our most dread souvereigne Lady Elizabeth by the grace 

of god Queene of Englande Fraunce and Irelande defendor of the faithe &c. 

Gilbert Dethicke ats. garter principall Kinge of arms. 
Rob Cooke Alias Clarencieulx Roy Darmes. 
p'moy Wyllam fflower alias Norrey Roy Darmes. 

Entred approved & allowed in the visitation made 1634 

Hen: St. George 


It will be observed that this grant recites that it plainly appeared 
that the grant of 10th July, 1561, v/as [«.] contrary to the words of the 
Corporation {i.e., Incorporation) of the said Barbers and Surgeons, and 
[^.] contrary to and not agreeing with the ancient laws and rules of 

With regard to the former assertion [a.] I take it that the grant 
being made to the " Master and Governors of the Corporation Mystery 
and Commonalty of Barbers and Surgeons " and not to the " Masters 
and Governors of the Mystery and Commonalty of Barbers and 
Surgeons of London" as they are styled in the Act 32 Hen. VIII, 
offended the precise Heralds of 1569, and that it was indeed a technical 
defect and contrary to the exact words of the incorporation. 

3 l 


cAmials of the Barber-Surgeons. 

As to the second point \b.~\ there cannot be any doubt but that 
Hervey committed a violation of one of the fundamental and most 
ancient laws of heraldry, viz., that colour must not be on colour (nor 
metal on metal). He gave the Company on their old sable field, a 
chief with gules and vert thereon ! This greatly shocked old Garter, 
Clarencieux, and Norroy, and enabled them, whilst recording the 
blunder of one of their predecessors, to extract a good fee from the 
Barber-Surgeons for a new grant. 


HERE is a wide-spread impression that the Livery 
Guilds exist principally for the purpose of feasting, 
and there are unscrupulous persons who do not 
hesitate to affirm that the Courts of the Companies 
act as fraudulent trustees, and are consenting parties 
to the malversation of trust and charity property, 

eating up money which it is audaciously pretended belongs to the 

" people of London." 

These statements have been assiduously put forth by a 
certain class of politicians whose acquaintance with the true details 
of the case must be absolutely nil, and who it is but reasonable 
to suppose, are willing to assume that the gentlemen who manage 
the affairs of the Companies are in the habit of acting as their 
traducers would do, had they but the opportunity. 

To any one conversant with the history and management of 
the Livery Guilds, these assertions are known to be false. Here 
and there, as in every concern in life, improprieties and errors in 
judgment may have occurred, but it is confidently asserted, and 
capable of proof, that no charitable or trust funds suffer from 

3 L 2 

444 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

feasting ; indeed, on the contrary, the practice has obtained for 
centuries, with but few exceptions, for the members of the guilds 
to themselves supply the funds which are spent upon their enter- 
tainment, and for the surplus accumulations of these funds to be 
applied to the augmentation of charities and trusts. It has certainly 
been so in the Barber-Surgeons' Company, and for a long period 
the calls upon the Livery for feasting purposes (when the custom 
was to nominate Stewards in rotation) were a severe strain upon 
the members, and occasioned great irritation and ill-feeling. 

The earliest practice in the Companies would appear to be 
that the Livery and their wives attending the feasts, paid a stipulated 
sum per head, and we know this by our records to have been so 
in our Company long before the time of Richard II. This custom 
was altered in later times, and we find that certain appointed enter- 
tainments were given on fixed days, to which all members were 
invited, and which were paid for by fines laid down upon admission 
to the freedom, and further fines on going on to the Livery and 
Court. In addition to this, each Liveryman had, in his turn, to 
serve " the office of Steward," that is, to join with four or five others 
in providing the costs of certain dinners. 1 

The fees on admission into the Companies are greatly in excess 
of the ancient ones, and it is mainly from this source of revenue that 
the expenses of the feasts are now defrayed. It is so in the Barbers' 
Company, but, if at any time these funds have temporarily been found 
insufficient for the purpose, they have been supplemented from a 
property, which is in no sense a Charity Estate, or subject to any trust 

1 The office of Steward is not now served, but each Liveryman on admission pays a special fine of fifteen 
guineas in lieu, which is applied towards the cost of the entertainments. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 445 

There have been and are, good men of business on the Courts, 
and by prudent investments of surplus funds derived from fees, fines, 
etc., a property has been created, which is exclusively their very own 
to deal with as they please. We have, amongst many others, the 
opinion of Lord Chancellor Selborne very decisively to this effect, and 
also one, which by the traducers of the Companies ought to be respected, 
for it is that of Sir Horace Davey, O.C., who was consulted by the 
Livery Companies' Commission — a Commission notoriously hostile to 
the guilds. Sir H. Davey stated that they would " not be justified in 
recommending that the corporate property of the Companies should 
be taken from them by the State." He further reported that, such 
an act "would be an act of confiscation, and would not unreasonably 
shake the confidence of the owners of property in the security of 
the rights of property. It must be remembered that the Estates of 
these Companies have been recognised, and held by the Courts of 
Law, to be as much their property with a full right of disposition, 
as the property of individuals." Truly, the Commissioners must have 
said to their legal adviser as Balak of old said to Baalam, " I took 
thee to curse mine enemies, and behold thou hast blessed them 
altogether ! " 

It is a pleasing characteristic of all true Englishmen that they 
love to meet together around a festive board ; while their hospitality in 
inviting their friends, or the eminent and great in all sections of society 
to partake with them has happily not gone out of fashion, and, spite of 
the sour critics of the guilds, we fervently trust that it never may. 

1388. In the return to a writ, 12th Richard II, the Masters of 
the Barbers certified, amongst other matters, that it was their practice 
" once a year to assemble to feast," and that they had an ordinance 
by which none of the brotherhood were to pay more than \/\d. each 
towards the feast. 

446 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

ioth May, 1435. Among the Ordinances of the Surgeons was 
one that each member was to " paie 3eerli to the dyner of the craft 
that is to seie oonys a3eer on the dai of Seint luke ech man lich mich 
whethir he be p sent or absent," i.e., once a year on St. Luke's day 
each man was to pay like much whether present or absent. 

28th September, 1503. It was ordained that every member 
attending the dinner the day on which the Wardens were presented 
to the Lord Mayor was to pay 2od., and if he brought his wife with 
him, then 2s. 

The Barber-Surgeons from the earliest times appear to have 
entertained the ladies at certain feasts, and their unique toast " The 
Good Wives, Merry Maids and Buxom Widows of the Worshipful 
Company of Barbers " is traditionally said to have had its origin in 
Elizabeth's time. 

14th May, 1530. The following is amongst the ordinances 
signed by Sir Thomas More at this date — 

And where of olde Custume yerely upon the Sondaye next ensuyng the 
ffeaste of Seynt Bartholomew the appostell 1 a dyner is kept and provyded for theym of 
the lyvery of the said Company in their Comen halle called Barbers hale And on the 
daye of saynt Cosme & Damian - yf it be not on the saterday a dyn° for them of the 
same compani owt of the lyverey It is ordeyned and enacted that ev y man that hathe 
been upper maister or upper GovVior of the said Company shall paye at and for the 
same dyner xij d for hymselff and viij' 1 for his wyffe yff she come. And ev°y other man 
beying of the lyverey of the same Company shall paye in likewyse for hym selffe viij' 1 
and for his wyffe yff she come liy 4 Provided alwaye that the maisters or Gov°nors 
of the said Company for the tyme beyng shall paye nothing for their wyfff comyng 
to the dyner for that yere fforasmoche as their Wyfff must of necessitte be theire to 
helpe that ev°y thyng theire be sett in ordre. And that ev°y man of the said Company 
beyng owt of the lyverey shall pay at and for his dyner on the said morowe viij' 1 and 
for his wyffe yff she come iiij d ' 

1 24th August. '-' 2;th September. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 44J 

8th July, 1552. The earliest entry in the Court Minutes on this 
subject is a doleful one, for it was ordered " That there shalbe nodynner 
kept this yere." 

19th September, 1552. William Bette was appointed "Cooke 
for the Hall," and Steven Reede the " Butler." John Edwards (a 
Freeman) was to supply the flowers on the feast days. 

28th July, 1555. It was ordered that the Masters should have 
a yearly allowance of £7 for the Election dinner, and that none should 
be at the dinner but Liverymen. 

22nd July, 1556. This allowance was increased to ,£13 6s. 8d. 

20th February, 1567. Henry Smith, yeoman to Lord Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was admitted to the freedom, and because 
he had been frankly and freely admitted to the freedom of the City at 
the suit of the Duke of Norfolk, the Marquess of Northampton and the 
Earl of Leicester, he paid nothing but 3.9. zp/., and zp/. for entering his 
name — 

but the same daye the saide Henry Smythe gave the M r & goy'iio" and 
assystenP a dynar at his owne p°pr coste & charges franckely and gratefully and also he 
hath forder more p°mysed and graunted to geve one boock 1 of season to serve at the 
dynar upon the daye of the Electyon. 

28th July, 1593. No greate dyner was agreed upon but a smale repast w' h the 
allowance of xl s and nether wemen nor children to come to o r hall upon the daie of the 
newe ellecion. 

25th August, 1600. There having been abuses at the feasts, an 
order was made for their reformation which stated — 

that the bodye of this Company hath susteyned much disparagement by reason 
that some of the livery and others noe white at all respectinge the worshipp of this 
Company have not onely by themselves but alsoe by their servants and apprentices 

1 Buck. 

448 o/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

disfurnished the tables att ffeastes whereat they have sitten to pleasure their private 
frendes contrary to all modestie and good government. Doe therefore order for 
reformacon thereof by the aucthoritye aforesaid That noe p°son of the Lyvery of this 
Companye beinge not of the Assistaunce of the same, shall not att any tyme hereafter 
suffer any of his children frendes servants or apprentices to staye or attende uppon him or 
his wiefe att any ffeaste to be kepte in the saide Comon Hall [tender a penalty of 6s. &/.]. 

An order was also made that no Assistant should have more than one 
servant or apprentice to attend upon him and his wife at any feast. 

2 1 st January, 1601. Whereas by the death of Robert Gray late Cooke to this 
Company the house was unfurnished of a Cooke to serve the said mistery And therefore 
divers Cookes became this daie shewters to this Courte for the place of the said Robert 
Gray beinge then voyd, yet notwithstandinge forasmuch as Margaret Grey wiefe to the 
said Robert Grey became an humble Suter to the said Courte for the same place, it was 
ordered by the whole consente of this Courte That the said Margcret Grey be admitted 
Cooke to this Company duringe the tyme she shall well and honestlie and sufficientlie 
behave her selfe therin And she to receave such fee and salary therefore as at any tyme 
heretofore hath beene graunted to the said Robert Grey Provided alhvaies that she finde 
all vessells belongeinge to a Cooke And that she execute the said place by a sufficient 
deputy beinge such a p°sonn as the M rc of this Company for the tyme beinge shall like 
well of and shall thinke fitt. 

Margery, however, does not seem to have " honestlie and 
sufficientlie behaved her selfe," for as appears by an entry — 

6th May, 1602. This daye Margery Grey late wyef to Robert Grey was dismissed 
from being any more Coocke to this Company for speciall causes to the M rs best knowen. 

The Plague was raging severely in London in 1603, and the 
following precept was addressed to the Company, who however 
seem to have disregarded it, as the Election and Audit dinners 
were held this year. It is only fair, however, to state that 
the Court disbursed considerable sums of money amongst the poor 
stricken people. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 44c) 

13th April, 1603. By the Maior. 

To The M r and Wardens Whereas I and my Brethen th°aldren duely consideringe 

of the Company of w" 1 our seve had, the present infeccon of this Cittie 

Harbor Surgeons. ; liberties and Suburbs & the greate multitud of poore 

people w ch by reason of the said infeccSn have theire howsees shut upp and restrayned as 
well from goeinge abroad as theire daylie trads and labors wherew" 1 theie were accustomed 
to mayntaine themselves theire wieves and families and doe at this p^sent by reason thereof 
endure greate wante and extremities Have thought fitt that all publique feastinge and 
coinen dinners at every the severill Halles and ComPn metings of corporacon and 
Companies w"'in this Cittie shall duringe the tyme of gods visitacon amoge us 
be wholely forborne and left of. And that one third parte of the chardge and expenses 
intended to be bestowed and spent uppon the said feastinges and dinners shalbe whoelie 
bestowed and geven for and towardes the reliefe of the most miserable poore and needie 
p°sons whose howse it shall please almighty god to visit Theis therefore in all xpian 
Charitie shalbe to praie and desire you y" you take p°nte order that from hencefort & 
duringe this p°nte infeccon you wholely forbeare to keape any Comen feastinge or dinners 
at youre Hall orells wheare for the like purposes And that you take pn°te order w lh the 
Wardens of youre Companye and all such other of youre Company as should be at any 
chardge or yeald any contraBn' to any Comen feastes and Dinners for youre Companie 
duringe the same tyme to paie and contrabute one thirde parte thereof in readie money to 
some one honest and discrete person of your Companie whom you shall appoynte to 
receave the said some of money and to paie it ov° to one Robert fflecton Groc° noiated 
and appoynted by mee & my Brethen the aldren to be receaved from the Companies of 
such somes of money. All w ch somes of money shalbe from tyme to tyme wholelie and 
truelie distributed by order of mee and my Bretheren the aldren amongst the most nedie 
and poore infected p n sons Yeoven at Guildhall this thirteenth daie of Aprill 1603. 


6th January, 1609. This daye it is ordered that none of the officers wyves shall 
at any tyme hereafter followe the M rs to places where they dyne w"'out the M re consentf 
uppon payne of the M rs displeasures. 

1609. The dinners were usually held on Election and Audit 
days, on Lord Mayor's day, and after all public dissections, besides 
Committee dinners (which usually were at taverns), and this year it was 
ordered that a dinner was to be held on " Gunpowder Day." 

1 Contribution. 

3 M 

450 zA 'finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

2 1 st August, 1 609. This day it was ordered that from henceforth all such as are of 
the Livery should give toward^ the charge of the musicke on the Election day vj rt a peice 
which they then begun and confirmed. 

The reason of the next order was, that in consequence of the 
poverty of the Company at this time, the usual allowance of £8 made 
by the Court towards the Mayor's feast, could not be granted. 

2nd October, 1610. At this Court Richard Cade & Richard Coop whoe are 
appoynted for Steward^ of the Mayors ffeast are contented at theire owne chardgf to 
provide and make the same ffeast as fully as formf'ly y' hath been, only this their provision 
for their quantitie of their messes are not to be soe many for that noe wyves nor guestC 
are to be bydden or brought to the same ffeast. 

1 8th September, 161 1. Att this Court Sebright the Cook is dismissed from his 
place of beinge Cook to this howse as well for that he did dresse their last dynner very 
badlie as for his ill usage in speeches towardC the maisters wyves and for dyv°se other 
abuses by him heretofore committed. 

2nd July, 1612. At this Court our M r & M r Warden Johnson moving this 
Court that the Barbors as well as the Surgeons might be bedden to the dynn°s that are 
keept at the examinacon of surgeons whereupon it was at this Court ordered & agreed 
that as many of the Auntient M re & gov'no' 5 being barbo' 5 should & shalbe bidde unto 
every such dynner as there shalbe Surgeons beinge examiners at ev'y such dynner. 

2 1 st January, 161 3. It was ordered that the Master and 
Wardens, with four of the Ancient Masters, should for the " worship 
& credytt of this Company," yearly go and visit the Lord Mayor at 
dinner, and that 2C\r. each should be allowed them for their " charges" 
of the same. This allowance of 20s. each was probably given to some 
officer of the Lord Mayor to secure his favour towards the Company. 

6th February, 161 3. An order was made that at the dinner 
after any private anatomy, any of the Livery, either I5arbers or 
Surgeons, might come thereto on payment of 12c/. each. 

1 6th September, 161 3. This daie it is thought fitt & ordered that the widdowes 
of this company \v ch doe paie their quarterage shalbe bidden to the ffeast^ in the hall. 

o/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 451 

14th October, 1613. Att this Court it is ordered that such widdowes as have 
been masters wyves and doe keepe shoppes or bynd apprPtices shall paye their quarteradge 
but for such as doe neither keepe shoppes nor bynd appn^ticf they shall not paye any 
quarteradge And yet not\v"'standinge they shalbe bydden to the feastf 3 yerelie. 

24th May, 1 6 14. Whereas this Company hath receaved a preceptt from the 
lord Mayor of this citty forbidding thereby all superfluitie & excesse of Dyet at the ffeastf 
of this company and thereby injoyning that such feastf as accustomably have been made 
& provided by this Company shalbe hereafter keept more sparingly & frugally then in 
former tymes they have, Wherefore it is ordered that there shalbe keept & made on the 
ellection daie this yere ensuing a smale ellection dynner according to the tenor of the 
said precept. 

25th August, 1 6 14. The above precept soon being forgotten 
it was this day ordered — 

that there shalbe kept an Auditt dynner in such manner & forme as formerlie 
in other yeares have byn accustomed. And such allowance as formerlie hath byn allowde 
is to be paid by the howse. 

10th July, 1615. At this Court it is ordered that the Cooke shalbe removed & 
displaced from his place of beinge Cooke of this Companie not onely for that he hath 
abused and wronged manie who have byn M re & Steward^ of the feastf in unsemelie 
wordf but for a generall dislike taken against him by this howse & for not p°forminge 
his office in such sorte as is right he shold & ought to doe. 

1624. The funds being very low this year the Court held no 
election dinner, but regaled themselves with cakes and wine, and the 
following order was made for the Yeomanry : — 

2nd September, 1624. This Court being moved whether the yeomanry of y a 
Compa. should hould any election dinner or noe. It is for the reason then shewne 
expressely ordered with a generall consent that the yeomanry shall onely keepe their 
Election as this Court lately did onely with Cakes and wyne and neither feast musick 
or sermon to be had at that time. 

20th July, 1625. This daye the letter directed to this Companye from my lord 
Maio r of London in effect tending the prohibiting of publicke feastingf in our Hall and 
the contributeing of those moneys that should be saved thereby the one halfe to be paid 
unto the chamber of London and the other halfe to the poore of our Companie, so 
hereupon it is ordered by this Courte y' Ten poundf shalbe distributed to the poore 

3 M 2 

452 a/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

of this Companie at the discretion of the present M' s & noe money at all to be paid 
into the Chamber of London. 

ioth July, 1628. This daye our M r propounding to this Court whether there 
should be a greate Election dinner or a small dinner or onely Cakes and wine upon 
the next Election daye for choise of new M rs , whereupon by most voyces it was ordered 
that there should be a greate Election dinner held this yeare and the allowance of 
xx 1 ' towardf that charge to be defrayed. 

28th January, 1631. This Court being informed of Swinncrtons abusive and 
naughtie pewter from tymc to tyme brought to serve this Hall at feastf doe dismisse 
him from serving that place any longer. 

20th September, 1632. It is ordered by this Court that the Twoe Governo rs 
that are Surgians shalbe at the charge and give the venison that shalbe used at their 
solepiie' feasts and those twoe Governo' 5 Surgians and the other twoe Governo ra Barbars 
to paye joynetly & sev°ally share and share like amongst them 4 the charge for fees 
and fetching the venison soe to be brought to o r Hall. 

8th March, 1637. Whereas the Lord Windsor & S r Tho. Bludder brothers of 
this Company were invited to dine here when M r Die made his dinner that the fare 
was enlarged. It is ordered that that addicon of fare amounting to 50 s shalbe allowed 
out of the stock. 

6th April, 1638. Whereas the Companie intendeth to invite the Lords of 
y e privye Counsell & other Lords &: p n sons of state at the dedicacon of the Theater 
& first anatomicall publiqe opacons" there It is ordered by this Court & theis p°sons 
following were appointed to give their attendance in the Hall upper priors & Theater 
at the enterteynment of the lords on mondaye next viz' 

Edward Charley Edward ffleete 

Henry Eaton Hen : Wateson 

Edward Arris Hen : Boone 

are appointed & have promised to 
attend on the Lords in Liverye 

Thomas Allen John Dorrell gownes to carry up the Lords diett 

Lawrence Lowe John Lufkin & attend them at dinner. 

Thomas Turner John Perkins J 

M r Wateson to be Gentleman Sewer. 

Thomas Browne to be Husher of the Hall. 

John Perkins to be Groome of the Lords Chamber. 

John ffoster to be Groome of the Hall. 

1 Solemn. - Operations. 

^Annuls of the Barber-Surgeons. 453 

Nathan: fibster beadle to be attendant at the outer streete gate with a white 
staffe in his hand. 

Also M r Joseph Coop the Princes Cooke is desired to p°vide messe of meate for 
the Lordf diett in y° greate p^lor. 

The following expenses of this Entertainment are extracted 
from the Great Audit Book, the first item being probably a Committee 
dinner to settle details with Mr. Cooper, the King's Cook. 

1638. Paid by consent for a Dinner at the Dragon in Cheape 
6 Aprill for the Companie and the princes Cooke if ij s iiij d 

The Entertainment and Dyninge of the Lords of the Councell in 
our great parlour at the publique anatomye. 

paid to the Butler for Lynnen and plate & Attendauce v 1 ' 

paid to the Pewterer for hire of Pewter then v 1 ' 

Given to M r Cooper the Princes Cooke that dressed the Lords dynner v" 

paid to two Upholsters for the hier of stooles and chaire - xl s 

paid to the Vinctner for wine then - - viij" iij s 

paid to the princes Cooke for soe much disbursed by him for the 

Lords diett as to the Butcher Poulterer hearbewoomen fruiterer 

Grocer fishmonger and Under Cookes as by bill appeareth the 

some of ---------- - lviij" viij s 

paid to Stacke for a bushell of flower xj s vj d and 2 dozen of stale 

bread ij s - - xiij s vj' 1 

paid for faggottf and Charcoales as by bill xxvj s vj d 

paid for stronge beare and six shillings beere by bill xxxv s and for 

carryinge in j s iiij d - - xxxvj* iiij d 

paid for hire of Venice glasses and pottf &c and for those pottf and 

glasses that were broaken - - - - - xxxiiij 5 

paid for 4" of double refined sugar - ... v iij s iiij d 

paid for 3 dossen of french bread - - - - - iij s 

paid to the Waterman and Porter that brought the beere in Bottles 

from the Lord Chamberlaines - - - V s 

paid for the hier of two Close stooles - - vj s viij d 

paid to the porter that brought a dozen of silver dishes from the Lord 

of Hollands - xviij d 

454 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

paid to Tryman Payne his Scullery man - - Vf vj' 1 
paid to John Bluddcr of the Kings Wardrobe for bringinge and 

hanginge the great Parlour w" 1 Tapestry - ... X x s 

To John Bare my Lord Chamberlaynes Pantryman - x s 

And to one of his Scullery men ... - x s 

And to the Lady of Devonshires man that brought the silver dishes - v s 

Paid for bread when the Lords dined there - - - xij s 

Sumrn. lxxxxiij' 1 v s iiij 

;;;; d 

20th June, 1638. Upon the complaint of the losse of a silver spoone the last 
dinner in the Hall and diver other times napkins & pewter dishes this Court doth 
order that when dinner goes in, the outer Wickett doore shalbe alwayes locked & 
the key thereof brought in and layed by o r M r for the time being till dinner be ended 
& the plate naperye & dishes gathered up & soe discharged. 

The next entry would seem to indicate that some previous 
gift for the purchase of books had unhappily been diverted into a 
wrong channel. 

2nd March, 1640. £6 given by Mistress Napkin & Mistriss Eaton is 
absolutely ordered to buy bookes & not disbursed or dispended in Drinking. 

The following circumstance is significant, as exactly one 
hundred years later the separation which Mr. Foster desired, and for 
which he got into trouble, became an accomplished fact. 

6th November, 1645. Mr. Ralph Foster was complained of 
for refusing to make his dinner to the Court on his election as an 
Assistant, and he thereupon uttered certain speeches "tending to the 
separation of the Barbers from the Surgeons," for which he was 
reprimanded, whereupon he promised to make his dinner and to say no 
more about disunion. 

23rd October, 1649. Upon reading the precept requiring 
the Livery to attend the Lord Mayor Elect to Westminster in their 
Barge, it was ordered that the Livery should be warned to perform 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 


that service in accordance with old custom, and "that there be a ffeast 
at the Hall on that day for the said Livery, But in respect of the 
hardnes and troubles of the times this Court doth consent that there 
be noe second course and noe Woeman at the same ffeast." 

Among the Company's archives are four books containing many 
details of the feasts held between the years 1676 and 1790. They 
appear to have been kept by the various cooks, probably under the 
direction of the Clerk, and the following gleanings from them will 
be found to be replete with interest. 

The first entry is as follows — 

July y e 4 th 1676 for barber sirgons hall Cortt diner. 

Leag of mutton boyld 
S r Loyne of befe 
Shoulder of Venison 

ffor a Leag of Mutton 

ffor a Sirloyne of befe 

ffor a Shoulder of venison 

3 chickins 3 rabets - 

8 harty chockes 



3 pound of butter 
veniger - 

peper & other spice - 
oyle & salt 

4 Colliflouers - 

ffor dressing Diner - 


Neack of Mutton 
3 Chickens 3 Rabets 

8 harty Chockes for 2 

2 small Dishes of frut 


^Annate of the Barber-Surgeons. 

July y e 27 th 1676 ffor y e Asestance & lhar wivfes att barbar sirgons 

ffor 5 Dishis of Chickins & Backon & Colliflours boyld 

ffor a side of venison - 

ffor 3 Sir Loynes of befe - - - 

ffor 1 fore rebb for breackfast --------- 

ffor a neack of vele &: muton - 

ffor 3 Grand Sallets ------ 

ffor puting 3 peces of venison in past ....... 

ffor 3 Dishis of geses 2 in a dish - - ------ 

ffor 3 made Dishis & 18 Chescaks - - 

ffor 3 Dishis of Turkes & sas 1 2 in a dish - ... 

ffor 3 Lumbard pyes- - - 

ffor 4 Dishis of Toung & udders - - 

ffor 3 Custtords - - 

ffor a firckin of Sturjon - 

ffor 4 Dishis of Chickins & pigons - - - 

ffor y° use of putter - - - ...--- 

ffor wood and coles - - ----- 

ffor 3 Dishis of Tarts 

ffor 3 Dishis of oringes & lemonds - - - - 

ffor a small dish of frute - - - 

ffor worckmen & labarars and my owne paines - - . 

3 Dishis of frut - - - 














































The monthly dinners were very much after the foregoing 

Bill of fare, and the following extracts of some of the more 
interesting items are taken at random. 

October, 1676. ffor 2 piges 3 - - 070 

2 pullets rostted with saseges & oystters - - 050 

ffor 3 Gallions of oysters - - 140 

ffor 18 lb. of medling backon 012 o 

ffor 8 lb. of lardin backon - ° 5 4 

1 Turkeys and sauce. '" Pewter. 3 Pigs. 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 45J 

The dinner on Lord Mayor's Day, 1676, cost £26 6s. \d., 
this was exclusive of wine. The "buttered ale" on this occasion 
was compounded as follows — ■ 

1 C of Eages 1 & 8 Gallions of Ale - o 5 4 

2 lb. of butter - -012 

8 lb. of sugar - .... 040 
1 ounce of nuttmages - - - - 005 

o 10 1 1 

December, 1676. ffor4Duckes- 048 

January, 1677. ffor 1 quart of oyle - 020 

January, 1677. ffor 2 quarts of venigar - 010 

March, 1677. A quarttern of Smelts - 020 

18 vvhitting - o i 6 

a Jegett of mutton - 046 

6 capons- - 0130 

9 chickins - 0120 
9 Rabets - 060 

7 Lobstars - 094 
a side of Lamb - -056 
ffor Lorell flouers & fenell- - - 006 
ffor flouer spice & Anchoves - - 016 

May, 1677. ffor 2 Calfes heads - -060 

ffor 4 hundreds of sparagar - o 3 4 

ffor 3 wasfalia names - 100 

Cucumbers under the designation of "cockinbers" and some- 
times "cowcombers," together with sorell, barbery, " samfer," "lorell 
flouers," capers, anchovies, oranges and lemons, " gallindene," 
"carberys," horse reddish, parsley, "red cabbeg," etc., frequently 
occur at this period as being used for garnishes and in the preparation 
of the dinners. 

' Eggs. 

3 N 


c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

March, 1678. ffor a Hole fresh Cod - o 14 

ffor 1 2 teale and 3 docks' - o 1 5 

ffor 4 quartes of oysters - - 08 

ffor 3 dishis of pipins & Caraways - o 4 

May, 1678. ffor 7 Grene geese - o 19 

July, 1678. ffor 4 Battelia pyes - 2 8 

September, 1678. ffor a Maria puding o 4 

October, 1678. a dish of florindines - o 6 

The staple dishes about this 
Westphalia hams. 
Sirloins of beef. 
Necks of veal and mutton. 
Boiled legs of pork. 
" Midlin " bacon. 
Tongues and udders. 
Dishes of Pigeons. 
Dishes of Turkeys. 

Dishes of tarts. 
Apple pie. 
Mince pies. 
Grand salads. 

period were — 

Venison pasties. 

Ribs of beef. 


Capons and sausages. 

Pullets and oysters. 


" Lumber" pies. 

" Tansies." 


Eel pies. 

" Maid dishes." 

Dishes of fruit. 

Almond florandines. 

Oranges and lemons. 

French benes. 




The pudding now so well known at Barbers' Hall as " Barbers' 
pudding," was originally " Maria pudding," then " mara," later on 


a/1 una Is of the Barber-Surgeons. 459 

spelt "nlaro," and finally "marrow pudding," by which latter designation 
it is often now called. 

September, 16S4. ffor 8 oringes - 018 

Poultry seems to have been cheap, as for the election dinner 

in this year — 

7 Geese were bought for - 146 

16 Turkeys ,, 1 14 8 

39 Chickens ,, 1 19 o 

90 Pigeons ,, ,, 163 

The allowance to the " musick " at nearly every dinner was 
a shoulder of mutton, sometimes supplemented by two rabbits. The 
cost of " dressing " the monthly dinners was usually about 8s., and 
of the Election, Audit and quarterly Courts £\ 10s. to £\. 

May, 1685. ffor 2 dishes of Pidgon and Backon and spinig- 016 o 

2 dishes of Mackerell - - - - - - 060 

August, 1687. This election dinner was a little above the 
average, the following being the details — 

for a Brace of Bucks - - 8130 

for Putting them in 8 Pastyes - 400 

for 6 S r Loynes of Beef and a four rib for brakefast 340 

4 Westfalia hams ------ 1 1 1 o 

7 Lumber pyes - - 2160 

7 Marrow puddings - - 115c 

7 Custarts - 7116 

7 Dishes of Tarts - 220 

7 Dishes of Tonges and Udders '• 1 5 o 

7 Gees - - - '5 s 

14 Torkeyes - 1 1 1 6 

45 Chickins - 25° 

4 Dozen and i of Pidgeoiih ° '3 6 

12 Partriges - - - 0120 

a Shoulder of Mutton & 2 Rabits for the musick 050 

12 pound of midling Bakon and Lard - o S o 


460 c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

24^ pound of fresh butter - - o 17 o 

for Artechoaks Cabidg french beans Lawrell Parsly and herbs to garnish - 090 

flower Salt and Salt butter for the range - 056 

for Gallindine and Goos sace ' - 036 

for Viniger - -060 

for Brooms packthread Candels and other things - 010 

Wood and coles - 100 

Kooks and Laberours and my own pains - 300 

2 pounds of Loaf Suger - - - 2 o o 

40 6 8 

May, 1688. Is the first mention of a " creem chees " 008 

December, 1692. With the exceptions of ling, sturgeon, and 
salt fish with egg sauce, but little other fish appears to have been eaten. 
On this occasion, however, we find — 

2 Dishis of fresh Cod Drest with Shrimps & Anchove Sawse - o 14 o 
ffor 6 Whitings ------- 020 

October, 1693. Green peas are for the first time referred to 
amongst the vegetables, and, singularly enough, they only occur once in 
each year for many years, and then at the October dinners ! 

June, 1698. 2 pounds of fine powdered sugar for the Strawberrys 014 

July, 1704. 

The Stewards Dinner. 

A legg of mutton rosted ------ 028 

A buttered appel pye 030 

Cheese to y° appel pye - 002 

3 Quartes of Coffee 030 



^Annate of the Barber-Surgeons. 46 j 

May, 1707. ffor 15 Mackril o 10 o 

16 Gooseberry tartes 080 

Caper sauce for the mutton o 1 o 

April, 1708. A Frygusse of Lamb 060 

20th September, 1709. It was ordered, in consequence of the 
great increase in the Livery, that there should be six instead of five 
stewards of the Mayor's Feast to make the Livery dinner, and any 
liveryman chosen to the office and refusing to serve was to be 
prosecuted under the by-laws. The fine for not serving was ,£13 6s. 8d., 
and was invariably enforced, numerous cases of refusal being decided 
at law in favour of the Company. Six WhifHers were as usual, 
appointed "to be attendant upon the Govern" at the Hall upon the 
next Lord Mayo rs day in comely & decent Apparrell with gilded 
Chaines & white Staves." 

6th November, 1 7 1 7. In consequence of irregularities at 
the Lord Mayor's feast, it was ordered that in future the Stewards 
should be prohibited from bringing their wives and friends to the dinner. 

1 72 1. The third dinner book opens with an account of the 
receipts of the Governors' " Potation Money " for this year, amounting 
to ^131 us. 2d., the contributions being from Barbers one guinea, 
and from Surgeons two guineas each. This potation money was 
spent at the Mitre Tavern in Fleet Street, on ten Monthly Court 
dinners, which averaged the modest sum of ,£4 4^. apiece, and the 
remainder was disbursed about the election feast, wine and sundries. 

The cost of the Mayor's feast this year was £67 "js., and at 
this dinner was drunk a hogshead of port (query), six gallons of 
mountain, six gallons of white port, and three gallons of canary. 









4b 2 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

July 19th, 1722. At the ladies' feast the following wine was 
drunk — 

30 Gallons Red Port at js. 
11 ,, Sherry at js. 
7 ,, Canary at js. 
5 ,, Rhenish at js. - 
and 4.?. were expended on tobacco and pipes. 

1726. The monthly Court dinners were held at the George 
and Vulture Tavern, nine of them costing in all £ig 13.C gd. 

The Election dinner this year cost ^91 8.v. od. 

And the Lord Mayor's feast ,£72 is. io}4d. 

June, 1729. The monthly Court dinner was held at "Vaux 
Hall." " 

The accounts throughout the Third Dinner Book (1720-1740) 
appear to be much the same every year. First is a list of receipts 
for Potation Money, averaging about ^100 per annum, then follow 
the allowances out of the same towards the Election dinner, the 
dressing it and use of pewter, about £19 in all, the payments for 
the monthly Court dinners (nine or ten at about £a i \s. each), and 
the expenses of the Election feasts, about ^80 to ,£90 a piece. 

The cost of the Lord Mayor's feast, the Livery feast, and 
the Ladies' feast, was borne by the Stewards. 

There were gay doings at some of these dinners, as witness 
the following : 

1726. 1'aid the Boy who danced the anticks at the Lady's feast, 5.?. 

1727. By Cash paid the Butchers who played to the Company with their 
Marrow bones and cleavers on Lord Mayor's day, is. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 4 6) 

And there were sometimes rather shady doings after the 
dinners, thus : 

10th July, 1729. Meindm. M r Truelove & M r Fradin carried away y u next 
morning after y c feast four Dozen Quarts of Wine, One whole Venison pasty, One 
whole Goose, one whole fowl, & several lemons & sugar. 

1st February, 1732. Mr. John Atkinson and the other 
Stewards of the Mayor's feast, employed a cook of their own, and 
" did make a most scandalous Dinner for y e Co.," whereupon order 
was given that in future no other than the "Standing Cooke" of 
the Company should be employed. 

One is astounded at the quantity of wine which appears to 
have been imbibed at some of these dinners ; take, for example, the 
following on Lord Mayor's Day, 1735, and note that it is especially 
stated that the wine was "drank at the said feast": 

Paid for the following quantitys of wine provided for and drank at the said 

feast, viz'- 

To M r Standert for 2 1 Gall Red Port - 660 

2 Gall Lisben - 0120 

2 Gall Mountaine - 0120 

2 Gall Canary - 0130 

29 Bottles lost - 0410 

To M r Gaywood for 20 Gall Red Port 600 

2 Gall Mountaine - 0120 

2 Gall Lisbone - 0120 

2 Gall Canary • - - - 0130 

To M r - Pierce for 2 Gall Lisben - 0120 

2 Gall Mountaine - - 0120 

2 Gall Canary - -0130 

20 Gall Red Port -. - -600 

By the above account these thirsty old Barber-Surgeons seem 
to have consumed no less than 79 Gallons of wine at this dinner. 

4 64 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

15th July, 1736. 56 gallons of wine were drunk at the Ladies' 


21st July, 1726. It is order 11 That from henceforward at all publick Feasts or 
Dinners to be held or made at the Hall the Cook of the Company for the time being 
shall before he sends the Dinner into the Hall deliver to the Clark of the Company at his 
House his Messe of meat consisting of six compleat dishes according to the Ancient laws 
and usage of the Company in that behalf the same being the ancient flee & Perquisite 
of the Clerk. 

2 1 st August, 1729. The above order was vacated inconsequence 
of disputes as to the contents and number of the dishes supplied to the 
Clerk, and it was ordered that the Clerk should receive £$ 5^. annually 
in lieu of his " messe of meat," and also that he should dine at all the 
feasts "as he has always been accustomed to do." 

1st February, 1731. For the better regulating of the Ladys Feast It is ordered 
That every Member of the Court of Assistants shall besides his Lady and one daughter 
have three tickets to be delivered to such persons as they shall think fitt to be admitted to 
come and dance at the Hall at Five of the Clock on that day and that there shall be two 
Constables to attend at the Hall gate and see that nobody is admitted but with such 
Ticketts and that the Ticketts be made out by the Clerk of the Company and sealed with 
the Company's seal. 

The Summons to a Liveryman to take upon himself the office of 
Steward was of a very peremptory nature, as will be seen by the 
following : — 

S r 

By order of the Ma rs or Gov re of the Mystery & Comonalty of Barbers & 
Surgeons of London, I do hereby give you notice that you having been chosen & admitted 
of the Livery or Cloathing of the said Company, You are appointed by the Masters or 
Gov rs of the s d Comp d together with M r - Richard Penton M r - Joseph Griffin M r - Daniel 
Pengrove and M r Joseph Mitchell who are also Liverymen of the said Company to make 
an Entertainment in the Cofnon Hall of the said Company situate in Monckwell Street in 
the Parish of Saint Olave Silver Street in the City of London for the Gov" and Assistants 
of the s d Company commonly called the Livery Dinner on Teusday the 3 d day of June 
1735 at two of the Clock in the afternoon pursuant to a By law of the said Company in 
that behalf made & provided. And in case you shall neglect or refuse w th out reasonable 

zAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 465 

Excuse to join together with the said M'- Richard Penton M r - Joseph Griffin M r Daniel 

Pengrove and M r - Joseph Mitchell to made such Dinner on Teusday the 3 d day of June 

next, or to contribute and pay your share and and proporcon of the charges thereof 

you will forfeit and pay to the said Ma re or Gov" of the s d Mystery and Comonalty to 

the use of the said Company the sum of £5. And 1 do hereby give you further 

notice That the gentlemen who are to join with you in making the said dinner will meet 

you at the George and Vulture Tavern in Saint Michael's Alley in Cornhill in the City of 

London on Friday next being the 23rd day of this instant May at six of the clock in the 

afternoon to give the proper directions for the said dinner, at which time and place you 

are desired to attend for that purpose. 

I am S r 

Your most obed'- humble Serv L 

Cha : Bernard 
Clerk to the s d Company. 

Herewith you will receive a copy of the Bill of Fare or a Particular of w ch the s d 
Entertainment is to consist. 

Barbers and | 

Surgeon's Hall, I " M * y I?3S 

To M r - Cha : More. 

28th May, 1 74 1. By an order made this day in reference to 
the Ladies' feast it was directed — ■ 

that the Entertainment shall continue no longer than twelve of the clock when 
there shall be no more Dancing but that the Musick be then dismissed and the Company 

2Sth August, 1 741. The Court having taken into consideration the ill behaviour 
and abusive language of John Atkinson Distiller in White Chappell (a Liveryman of this 
Company) on the last day of Election, who in a most gross manner (in the Common Hall 
of this Company) the Master of the said Company did greatly insult and abuse and did 
otherwise very indecently and rudely behave to other Members of the Company whereby 
the Peace of the said Company then assembled was greatly disturbed, and being 
determined to put a stop to and prevent the like grievances for the future by punishing all 
such offendors herein Ordered that the said John Atkinson be fined for such his ill 
behaviour to the Master the sum of 6 s 8 d and 10 s for bringing in to Dinner on that day 
another person with him after having been acquainted by the Master that the same was 
contrary to the By laws of the said Company. 

3 o 

466 c/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

1745. It is noticeable that the Potation Money fell off on the 
separation of the Surgeons from the Barbers. During the three or 
four preceding years the amount had been steadily running down from 
an average of .£105 to £57, and there seems to have been no Election 
or Livery Dinners this year, though the gallant Barbers did not forget 
the Ladies, for they gave them (and themselves) a dinner at a cost 
of £52 is. gd. 

The Barbers, too, at this time do not seem to have drunk quite 
so much wine as the Barber-Surgeons did, and in the year 1 747 is the 
first mention of Beer, when 1 2s. was paid for a barrel of small Beer for 
the Lord Mayor's feast, and only 68 bottles of wine were consumed on 
this occasion. 

Between the years 1750 and 1786 no records are kept of any 
but the Mayor's feasts, though doubtless the Company did not fast 
during the intervals. 

There is now a striking similarity in these dinner accounts year 
by year; usually there were six stewards each of whom provided, about 
the years 1775, and later on, no less than 53 bottles of wine each, thus 
emulating their predecessors the Barber-Surgeons ; there are numerous 
references to these bottles as being quarts, so that about 80 gallons 
must have been drunk at each dinner. Happily, all this is now changed. 

It is noticeable from the earliest times that the Company 
on every occasion of a feast, invariably hired their Pewter dishes and 
plates at great cost ; it seems strange that this continual outlay should 
have been incurred, instead of keeping a stock of pewter. 

1830 and 1 83 1. Considerable difficulty had arisen for some 
years past in procuring Stewards for the Mayor's feasts, and also in 
enforcing the fines for not serving, whereupon a resolution was passed 

dAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 467 

that Liverymen refusing to pay the Steward's fine would not be invited 
to the dinners, and would be declared ineligible to come on the Court. 

The Court seem to have had grave doubts as to the efficacy of 
their By-Laws in recovering at law the Steward's fines, and a case 
having been prepared it was submitted to Sir James Scarlett and to Sir 
Thomas Denman (the Attorney General). The opinion of the former 
eminent Counsel, dated ioth October, 1832, is set out in the minutes, 
and he appears to have been very clear that they would not be recover- 
able, whereupon the Court ordered a letter (of 16th October) to be 
addressed to the Livery, informing them of the difficulty which had 
arisen by reason of Liverymen refusing to serve as Stewards in their 
rotation (after having partaken of the hospitality of other Stewards in 
former years), and that in consequence thereof there would be no dinner 
that year. The day after this letter was sent out, Sir Thomas Denman's 
opinion was handed in, and was to the opposite effect of that given by 
Sir James Scarlett ! Since this period, and now, the Steward's fine is 
paid on the admission of a Liveryman, and thus a source of constant 
annoyance is done away with. 

o 2 


HE history of the acquisition by the Corporation of 
London and the City Guilds, of their estates in 
Ireland has been often related, and full accounts will 
be found in " Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum," 
"Herbert's Livery Companies," " Nicholl's Iron- 
mongers' Company," and other works ; I shall, 

therefore, only treat of the subject so far as the Barber-Surgeons 

were concerned. 

In 1609 when James I floated his Irish scheme, our Company 
seems to have been very loath to enter into it, as would appear by the 
insignificant subscriptions proffered by the Members (see page 473). 

The difficulty which the Court foresaw in raising the ^100 
demanded in July, 1609, was endeavoured to be surmounted by the follow- 
ing ingenious proposition : there had been some previous forced loans to 
the King amounting to £12$, for which the Company held the City's 
bond, and as this was considered a doubtful asset, it was suggested that 
^"ioo thereof should be adventured on behalf of the Company ; it is 
needless to say that this innocent . suggestion was scouted, and a 
peremptory precept for the ,£100 delivered, whereupon the Court 

c/lnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 469 

assessed the various members of the Company and with the greatest 
difficulty £^o was thus raised and a further sum of £90 later on. The 
Minutes referring to these transactions are especially worthy the 
perusal of those persons who claim the estates of the City Companies 
as being the " property of the people," or as having been " left for the 
poor," &c. We see by them that (in our Company certainly, and as 
doubtless an examination of records would show, in all other 
Companies) the purchase of these lands in Ireland was not only 
compulsory, but that it was made from moneys contributed by 
individual members for the most part, and the balance from the " Stock 
of the house," this "Stock" being the floating funds in the Renter 
Warden's hands, derived from admissions, fines, &c. We thus see that 
no " trust" money was used for the purchase, and that the estates are 
saddled with no trust whatever, but are held free, and by an infinitely 
better title as far as morality goes, to say nothing of legality, than 
many Estates in the hands of some of the aristocratic patrons of the 
busybodies bent on spoliation. 

In January, 161 1, the Company were commanded by precept to 
elect whether they would for their contribution accept a tract of land in 
Ulster, saddled "with a condition to build upon it, or refer the letting of 
it to the Irish Society, whereupon they chose the latter, and in July 
following came a precept, for its morality worthy of the Land League, 
for it called upon the Wardens to pay down ££>o more, or else to 
absolutely lose the £120 already contributed ! 

The doleful answer of the Court, dated 19th July, 161 1, is 
deeply interesting, and we cannot but be touched by the wrongs under 
which they suffered, and which constrained them to write : — " we must 
be forced (yf there be lawfull authoritie to take awaye & compell o r 
Company) to loose the moneys we have alreadye disburssed." 

4jo d/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

James, however, did not care much about the money the 
Company proposed to abandon ; what he required was a further supply, 
and the proceedings thereupon are indicated by the Minute of 16th 
November, 1611. Shortly after, the Company wisely applied to 
" M r Recorder " to construe the answer, but even his skill and interest 
did not avail, for on 2nd July, 161 2, it was agreed that the Master and 
Wardens should go before the Court of Aldermen, and "stand hardlie" 
against paying any more money, especially as they had not any security 
for what had been already advanced, and if committed, they were to go 
to prison, rather than pay the ,£30 demanded, with a proviso that 
directly they were imprisoned, the £30 was to be paid, and it was 
eventually paid. 

In 1 6 1 3, the Company made over their interest in the Irish 
Estate to one of the Wardens, Mr. Allen, but this arrangement was 
subsequently annulled. 

Many more were the precepts, and the troubles in which the 
Company were involved, about this business, but it is satisfactory to 
record that in 1623 ^ri gs. 6d. was received on account of rents, and 
in 1625 a further sum of £10 os. Sd. 

The Company were, and are still, associated in their Irish 
Estates with the Ironmongers', Brewers', Scriveners', Coopers', 
Pewterers', and Carpenters' Companies ; but by far the largest 
proportion appertains to the Ironmongers, who have always managed 
the property. 

In 1635, the Attorney General exhibited a Bill in the Star 
Chamber against all of the Companies to the intent that they should 
surrender up all their rights and evidences touching the Irish plantation, 
and on our Company taking Counsel's opinion, they were advised to 
submit to this monstrous piece of injustice. Judgment was given in 

oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 471 

1637, and the Irish property of all the Companies was seized into the 
King's hands. One would have thought that this flagitious iniquity 
might have ended here, but by the decree of the Star Chamber, the 
Citizens, in addition to the loss of their Estates, were fined ,£8,000 to 
the King, and on the 8th November, 1638, our unhappy predecessors 
were assessed at, and had to pay ^64 on this account, the Ironmongers 
paying .£272, and other Companies according to their settled 

Notwithstanding these high-handed proceedings, the Barber- 
Surgeons, ever ready to aid those in distress, voluntarily gave in 
1642, what to them in those dire days of taxation was a munificent 
gift, namely ^20, towards the relief of the poor Protestants in the 
north of Ireland, and they further raised, under compulsion, by the 
sale of their plate and the mortgage of their property, .£400, which 
was "lent for the Relief of Ireland upon the faith and order of 
Parliament," and not one penny of which was ever refunded ! 

The illegal seizures of the Irish lands in 1637 were set aside 
by Charles II, who, by his Charter, 10th April, 1662, restored and 
confirmed to the citizens all their former privileges and their pos- 
sessions in Ireland, and thus our Company became repossessed of 
its original property there. 

A little previous to 1840 communications passed between 
the Barbers and the Ironmongers' Companies, in reference to an 
appointment which had been made by the latter Company, of 
Mr. Oseland as Manager of the associated estate at a salary of 
,£400 per annum. This appointment seems to have been made 
without the knowledge or concurrence of the associated Companies, 
and led to some little friction, but it was no doubt a wise step, and 
appears, after various protests, to have been finally acquiesced in. 

472 ^Annate of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Our property known as the " Lizard Estate," was on lease 
for lives, the sole surviving life being the then Bishop of Meath, 
who was 76 years of age. The Ironmongers, in the natural expec- 
tation of an early reversion to the estate, appointed Mr. Oseland 
to look after the Companies' interests, and from the list of his duties 
it would seem that his office was no sinecure. The Bishop dying 
in 1840, the lease fell in, and there were various consultations among 
the Companies as to the advisability of a partition or a sale, or the 
granting of a fresh lease. The Scriveners alone desired a partition, 
the others were for keeping on the late under-lessees and tenants 
as tenants for a year until a course could be decided upon, and 
this was eventually agreed to, the Barbers recording in their books 
an expression of their sense of the wise manner in which the 
Ironmongers' Company had managed the business. 

One very important point discussed at Ironmongers' Hall was 
that of the waste and dilapidations which had been suffered to 
accrue by the late lessee. These were estimated to amount to 
,£5,000, and there was not the least question as to the right and 
power of the Companies to have enforced a claim in this respect, 
but they generously decided not even to present it ; had the 
Companies been "trustees" they would have had no option but 
to have enforced their claim. 

This action accords with the general liberal administration of 
Estates as pursued by the City guilds, and is another evidence (if, 
indeed, such evidence were wanting ! ) of the absence of greed and 
of the generous way in which tenants are treated by these bodies. 

This Estate is subject to no trust whatever, it was purchased 
by the Company out of monies which they collected from individual 
members of the Guild, or by the sale of their plate, etc., and for 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 4j) 

many years it was unproductive. It is a portion of their private 
corporate estate, and no trust or charity suffered by this voluntary 
abandonment of a large sum to which they were entitled in lieu of 
the re-instatement of the dilapidation. The proceedings are all very 
fully set out in the Court Minutes for 1840, 1841, etc. 

6th July, 1609. This daye M r - Leacock, M r - John Martin, M r - Thorney & 
M r - Peek accordinge to a p°cept to the M rs - of this Company lately directed are by this 
Courte appoynted Committees for this Company to conferre w th the rest of the Committees 
of oth' Companies concerninge the intended plantacon in the Realme of Ireland And 
they are to make theire report to the next Courte of their proceedingf therein. 

26th July, 1609. This daie the precept directed from the Lord Maio r of this 
Citie to the M rs of this Company Concerninge a Contribution to be had from this 
Company towardf the intended plantacon in his Ma t,,:s realme of Ireland was read 
before the Lyvery of this Company and before the Assistant^ of the Yeomandry of this 
Company who being by the M rs demaunded by vertue of the said precept what they wold 
willingly Contribute toward^ the said service some of them proffered to Contribute 
as hereafter ensueth videliz' M r - Rodes xx ! - M r - Mapes xx s M'- Jenkins xx s M r 
Thorney xl s - M r - ffrederick xx s M r ffuller x s 1VT ffenton x 5 M r Kerrell xx s John Udall 
v 5, Robert Jennings v s - Dominick Lumley ij s - vj d - Andrew Mathew vj s viij d - Thomas 
Homewood v & Xpofer Walton ij 5, vj d ffrauncis Rycraft ij s - Arthure Doughton ij s - George 
Pitts V s ' Richard Daniell ij s Richard Higgins iij s - iiij d - Symon Crosse ij s ' Thomas Clarck ij s - 
and the rest of the Lyvery and assistaunt^ of the yeomandrey then present refused to 
Contribute anything at all. Whereupon it was thought fitt by this Court that aswell the 
names of such as had proffered to contribute as aforesaid and their severall proffered 
contribucons also the names of those that refused to contribute shold accordinge to the 
said precept be certefyed in writing to the Lord Maior signifyeing further in the same 
Certificate that forasmuch as the Contribucon menconed in the said Certificate was very 
small \v ch the M ts were very unwilling to present to his Lordship, the Company were 
contented if it might stand w"' his Lo ps good pleasure to adventure C"' of the Cxxiij 1 '- w ck 
is owinge unto them by the Cities bond, so that they might have a bill of Adventure for 
the same. 

26th January, 16 10. The above proposition not having been 
entertained, a further precept dated gth January, 16 10, was received, 

3 i' 

474 cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

commanding the Company to furnish ^ioo and at this Court the same 
was considered when it was resolved that the common stock of the 
Company should contribute £2^ and an assessment be made upon the 
members as follows : the Livery 205., the Assistants of the Yeomanry 
\os., Freemen 6s. 2>d„ Aliens 20s., and foreign brothers 15.?. each, and 
by a later order each member of the Court was assessed at 20.?. 

22nd November, 1610. Great difficulty having been experienced 
in collecting these assessments, an order was made that any person 
neglecting to pay, should be forthwith dismissed out of the Livery or 
Court as the case might be. 

1 8th January, 161 1. A precept from the Lord Mayor having 
been read and debated, the following answer to the same was ordered 
to be sent — 

Whereas wee the M r and Wardens of the Company of the Barbors & surgeons 
of London have receaved a Preceptt of the 14"' of this present moneth from the right 
hon°able the Lord Mayo' of this Cittie requiring thereby to call together the Assistauntf of 
o r said Company and to consider whether wee will accept a proportion of Landf in the 
province of Ulster in liewe of o r moneys disburssed and thereon to buyld att our owne 
chardgf as by the printed book of plantacon is required or ells to refeir the lettinge of the 
same Landff unto the gov°nor & assistauntf of the Companie : Soe ytt is, that accordingly 
we have called together o r Assistauntf & consideringe the pYnisses wee fynd that the payment 
of the taxacons for this intent have been soe burthensome unto the body of o r Company that 
we are not able to take upon us any further chardge, having not as yet levyed the ffowerth 
p r 'te of the paynr'tf ymposed upon us, neither have we any hope to gather the same, And 
therefore rather chuse to refeir the lettinge of the said Landf & committinge the business 
for o r p°tf to the discretion of the said gov'nor & assistauntf for that purpose appoynted, 
hopinge by their good endeavo rs to receave such reasonable satisfaction for o r moneys 
alreadye disbursed as maye gyve good contentment to such of o r Company whoe have 
been chardged by o r Collections. And this have our Court of Assistauntf fully agreed in 
such rnann as wee have before certified Given att o r Hall this xviij"' of January 
1610 (i.e., 161 1 ). 

23rd April, 161 1. The Company paid in ^30 to the Chamber 
of London, making ^"120 in all to this date. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 47 5 

1 8th July, 161 1. A precept having been received from the 
Lord Mayor, calling upon the Wardens to pay ,£60 more, or else to 
lose the ^120 already paid, the following answer was sent — 

Whereas we the M' s & gov'no" of the Company of Barbo" &: Surgeons of London 
have receaved from the right hon°able the Lord Mayor of this Cittie a preceptt of the xj ,h 
of this Instant moneth thereby comaundinge us to call together the Assistauntf of o' said 
Company And then & there to tax the bodye of o r s rt Company with the payment of 60" 
more toward^ the payment of ioooo 1 ' for a new supplye for the plantacon in Ireland, And 
that we should advise thereupon and certefie in wrytinge to the gov°no r & assistant^ for 
the said plantacon on Saterdaie the 20 th of this Instant month of July whether we will 
willinglie yelde to the said supplie of 10000" or we wilbe content to loose all such moneys 
as we have alreadye disburssed towardf the said Plantacon and soe passe over o r right 
therein to those as will undertake this paym' and all other taxacons & paymt 5 touchinge 
the same, Soe yt is we have called together o r Assistauntf & we thinck that o r poore 
Company is put to a very hard choyce seeinge the collection of the form'' paynr'tf of 
no 1 " have been soe burthensome unto us that the greatest nomber of o r Company have 
been readye to growe mutynous about the collection thereof neither cane wee as yett 
gather the same (we beinge out of o r owne purses for the last paym' w ch was disburssed) 
and nowe to loose all, except we will undergoe this newe taxacon of 60'' the pov'tie of o r 
Company cannot beare ytt neither will yt stand w ,h o r Credytts to gyve awaie the moneyes 
we have collected from soe maney poore men who hoped (and the rather by o r p°swasions) 
the company should receave in tyme great p^ffytt. And they themselves to be p n takers 
thereof to w ch intent they dide more willinglie undergoe the former taxacons. And againe 
to drawe them to a chardge of a new taxacon when they shall understand the offer 
p°posed in this p°cept we thinck yt unpossible, neither can we tell howe to drawe 
them to paie any further taxacon then they shall willinglie consent unto because we 
have noe lawfull authoritie to compell them. Therefore rather then to be any further 
burthensome to the bodye of o r Company in any further taxacon toward^ the last 
supplie of 10000" we must be forced (yf there be lawfull authoritie to take awaye & 
compell o r Company) to loose the moneys we have alreadye disburssed & to leave our 
Interest unto such as wilbe contentede to undertake to dischardge o r Company of those 
paynftf & taxacons w ch we shall be hereafter chardgcd w'^all, and shall gyve unto our 
Company such assurance for p°formaunce of such condycons as we shall agree upon and 
our Counsell learned in the lawes shall devise & requier, whereby we may gyve some 
contentem' to those of our Company whoe have been herein chardged for we feare we shall 

1 Should be ^120. 

47 6 cAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

never collect these moneyes w ch are yet behinde & unpaid for the last paym' when they 
shall here the money alreadye disburssed is lost & gyven awaie And to this have our 
Court of Assistant^ agreed Gyven und r o' hands the xix"' of Julye 161 1. 

1 6th November, i6n. At this Court motion being made touching what answere 
this howse should gyve unto the Court of Aldermen about the payment of their money 
for the Irishe plantacon yt was ordered & decreed that the Company should not 
willinglie undergoe the paym' of any further taxacon but that rather they should loose all 
their moneys alreadye disbursed and thereupon yt was thought fitt the p°nte M rs & 
gov no rs together w th M r - Peck M r - Mapes M r - ffenton & M r - ffoster should goe againe 
before the Court of Aldermen to see yf they can gett the Company dischardged And if yt 
shall soe fall out that they or any of them shalbe comitted or shalbe put to any chardgf 
touching this busynes this howse shall & will beare & dischardge the same. 

2nd February, 1612. At this Court it is fully concluded that M r - Recorder shalbe 
dealt withall to construe our answere according to the Courtf meaninge And that on 
tewsdaie next the M rs & Gov°no rs together \v ,h M r - Peck M r Mapes M r ' ffenton & M' ffoster 
shall goe before the Court of Aldermen to intreat favo' in respect of their gen'all pov°tie 
of the Company w ch if the same will not prevayle then the Company shall bring with them 
their Councell to certefie that their answere is absolute & if that maye not be graunted then 
that they maye have a monethes lybertie either to provide some undertakers for them or 
ells by that tyme the Company will bring in their money w ch this Court doth agree unto 
that the howse shall beare ytt. 

2nd July, 1612. This daye yt is likewise ordered that touchinge the paym' of the 
30" w ch is to be paid for the Irishe plantacon That the present M rs shall demaund of the 
Comittees for the Irish plantacon what assurance this howse shall have for their money 
already disburssed & to disbursse and thereuppon to stand hardlie for that this Court 
thincketh yt not reason to pay there money for nothinge as yet assured. And if it be soe 
that the M rs shalbe threatned to be comitted to prison they shall rather be comitted to 
prison then to pay the money And if they be comitted then this howse dothe order that 
presentlie' uppon their comittment the M rs shall pay the same 30'' out of the stock of this 

20th July, 1612. In the motion touching the paym' of xxx" p°cell of the lx" w ch 
the Company is to paie towardf the Irishe plantacon Itt is ordered by this Court that the 
same xxx" shalbe paid in by the howse and the M rs w" 1 M r - ffrederick are to deale w"' the 
Comittees to see what assurance they shall have for their moneyes disburssed. 

1 i.e.. directly. 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 477 

17th September, 1612. It was agreed by the Court to pass 
away all the Company's interest in the Irish estate to Mr. Abraham 
Allen, Warden, he undertaking by deed to bear all further impositions 
or taxations made upon the Company in respect of the Irish business. 

15th July, 1613. This daie it is ordered upon a motion made by o r Master to 
this Court touching what course they shall take for Ireland business for that they are now 
called unto for payment of 60 1 ' wherefore upon a gen n all consent of this Court it is 
ordered that M r - Warden Allen shall lose the 30" \v ch he hath already disburssed & that 
he shall disburse the said 6o H now called for, and if he shall not be contented to goe 
forward w"' the bargaine w eh he form 1 ly made w" 1 the Company but rather to loose the 
said 30" w dl he hath fonrTly paid That then he loosing the said 30" already disburssed 
shalbe upon & after the audytt daye repaid the said 6o''' w ch he is now to disbursse. 

17th January, 1614. Att this Court it is ordered that the 30 1 ' w ch the Company 
is chardged by preceptt to paie towardf the Irish Plantation on the first daie of ffebruary 
next shalbe paid in according to the said preceptt and shalbe allowed out of the stock of 
this howse. 

2nd February, 1614. At this Court the M rs propounding unto this Court what 
conference did passe between the Company of Irenmongers & themselves desiring this 
p°nte Court to certefie their opinions what course this company shall take in the Irish 
busines, whether they shall either hold the proportion of landf allotted to this Company 
& the Company of Iremongers joyntlie w ,h the Iremongers Or otherwise seeke that a 
devision maybe made of such portion as to this company belongeth & soe to hold the 
same in sev°altye Whereupon this Court did agree that this Company shall goe hand in 
hand joyntlie w ,h thother companies awhile And hereafter to seeke for a devision as 
occasion shalbe offered. 

24th May, 1614. Att this Court it is ordered that M r Abraham Allen shall have 
noe part of the xxx' 1 \v ch he hath paid to this company redeliv°ed him againe. 

19th January, 1615. On receipt of a precept, dated nth 
January, ordering a further contribution of ^45, it was directed that 
the same should be paid. 

13th September, 161 5. ^"30 more was ordered to be paid in. 

478 oAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

29th December, 1615. At this Court the Wardens of the yeomanrey made 
knowne unto the M' b that the yeomanrey were contented to gyve to the howse 30 1 ' tovvardes 
the Irish plantacon. 

27th May, 1616. At this Court it is ordered that what monie is or shalbe 
demaunded by the Company of Iremongers to be paid unto them from or by this 
Companie towardf the charge of building^ or other charges in Ireland shalbe deteyned 
in this howses handf untell this Companie shall have receaved order from o r M r M r 
Alderman Probie for payment thereof And that he shall see it fitt & expedient the 
same shalbe paid. 

27th January, 161 7. fforasmuch as this Companie have no assuraunce of the 
Irish Landf for their monie disburssed for Ireland It is therefore ordered by this Court 
that this Companie shalbe suters unto the Governor & Comittees for the plantacon of the 
Irish landf to thentent this Companie maie have a perpetuitie in the Irish plantacon 
aswell as the Companie of Iremongers under whose lott o' Companie have fallen 
Accordinglie & in such sorte as the Carpenters & other the inferior Companies joyned 
w th them doe now sue for. 

19th March, 1635. The Company contributed their proportion 
of the expenses incurred by the City Companies in defending the suit 
against them in the Star Chamber, as also a sum of money towards 
the erection of a church in Ulster. 

The Copye of S r John Bancks his letter he being his Ma ts Attorney Generall 
sent to the Companie of Ironmongers that they should with the Associate Companies 
surrender up their right together with their evidences concerning the plantacon in 
Ireland was here reade and for answere thereunto this Court doth referre to the advice 
of M r Bierly Councello' at Lawe w dl is to surrender up o' right. 

8th November, 1638. Judgment being given against the 
Companies whereby they forfeited all their lands in Ireland, the 
City was fined ,£8,000 to the King " for the losse of o r landf in 
Ireland by the late decree of Starrchamber," to which fine the 
Barber-Surgeons were compelled to contribute ^64. 

^Annals of the Barber-Surgeons. 479 

10th February, 1642. Alsoe was read to this Court the Lord Maiors letter 
concerning reliefe of the Protestants in Ireland in the City of London Derry this Court 
doth order ioo" to be given towards theire rcleife presently. 

7th March, 1642. It is ordered that xx 1 ' shalbe presently payd over towards 
the releife of London Derry and noe more at the present. 

Alsoe it is ordered that there shalbe CC 1 ' given towards the releife of Ireland 
generally to have a thousand Acres upon the stateing of the Kingdome according to the 
Act of Parliament lately made, and that CC" to be payd according to the provision in 
that Act by 50'' downe presently and the remainder at 3 monethes. 

9th June, 1642. It was agreed to Lend .£800 to the Releife of Ireland [at 
8 per cent. Interest] upon the faith and order of the Parliament. 

31st October, 1642. The Company having agreed to lend 
this ^800 could not find the money, and so petitioned to lend but 
.£400 ; even this they had a great difficulty about, having to sell their 
plate (except Henry VIII's cup) to enable them to raise the money. 

1 6th July, 1724. The Court having been informed that a lease 
had been agreed to be granted by the Ironmongers of the Manor of 
Lizard, of which they were seized in trust for this Company as to the 
sum of .£350 (part of the sum of .£5,000 being the whole purchase 
money originally given for that estate), and that a person had bid 
.£12,800 for a lease of the estate for 41 years and had deposited one- 
third of that amount with the Ironmongers' Company. It was ordered 
that the Clerk should wait upon the Clerk of the Ironmongers and get 
what particulars he could as to the respective shares of the associated 
Companies, with a list of the tenants' names and rentals, and it was 
further ordered that this Company's proportion of the fine agreed to be 
given for the lease should be invested in South Sea annuities. 

3rd December, 1765. The Ironmongers' Company having 
proposed that the associated Companies should purchase the tithes 


d/Jnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

arising from the lands called Aghwey, in Ireland, the same was con- 
sidered by the Court and agreed to, this Company's proportion of the 
purchase money being about ^80. 

10th November, 1 766. The Clerk reported that he had received 
from the Ironmongers ,£1,377 16^. icv/. for this Company's share of 
the fine of the lease granted to Mr. Josias Dupre and for rents and 
dividends due in October last. 

10th August, 1775. The Company agreed to contribute ^100 
towards rebuilding the Church of Desertoghill in Ireland. 


Ferbras' Charity. — Mr. Robert Ferbras, Citizen and Barber- 
Surgeon, by his Will, dated 2nd December, i<\jo(seep. 161), devised two 
Freehold Houses in the Parish of St. John, Walbrook, London, to the 
Company, upon Trust after doing the repairs, to divide one moiety of 
the surplus receipts among poor Members of the Company, which are 
distributed Quarterly among 28 poor Freemen and Widows. 

N.B. — The above houses have been taken down and sold, and the 
proceeds invested in the purchase of the moiety of a Freehold Hozise, 
No. 69, Leadenhall Street, and of a Freehold House, No. 57, Lausdown 
Road, Not ting Hill. 

Bancks' Gift. — -Mr. Thomas Bancks, by his Will, dated 
15th October, 1595, gave to the Company an Annuity of Tiventy 
Shillings, on condition that they should yearly distribute equally 
amongst 12 poor people of the Company, 12 Twopenny Loaves, 
6 Stone of Beef, and Two Shillings in Money. And Mr. John 
Bancks, his Son, by indenture, dated the 20th May, 1619, also 
gave an Annuity of Twenty Shillings, to be distributed in the same 
manner and on the same day as his Father's Charity. 

N.B. — This Charity is now administered by the Mercers' 
Company, under an order of the Court of Chancery. The estate 

482 qA finals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

consists of Freehold Property at Hollozuay, the income from which 
amounts to about £40 per annum, and is distributed half yearly in 
July and January among poor Members of the Company. 

Baker's Gift. — Mr. Alexander Baker, by his Will, dated 
the 25th of September, 1835, gave to the Company an Annuity 
of Three Pounds charged upon a Freehold House, No. 195, Upper 
Thames Street, to be yearly distributed to Six decayed Freemen of 
the Company, which is done on the first Tuesday in July. 

Mr. Michael I'Ans' Charity. — Mr. Michael I'Ans, by his 
Will, dated the 21st of August, 1759, gave to the Company Two 
Thousand Pounds, the interest of which he directed to be applied 
and distributed among 20 poor Liverymen's Widows of the Company. 
And Mr. John Driver, by his Will, dated the 15th of February, 18 10, 
gave the sum of Twenty Pounds to be applied in addition to the 
said Gift. 

N.B. — This Fund, with accumulations, now consists of 
.£4,759 18s. yd. Consols, the Dividends of which are distributed 
half-yearly to twenty poor Widows of Liverymen of the Company, 
on the first Tuesdays in February and August. 

Decayed Liverymen's Fund. — The Court of Assistants, by 
an Order of Court, dated the 3rd day of June, 1823, set apart 
from the Funds of the Company the sum of Nine Hundred Pounds, 
Old South Sea Annuities, for the purpose of forming a fund for 
the Relief of Decayed Liverymen of the Company ; the Dividends 
whereof are distributed, half-yearly, amongst Seven Poor Liverymen 
of the Company, on the first Tuesdays in May and November. 

N.B. — The Old South Sea Annuities having been paid of, 
the proceeds were invested in the purchase of a Freehold House, 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 483 

No. 46, Church Street, Minorics. The Fund, ivith accumulations, 
now consists of ^"876 js. Sd. Consols. 

Mr. Thomas Kidder, one of the Court of Assistants, by his 
Will, dated the 1 8th of December, 1828, gave unto the Master and 
Wardens One Hundred Pounds, Three per Cent. Consolidated 
Annuities, and directed the interest to be applied for the relief of 
one poor Freeman's Widow of the Company for ever, on the first 
Tuesday in February and August. 

Mr. Thomas Cottrell's Charity. — Mr. Thomas Cottrell, 
by his Will, dated 28th of January, 1833, gave to the Company, 
Three Thousand Three Hundred and Thirty-three Pounds Six 
Shillings and Eight Pence, Three per Cent. Consols, subject to the 
Legacy Duty, the Dividends to be equally divided between 25 Widows 
of Decayed Liverymen of the Company, which are distributed on the 
first Tuesdays in February and August. 

N.B. — This Fund, with accumulations, noio consists of ^3,100 

Mr. William Long's Charity. — Mr. William Long, by his 
Will, dated 7th July, 1834, gave to the Company, One Thousand 
Pounds, Three per Cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities, and he directed 
one Moiety of the Dividends thereof to be paid half-yearly unto so many 
of the poor Liverymen as the Company should appoint to receive the 
same, and the other moiety thereof he directed to be paid half-yearly 
among 20 poor widows of Liverymen of the Company, in like manner 
as Mr. Michael I'Ans' Charity is disposed of. 

N.B. — This Fund, zoith accumulations, now consists of ,£1,045 

484 oAnnah of the Barber-Surgeons. 

Mr. Malcolm Dunnett's Charity. — Mr. Malcolm Dunnett, 
by his Will, dated 30th August, 1842, gave to the Company the sum 
of Two Hundred Pounds, Three per Cent. Reduced Annuities, to 
be applied by the Company for the Support of Decayed Liverymen, 
preference being at all times given to the two Senior Liverymen of the 
Company who shall apply for relief, and be in addition to any other aid 
which they would otherwise be entitled to receive from any other 
Charitable Fund of the Company. This Charity is distributed on the 
first Tuesdays in May and November. 

Mr. Peter Skipper's Charity. — Mr. Peter Skipper, by his 
Will, dated 25th of September, 1846, gave One Hundred Pounds, free 
of Legacy Duty, in aid of the Decayed Livery Fund, with which Charity 
the amount is now amalgamated. 

Mr. Philip Lawton's Charity. — Mr. Philip Lawton, by his 
Will, proved 13th August, 1856, gave Five Hundred Pounds, less 
Legacy Duty, upon Trust to pay the Interest and Dividends to poor 
Decayed Liverymen and Freemen or their Widows. 

N.B. — This Fund now consists of the sum of £\T] gs. Consols. 

Alms House Find and Mr. John Atkinson's Charities. — 
The Court of Assistants, by a resolution dated 7th August, 1855, 
established a Fund for the Erection and Endowment of Alms Houses 
for Decayed members of the Company and their Widows. 

Mr. John Atkinson, by Deed dated 4th November, 1856, and 
enrolled, conveyed to the Company Ten Freehold Houses, situate in 
Cross Keys Court and Half Moon Alley, Cripplegate, London, upon 
trust to apply the rents and profits thereof in aid of the Alms House 
Fund. These houses have been taken by the Metropolitan Railway, 
and the purchase-money was invested in the purchase of ,£998 1 25. ^d. 
Consols. The Consols have been sold and the proceeds invested in 

c/lnnak of the Barber-Surgeons. 485 

the purchase of Freehold Houses, Nos. 53, 55, and 59, Lansdown 
Road, Notting Hill. In addition to the above, there is an accumulated 
Fund consisting of ,£1,095 2S - &d- Consols, .£419 15^. yd. New 2^ per 
Cent. Annuities, and there is a cash balance to the credit of the Fund 
of ,£84 1 2s. 4c/. 

Mr. John Atkinson, on the 5th February, 1861, presented the 
sum of One Hundred Pounds Consols to the Company, the interest 
thereof to be employed in the purchase of Bibles and prayer books for 
distribution amongst the poor members of the Company. 

Mr. John Atkinson, by his Will, dated 30th of August, 1858, 
bequeathed the residue of his personal estate to Trustees therein 
named, upon Trust, after the death of his wife, daughter, brother, 
sister, and nephews, to transfer the Stocks, Funds, and Securities 
whereon the same should be invested to the Masters and Governors 
of the Company, upon Trust, to found and establish an Institution to 
be called " The Barbers' Asylum," the interest thereof to be applied for 
the lodging, maintenance, and education of the poor Members of the 
Company and their Widows and Children. 


HERE is amongst the Records a small folio volume 
which opens with an undated inventory of the 
Company's effects, most probably taken in 1710. 
Following are inventories spreading over thirty-three 
years until 1745. 

There is much similarity in all of these, and we shall take one 
of them, that for the year 1728, as an example. 

In 1 7 1 1 there seem to have been two corporate seals, one of 
steel and another of silver; there was also "a mould with the Company's 
arms by w ch the Iron Backs were made"; this handsome mould is 
still preserved over the chimney-piece in the entrance lobby, and an 
old "iron back" cast from it is built into the wall of the courtyard 
opposite the entrance door. 

A True & perfect Inventory of the Goods and Chattels Plate Household 
Stuff & other things belonging to the Worshipfull Company of 
Barbers & Surgeons of London taken the 11"' of September 1728 
M R January Farmer Master M r James Fern M r John Nicholls & 
Ambrose Dickins Esq r his Majesty's Serjeant Surgeon, Wardens. 

zA 'nnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 48 j 

In the Parlour. 

A chimney piece of Assistants Arms & three Sheilds over it. 

Four Spanish tables & a footstep. 

One great Russia leather Chair for y c Master. 

30 other Russia chairs. One pair Bellows. 

One Turkey work^t carpett. 

A brass hearth peice & shovell & tongs with brass heads. 

A painted Sale Cloath to cover the hearth. One green bays carpett. 

M r Lisle's picture. M r Skinner's picture. 

King Henry y e 8"' s picture. Sir John Frederick's picture. 

King Charles the Second's picture. 

Sir Charles Scarborough & M r Alderman Arris's pictures. 

Four double glass sconces & two single ones. 

Two candlesticks with wax candles. A Table of the masters names.' 

D r Tyson's picture. Serj 1 Bernard's picture. 

M r Johnson's picture. M r Inigo Jones's picture. 

A large steel engine with a wooden frame for y c Co 5 seal. 

3 Cane Sashes for y e Windows. 

3 most noble Window Curtains in fflorence Persian Silk. 

Two Spanish Pictures. A fine clock. 

A large gilt leather screen with 8 folds & the Companys arms painted upon it. 

A wooden stand for y e Chamber pott. Six cushions. 

In the Clark's Cupboard in y e Parlour. 
One Box for y e Poor. One Bell. Two Testaments. 

One Hammer. 3 Standishes. One Balloting Box & Balls. 

In the Beadle's Custody. 
Two Staves with y e Companys arms & crest in Silver. 
Two Beadles gowns purchased by the Company. 

In the Passage before the Parlour. 
One Spanish Table. An Elks head. 6 Leather chairs. 

A Table of orders. A tortoise shell the gift of M r Henry Boone. 

3 Brass Sconces. Two new tables. Two new benches. 

3 Tressells & a bench y' goes under the wall. 

1 Now in the Ante Room at the Hall. 

4S8 cAimals of the Barber-Surgeons. 

In the Election Room. 

One Turkey workt Elbow chair. 30 other Turkey worked chairs. 

One folding table. A green cloth carpett. 

One large brass hearth piece & a pair of tongs fire shovell & Dogs with fine brass heads. 

M r Feme's Picture. M r Thomas Allen's picture. 

A picture of the Prince Elector Palatine. One painted sale Cloth & a marble slabb. 

A looking glass over the chimney. King Charles the Seconds picture. 

In the Balcony. 
Three green & white Window Curtains & curtain rods. 

In the Long gallery up one p k of Stairs. 
Two Elbow chairs. 20 cain bottom chairs. 

A little table. A Scrutore.' 

The figures of the Muscles. A print of a Skeleton. 

15 old Turkey worked chairs. 

A large iron hearth piece with shovell & tongs. An iron back. 
A skeleton frame with black curtains around it, a pulley & cord, a skeleton. 

In the Theatre. 
One skeleton in a frame. One new skeleton pendent from the Center of the Roof. 

Two muscular figures finely painted in gilt frames. 

Two humane skins on figures of wood. One figure of anatomy in a frame. 

Two figures of Angels presenting a Garland. 

Two skulls the one a Mummy the other a Moss with seven other figures. 
King Charles the first's head in stone. 
A Skeleton in a frame the gift of M r Knowles. 
A green velvet cushion for the Anatomy Reader. 
One cedar table & cover. Two pair of green window curtains. 

In the Treasury. 
The Company's seal. 
A great chest with several Charters & by laws & other writeings. 

In the Hall. 
Three great tables. 

1 1 forms beside benches and footstep to y e Masters chair. 
Two sheilds fixed to y e Screen. One large ensign of green & white. 

1 Called elsewhere an " Escrutore." 

cAnnals of the Barber-Surgeons. 489 

Two large green streamers. Two Banners, the King's Arms &: y c City's arms. 

Two Green bays carpetts. A wainscoat desk. 

Two green Kidderminster curtains. A clock the gift of M r Henry Carter. 

A table of the Examined Surgeons & Examiners. 

A table of officers ffees. A glass Lanthorne. 

A squabb going round the Halfe moon table' & one small one for y e Mas* s seat. 

A long moveable table for the Hall. 

In the Musick Gallery. 

One table. Two forms. 

8 great staves for y e fflags. 

In the Passage going to y e Kitchen. 
One dresser. One table & two shelves. 

In the Kitchin. 

Three dresser boards. 8 Shelves. One chopping block. 

One form. 3 Irons in Stewing places. 3 Iron oven lids. 

2 large iron racks. 10 large spitts & one little one. 

Two iron dripping pans. One iron fender. 

A \ hundred iron weight. Two peels. One new peele. 

In the Kitchin Larder. 
Two rounds of Shelves &: a dresser roun